Students in Crisis: Depression, Anxiety on Rise
Economy, helicopter parents (and Facebook?) to blame
Depression and anxiety on college campuses have risen to epidemic proportions. There are a variety of suspected causes for the alarming trend, which is supported by numerous studies, including a February 2010 Healthy Minds Study finding that 20 percent of BU students surveyed fit the criteria for anxiety or depression.
Today we begin a three-part series examining depression and anxiety among BU students. Part one offers an overview and a look at what’s behind the increase and who is most at risk. In part two, we show the faces of depression and anxiety through a series of candid interviews with students. The series concludes with information on how to get help, what that help involves, and how some students suffering from depression and anxiety—treatable conditions—have found hope, and a way out.
Carrie Landa scans her weekly schedule and shakes her head. The computer screen is a mélange of colors, each with a meaning. Light green signals an open spot for new patient intakes at Student Health Services Behavioral Medicine, where she works as a staff psychologist. Turquoise is for emergency appointments. Gray floats as lunch (or more space to cram in work). And cream reveals open slots for patient counseling.
There is no cream; the inn is full.
This is why: one of every three college students nationally, according to recent surveys, has sought mental health counseling. At BU, one of five undergraduate and graduate students surveyed screened positive for depression or anxiety. About a quarter of that group report that they have seriously contemplated suicide.
“I started here in 2009 and before that everybody had said this time of year, after spring break, is the worst,” Landa says. “This year we’re all saying this is the worst it’s ever been.”
In just 10 years, the number of students receiving services at Behavioral Medicine has more than doubled, to 10,523 last year. Landa estimates that figure will jump again this year, by 2,000 students, with the overwhelming majority treated for depression and anxiety.
There is also unsurprising evidence that far more students need mental health services than have sought care. The 2010 Healthy Minds Study, an annual national online survey of college students about mental health issues by the University of Michigan, reveals that 36 percent of the 1,400 BU student respondents thought they needed mental health help during the previous year. Yet less than two thirds of those said they sought help.
College years have long been a time of psychological stresses. As academic pressures rise and fall, so do anxiety levels. Roommate and relationship problems, homesickness, and adjustment to college life plague students now as before. And the college years are when most people question and explore who they are—which can be both exciting and unsettling.
But those situations don’t explain the sudden surge of students seeking help for depression and anxiety. Why is this generation, now more than ever, in need of help? The answer, according to mental health professionals, reflects what is ailing society in general.
Margaret Ross, the director of Behavioral Medicine at BU, says American culture has changed dramatically since she started counseling students decades ago.
“All the technology has made it different growing up,” Ross says. “Parents have micromanaged the lives of their children. They do everything on computer. They don’t have the common sense that people in the past may have had in knowing when they need help.”
The global economic slump has taken its toll as well, Ross says. Students worry that there won’t be jobs when they graduate. Parents have had to dig deeper into their pockets to finance a college education, some taking out a second mortgage, and that knowledge wears on students, who feel pressure to enter a field that is hiring instead of one they like.
Dori Hutchinson, director of services at BU’s Center for Psychiatric Rehabilitation, speaks often with students struggling with the choice of passion versus profession. “Somewhere along the line as they mature,” she says, “they’re recognizing that this is not who I am but this is what I’m supposed to be. And so that discordance can be really painful for kids.”
Hutchinson sees how students feel pressure to succeed even before they enter college. They come to BU with “this headset that Bs are not good enough,” she says. “It’s driven by this collective anxiety that we have in our world these days that you have to be good at everything you do.”
Parents also hover over their children too closely, she says. “We parent differently and we protect our kids from a lot of normal disappointments in the name of getting a leg up. They get to college and their parents aren’t here to do that anymore. There are kids who can’t decide what to choose to eat. That creates anxiety.”
Landa sees another culprit in the mix: Facebook. The social media website is a tool students use constantly to interact with friends, all the while comparing how their virtual lives measure up (or don’t) to those of others. “There is a very big need for immediacy in our culture and almost an intolerance of things that are uncomfortable or bad,” she says.
She also says that in recent years more students arrive at college already in treatment for depression, anxiety, or personality disorders. “We do have students here ill enough that 20 to 30 years ago they wouldn’t have been coming to college,” Landa says. “They are showing up here and succeeding here, but still needing the support that we offer.”
That is where Hutchinson and her colleagues can step in. At the Center for Psychiatric Rehabilitation, staff members help students learn how to manage the responsibilities and pressures of schoolwork and social life. “We do whatever it takes to help them stay here at the University,” Hutchinson says.
At BU, a broad cross-section of students makes use of mental health services—from freshmen to U.S. military veterans—but some groups are more at risk for developing depression or anxiety. Among them are minority and international students, those who identify as LGBTQ, athletes, and students involved in Greek life, according to University mental health professionals.
“Any time you feel ostracized, not in the mainstream, or discriminated against, I think that can create some depression,” says David Seeman, a senior staff psychologist at Behavioral Medicine.
International students can have a tough time adjusting simultaneously to college life and to a new culture. Their support network of friends and family is thousands of miles away, and their home culture may frown on seeking help for mental health problems.
“I think BU is a hard place for people from other cultures,” Seeman says.
Athletes are also under tremendous pressure to excel in the classroom as well as on the rink or the field. Many arrive on scholarship and fear their funding will be jeopardized if they slip up.
And joining Greek life, Hutchinson says, can be a double-edged sword for students. Fraternities and sororities are communities where students find like-minded people invested in community service, but they are also “the place where parties happen” and where bad decisions are made.
Landa and her colleagues hope to guide the students who visit them toward better decisions, and better health. Her schedule is busy, but her energy seems boundless. After a quick working lunch, she is ready to welcome the next student.
Those interested in seeking free, confidential mental health counseling can contact Student Health Services Behavioral Medicine, the Center for Psychiatric Rehabilitation, and the Samaritans of Boston suicide hotline.
Leslie Friday can be reached at firstname.lastname@example.org; follow her on Twitter at @lesliefriday.
Tomorrow, BU Today will publish “It’s So Easy to Disappear,” part two of the three-part “Students in Crisis” series.
I’m just curious whether there are any statistics regarding depression among BU staff and faculty?
Another major influence on what to do after college is the availability of health insurance. The current changes will help a little with that, but choices after age 26 are completely impacted. Stay in Massachusetts whatever the opportunities elsewhere?
How about the grade deflation at this bureaucratic school that couldn’t care any less about their students? Professors interested only in their research, extremely low GPAs to boost the ego of the school, yea, that’s why students at BU are depressed.
Maybe students are depressed because they know that even though they might earn a degree that they are at risk of not finding work and also the tremendous amount of debt they are in.
Could it be seasonal affective disorder or Vitamin D deficiency? Both are rampant in northern climes. One of the many symptoms of both is depression.
“Could it be seasonal affective disorder or Vitamin D deficiency? Both are rampant in northern climes. One of the many symptoms of both is depression.”
As someone with a sibling that suffers from Vitamin D deficiency, I must say that, while it is a possibility, it cannot adequately explain the abundance of depression cases. Sunlight exposure and multivitamins will not fix actual depression.
I am so glad to see that the issue of student dissatisfaction and unhappiness at BU is finally being raised. I give some props to BU for publishing this article.
I think there are good points made in this article about the causes of student depression and anxiety, but they don’t dig deep enough. Facebook and the economy make the problem worse, but they are not the root. The elephant in the room is that BU is a very large research university that does not devote enough time or energy to supporting its undergraduate students.
I think the biggest reason students struggle at BU is because they feel like they’re totally on their own without any help. For example, until reading this article, I had no idea of the resources SHS offered for students dealing with depression and anxiety–BU needs to be there more for its students. Like the article said, it’s way too “easy to disappear” here.
The “You Wonder Why?” post articulates well the feeling that many students have here–that they are just a number to their teachers and the administration. It’s easy to feel that way at BU: as an undeclared CAS student without an adviser, or in the gigantic Morse auditorium lectures where you rarely get a chance to talk to your professor. BU freshman, in particular, are very vulnerable to feeling alone at this school–which is why there needs to be way more of an effort at integrating freshman, especially those who aren’t placed in Warren or West for housing. That first semester can strongly shape how a student views their experience at BU; it can be exciting and inspiring or totally discouraging.
Other problems are that many classes are way to big, a huge percentage of faculty is adjunct and/or has never received proper training to teach, and communication between schools is poor–how many BU students do you know that have been inconvenienced because their adviser didn’t know what was up with the university?
This is not to say that everyone is unhappy at BU, or that the school has done nothing right. From what I’ve heard, the engineering majors receive a lot of academic support and tend to know their classmates and teachers better than other majors, like Psychology (which has the highest student-teacher ratio). And, it’s important to recognize that an emphasis on research and funding is necessary, to a certain extent, for BU to be able to afford resources and a good education for its students.
And, I do believe that at least some people in the administration care about making the school better for undergrads. For example, a task force recently assessed the university and has started the “One BU: A Connected University” initiative (http://www.bu.edu/strategicreport/report/).
But, will the recommendations made by the task force be put into effect? BU is a huge school with a lot of red tape, and–based on its history–few people in the administration who are willing to put in the time and energy to make BU a better place for undergrads.
Right now, whether or not a student has a good experience at BU (and I’m talking about the average 18-21 year old, who doesn’t have all the tools or independence to succeed without help) depends on luck. Maybe that student happens to get the good biology professor whose actually earned a teaching certificate and isn’t just a researcher filling his class quota to get his grant from BU. Or, maybe the student doesn’t and loses faith in professors at BU and stops trying to form relationships with them–which is so unfortunate, because having relationships with your professors is not only fulfilling, but necessary to students’ learning and personal growth.
Regardless, a student’s experience shouldn’t be based on luck. BU students, especially for how much their education costs, should enter college with the support system they need to succeed.
I am very proud of BU for raising this issue. But, if there is going to be any real change, we need to take a hard look at what’s really causing the problem–and not blame it on Facebook and the economy, two factors which the university can’t do much about.
The same goes for students at colleges outside of BU. The lack of support leaves students feeling lost and overwhelmed. Students seeking counseling is great but I think school administration should spend as much time and money on properly training professors as they do research and funding.
This is a super important topic. But will people please stop putting Facebook as the number one reason for depression. It’s very easy to lay blame.
The key point NOT raised in this article, which is a huge pity because most people know about it, is that screening is better now than in the past. We have a better mental health system now than then. We are more aware as a society of what mental health issues are and how they manifest.
My strong hunch is that there has always been 30% of the student body who would qualify as clinically depressed.
So, this is a positive trend: we are attacking problems now that will be worse problems in the future. Yet you paint it as a negative trend because you are looking at it narrowly.
Many people may not remember this, but in the late 80s, many students who went for mental health counseling were turned away. This was a trend here, at MIT and elsewhere. There were several very high profile suicides that ended up in some very embarrassing self-analysis and lawsuits. I am not sure if BU was spared the lawsuits, I know MIT was sued in one or two very large cases. So now we don’t turn a blind eye. That is the difference. Why wasn’t that said in this article?
I see you finally got to this point a bit in Part III. Too bad you couldn’t get that in Part I.
I think you are missing the point about facebook causing depression. Back then social media was not as big nor did people have social media. Now that we have it, people base their lives around what they see on facebook and what is right or wrong. IN addition, they compare themselves to other people’s lives further depressing them-self if it does not seem as good as theirs.
I hate that this is affecting our generation. I actually have a friend who has changed in the past year; he seems to have social anxiety, or some other type of anxiety or mental illness. He always is in his room and doesn’t really make sense when he talks. I’ve tried to help him, and I’ve told him that maybe he should go talk to a professional. But the worst thing is that he doesn’t even realize he has changed, and he says going to talk to someone would be awkward.
Same here, i had a friend who attends Oglethorpe University who is a very nice and plays soccer for them and out of no where he fell into depression. he had to be in a clinic and it was pretty serious. it is sad to see things like this happen.
I agree that with how kids are raised today and the pressures that we have to deal with make it more likely for us to be depressed. I feel that whether it is athletes, international students, or regular students kids have pressure from their paarents to do well, their coaches, and all of them have to deal with the fact that they are away from home and on their own sort of.
yes you’re completely right. kids now in days have a lot to worry about and its odd that this generation would such that we have a lot of technology to make our lives easier. i believe that every little thing adds up eventually
I agree we have so much to be stressed about. Their has to be more programs implemented so fatalities cannot occur within people dealing with these mental health problems.
I agree with you because many people leave home thinking that everything is going to be fun and stress free until they actual run into times where they are stress out with homework and the college life and don’t have their parents to go to directly for help.
Social anxiety is such a confusing, and dramatic experience. I think alot of people dont take mental health as serious. For example if you were to tell someone your depressed some like to respond with just get over it. They view depression as being sad. People really dont take into consideration Social Anxiety being very harmful to ones health, schools ecspecially.
That is very true, but i think the people who aren’t simpathetic to those that are in depression are those who have probably never been in depression. I myself have been in it at one point in my life, and its never as simple as just getting over.
I think that they are would be more shocked that either people can see that they are depressed or they just now found out that they are depressed.
Yes I agree! Many people tend to not understand the full definition of social anxiety or any mental health disorder for that matter. This goes back to my comment that I left on this page also that more awareness and knowledge needs to be instilled among students to have a complete understanding of what mental health disorders really include.
I agree 100% with this article. As a college student i can relate to how stressing it is to not have money to pay for classes and then having to pull out loans gets you in dept. there are numbers of other factors such as failing and meals that contribute to this stress.
That is something that I forgot to mention in my comment. Paying for college is one of the most stressful points in your life especially when you have to take out loans. You have to come up with the decision on your own whether putting yourself in thousands of dollars of debt is really worth the anxiety that comes with going to college.
Not having enough money to pay tuition, buy textbooks or food if your living on campus is a headache. Just thinking about how I’m going to pay for my next year stresses me a bit because you have to take consideration of problems ahead of time and some issues just come out of nowhere. Then there is the need of fitting in or finding people to connect with which lead the person thinking that they need someone with them.
I definitely agree with this article because I am a college student myself. It’s hard coming from an environment where my parents protected me from the outside world and then coming to college where you do everything yourself. It can be stressful on a person in transition and taking on all of that responsibility in such a short amount of time.
i think mental stress and depression is body’s response to a life change. It is very unusually to see this happen because its is almost impossible to logically explain someone can drastically become depression
I agree with the idea that there are many students that need mental health services but many students feel like they don’t need these services or do not want to acknowledge the fact that they need help from these services. More services need to be provided and more awareness needs to be created.
As a student athlete, I agree that we are under tremendous pressure to excel in the classroom as well as on the field. I’ve also found that many of my teammates suffer from generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). We are constantly concerned with not getting hurt, adjusting to new environments, and even passing classes on top of practices. Some times it makes the simplest tasks seem very difficult.
I agree with this article that college students suffer from pressure of succeeding by family and friends because they want to be better than their parents or want to look good with a high paying job. Then there is social media that makes everyone virtually connected but in reality it’s not connecting but harming interactions in the real world.
I agree with this article. Before I went into college, and even now, my parents are always on my back to succeed. I know it comes from love but it burdens me sometimes.
I agree that many college students need help mental health services. Its been shown that it need to not just be classified in one specific race, gender, or family upbringing. Personaly as a student athlete people don’t normally look and see the stress we have to go through but many athletes have to deal with server anxiety due to the fact that they have a numerous amount of obligations to upkeep such as homework, sports and a regular life.