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Author: Emanne Khan

Birth Spacing and Child Health Trajectories

Birth spacing, or the length of time women wait after giving birth before becoming pregnant again, has important implications for both maternal and child health. In particular, birth intervals markedly shorter or longer than the recommended minimum of three years are associated with increased risk of maternal and child mortality and morbidity. Most of the […]

The Effect of Fertility Decline on Economic Growth in Africa: A Macrosimulation Model

Worldwide, both mortality and fertility rates are on the decline, with the shift occurring in Sub-Saharan Africa a few decades ago. Fertility decline occurs in the latter stages of ‘demographic transitions,’ during which countries experience declining mortality and fertility rates as they develop economically. Demographic transitions have come to be associated with socioeconomic progress, and […]

Changing Knowledge and Attitudes Towards HIV Treatment-as-Prevention and “Undetectable = Untransmittable”: A Systematic Review

Treatment-as-prevention (TasP) refers to the strategy of treating HIV-positive individuals with antiretroviral therapy (ART) to prevent sexual transmission of the disease to others. A landmark 2011 study by the HIV Prevention Trials Network that monitored transmission amongst mixed HIV status couples (in which one partner was HIV-positive and one HIV-negative) provided conclusive evidence that ART […]

Gaps in Knowledge of HIV Treatment-as-Prevention Hinder Disease Control

By Emanne Khan Antiretroviral therapy (ART) not only extends the lives of people with HIV. It also prevents sexual transmission of the virus. However, knowledge of ART’s impact on transmission has been slow to gain mainstream understanding and traction.  In 2011, the HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN)-052 study received results from a trial of 1,763 […]

Devising Ways to Measure Unmet Need in Family Planning: A Thought Experiment

By Mahesh Karra Unlike many domains in health, the provision of high-quality family planning services is not only measured by the achievement of good reproductive health outcomes, but also considers the objective of helping women and couples maximize a complex and evolving set of preferences around future fertility and well-being.  For this reason, the demand […]

Measurement of Unmet Need for Family Planning: A Counterfactual Approach

Estimates vary of the number of unintended pregnancies that occur worldwide each year, but recent data puts the number over 100 million, or nearly half of all annual pregnancies. The World Health Organization also notes unintended pregnancies can present numerous risks for both mother and child, from unsafe abortions, to higher vulnerability and risk of […]

Women, Power and Property: The Paradox of Gender Equality Laws in India

Quotas for women in government have swept the globe. Yet, little is known about their capacity to upend entrenched social, political and economic hierarchies. The new book, Women, Power and Property: The Paradox of Gender Equality Laws in India, by Human Capital Initiative Core Faculty Member Rachel Brulé explores this question within the context of […]

Despite Widespread Access, Quality of HIV Care Differs Across South African Facilities

By Emanne Khan South Africa is home to the world’s largest population of individuals living with HIV, numbering nearly 8 million, according to the Center for Strategic and International Studies. South Africa also administers the world’s largest public HIV treatment program, which serves a patient population between 4-5 million people.  Despite the scope of the […]