VR-36, VR-12 and VR-6D.



The VR-36© and VR-12© are generic instruments to measure health related quality of life. The VR-6D© is a utility metric derived from the VR-12© useful in cost-effectiveness analyses. There are more than 5 million administrations globally.

The VR-36©, VR-12© and VR-6D© questionnaires, scoring algorithms and imputation programs are all in the public domain and available for use on special request from the developers.

Request permission to use the VR-36©, VR-12© or VR-6d© documentation and scoring algorithms.

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The VR-36©, VR-12© and VR-6D© were developed with the support and endorsement of the Department of Veterans Affairs and the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services.

The computer programs to create VR scales and PCS/MCS summaries are copyright (all rights reserved) by the Trustees of Boston University to ensure the integrity of the assessments.


Highlighted Articles


Selim, Alfredo J.,  Shirley X. Qian, William Rogers, Deepa Arya, Kimberly Simmons, Gabriel D. Shapiro, Lily A. Sonis, and Lewis E. Kazis. 2019. “Health Status in Adults With Chronic Conditions:  Intervention Strategies for Improving Patient-Reported Outcomes.” The Journal of Ambulatory Care Management 42 (1): 2-20. https://scinapse.io/papers/2902662685

Kazis, Lewis E., William Rogers, James Rothendler, Shirley Qian, and Alfredo Selim. 2019. Scoring of the VR-12© to Best Match Scores of the SF-12v2®  in the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. Boston University Technical Report to the Agency for Health Care Research and Quality (AHRQ).

Selim, Alfredo, William Rogers, Shirley Qian, James A Rothendler, Erin E Kent, and Lewis E Kazis. 2018. “A new algorithm to build bridges between two patient-reported health outcome instruments: the MOS SF-36® and the VR-12 Health Survey.” Quality of Life Research 27 (8): 2195–2206. Selim2018_Article_ANewAlgorithmToBuildBridgesBet

Berlowitz, Dan R, Capri G Foy, Lewis E Kazis, Linda P Bolin, Molly B Conroy, Peter Fitzpatrick, Tanya R Gure, Paul L Kimmel, Kent Kirchner, Donald E Morisky, Jill Newman, Christine Olney, Suzanne Oparil, Nicholas M Pajewski, James Powell, Thomas Ramsey, Debra L Simmons, Joni Snyder, Mark A Supiano, Daniel E Weiner, Jeff Whittle, and SPRINT Research Group. 2017. “Effect of Intensive Blood-Pressure Treatment on Patient-Reported Outcomes.” The New England Journal of Medicine 377: 733-744. http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa1611179

Rogers, W. R., Qian, S., Kazis, L. 2004. “Imputing the Physical and Mental Summary Scores (PCS and MCS) for the MOS SF-36 and the Veterans SF-36 Health Survey in the presence of Missing Data. http://hosonline.org/globalassets/hos-online/publications/hos_veterans_36_imputation.pdf

Avron Spiro III, W. H. R., Shirley Qian, Lewis Kazis. 2004. Imputing Physical and Mental Summary Scores (PCS and MCS) for the Veterans SF-12 Health Survey in the Context of Missing Data. http://www.hosonline.org/globalassets/hos-online/publications/hos_veterans_12_imputation.pdf