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LAW TX 901: Federal Income Taxation I
This course presents a general introduction to the fundamentals of federal income tax, emphasizing issues common to individual taxpayers (but not including the federal income tax aspects of the acquisition, ownership, and disposition of property, which are the subject of Federal Income Taxation II). Topics include an overview of the federal tax system; gross income, inclusions, and exclusions; identity of the proper taxpayer; concepts and categories of deductions; and basic timing principles.
LAW TX 902: Federal Income Taxation II
Federal income tax aspects of the acquisition, ownership, and disposition of property. Topics include: 1.Realization and recognition, 2.Basis and amount realized, 3.The effects of debt (including its cancellation), 4.Depreciation and amortization, 5.At risk, not for profit, and passive activity loss deductibility limitations, 6.Capital gains and losses, related party transactions, quasi-capital assets and depreciation recapture, and 7.Deferred payment transactions (original issue discount and installment sales). Prerequisite or corequisite: Federal Income Taxation I.
LAW TX 904: Estate and Gift Taxation
Principle issues of estate and gift taxation. Topics include the definition of taxable gifts and exclusions and deductions; determination of the taxable estate of a decedent including problems with lifetime transfers; valuation issues; deductions from the taxable estate with special emphasis on property passing to a spouse; and transfers with retained interests. Reference is made throughout to planning issues relating to estate and gift taxation and is designed to give both a requisite background for those intending additional study of estate planning and a comfortable familiarity with the subject for those going on to other tax fields.
LAW TX 905: ERISA Regulation of Retirement Plans
This course provides an introduction to the regulation of retirement plans, focusing on the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 ("ERISA"). Specifically, the course will cover public policy implications, the different types of retirement plans subject to regulation including the unintended rise of the defined contribution plan or 401(k), state versus federal regulation of plans, application of the Internal Revenue Code, ERISA's fiduciary duties and prohibited transaction rules, and civil enforcement in the courts, as well as by the Internal Revenue Service and the Department of Labor. The course will be relevant for any student interested in employee benefits, employment law, labor law, business law, or securities law.
LAW TX 906: Tax Aspects of International Business
Undergraduate Prerequisites: TX 901
Undergraduate Corequisites: TX 901
Tax aspects of international business transactions, both "inbound" and "outbound", with particular attention to fiscal jurisdiction, the foreign tax credit, allocation of income among affiliated companies, treaties, anti-abuse measures aimed at tax haven operations, information reporting and foreign investment in U.S. securities and real estate. Prerequisite or corequisite: Federal Income Taxation I.
LAW TX 907: Tax Practice & Procedure
Structure of the U.S. tax system; administration of the Internal Revenue Code by the Internal Revenue Service; ethics of tax practice and the regulation of tax practitioners; study of the administrative processing of tax returns; handling of audits, statutes of limitations, assessment of deficiencies and penalties, claims for refund, hearings before the Appeals Office, closing agreement, tax liens, tax collection procedures and civil and criminal aspects of tax fraud. Introduction to aspects of litigation in the Federal District Court, U.S. Court of Federal Claims, and U.S. Tax Court.
LAW TX 913: Tax Law of Accounting Methods
Examination of a broad range of subjects related to accounting methods and periods. Topics include principles of income recognition, prepaid income, claim of right, cash equivalency, and constructive receipt, special methods involving long-term contracts, depreciation, timing of deductions, estimated expenses, prepaid expense, expense versus capitalization, and conformity between tax and financial accounting. Prerequisite or corequisite: Federal Income Taxation I.
LAW TX 917: Taxation of Financial Products: Policy and Theory
This course explores the financial characteristics and income taxation of financial instruments, with an emphasis on both policy and theory. We start with the building blocks of debt and equity, move on to the "derivatives" level of options and notional principal contracts (swaps), and conclude with exotica such as currency products. In each instance we will first look at the financial characteristics of the security (after the fashion of an MBA offering in corporate finance), and then study the tax rules governing each class of instrument. Because discounting (net present value) and "pay off" diagrams are so central to an understanding of financial instruments, the course incorporates a rigorous study of these mathematical tools. Also, when studying the tax rules applicable to financial products, we focus on the fundamental building blocks of taxation -- amount, timing, character, and source -- to reveal underlying policy and theory tensions that go to the very root of our income taxation system. The course is intended to complement TX 949 Taxation of Financial Products: Principles and Application, and may be taken either prior or subsequent to that class or on a stand alone basis. Pre or Co-requisite: Federal Income Taxation I and II.
LAW TX 918: Life Cycle of a Business Venture
The federal income tax laws significantly affect the way a business venture proceeds through the various stages of its life cycle. This course will explore the federal income tax aspects of: i) choosing the proper form of entity (typically, C corporation, S corporation or LLC) to carry on a business, ii) forming the entity that will carry on the business and issuing equity interests (and rights to acquire equity interests) in the entity to founders and other service providers, iii)financing the entity with debt and equity, iv) reporting the results of the entity's operations, v) purchasing and leasing assets, vi) buying out owners, vii) selling the business. Co- and prerequisites: Federal Income Taxation I, Federal Income Taxation II, Introduction to Corporate Tax and Partnership Tax I.
LAW TX 919: International Information Reporting and Withholding
International information reporting and withholding are the future of tax work. They are a source of revenue for the IRS through penalties and a source of anxiety for many tax practitioners, especially with the expanded reporting requirements newly enacted as part of the TCJA. A strong grounding in international information compliance and withholding transactions can benefit every practitioner from the estate planner to the corporate tax advisor. This course will cover the reporting requirements for US taxpayers who hold non-US assets, and the withholding requirements when US payors make payments to non-US persons. Students will become familiar with the various forms associated with different assets, such as the Foreign Bank Account Report ("FBAR") which is used to report foreign assets. We will cover how and when to file, the basics of how to prepare the form, and the penalties for noncompliance. The course will comprehensively cover informational reporting forms to report all foreign assets including closely held business interests, foreign trusts, and the receipt of gifts from non-US persons. We will discuss how the Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act ("FATCA") created a worldwide network of information about non-US assets, and what individuals and fiduciaries need to know to remain compliant. Finally, in addition to covering the reporting associated with non-US ties, we will discuss withholding under Chapter 3 of the Internal Revenue Code and identify when and how to withhold US tax from payments to non-US entities and non-US persons.
LAW TX 920: Tax Aspects of Buying and Selling a Business
A comprehensive course on how business owners can buy and sell businesses with a minimum tax cost and maximum after-tax return. The strategies for selling a business are often implemented from the moment the business entity is originally formed. The course will examine the crucial strategies, from choice of entity, to conducting ongoing operations, to the correct way to change or restructure existing C corporations, S corporations and other entities. The course will also examine the best way to structure a sale of a particular business, based on both the form of legal entity and on the specific facts in a case. For example, the course will compare a sale of stock to a sale of assets; will compare a sale for cash to a tax free transaction or part-cash, part-stock transaction; and compare the differences between a sale with immediate payment versus a possible installment sale. Prerequisites: Federal Income Taxation I and Federal Income Taxation II.
LAW TX 924: Corporate Reorganizations
Income tax considerations relating to corporate tax free reorganizations including: review of the requirements for tax free treatment of acquisitive and time permitting divisive reorganizations; review of the tax treatment to all relevant parties to the transaction; consideration of special problems associated with certain types of reorganizations. Prerequisite: Introduction to Corporate Tax. Note: Limited enrollment.
LAW TX 925: Executive Compensation
Study of the tax and ERISA aspects of various forms of executive compensation. Topics include traditional fringe benefits and deferred compensation arrangements, incentive and non-qualified stock option and restricted stock plans, stock appreciation rights, excess benefit arrangements, rabbi trusts, golden parachute agreements, split-dollar insurance arrangements, and special issues for tax-exempt organizations.
LAW TX 928: State and Local Taxation
The course will expose students to the major types of United States state and local taxes,including personal income taxes, sales and use taxes, property taxes, and corporate taxes.We will explore the structure of each of these types of taxes, how the taxes are implemented in various jurisdictions, and some of the significant issues that arise in applying the taxes. We will also cover some special issues arising from the multi- jurisdictional nature of state and local taxation, and the principal aspects of United States federal law, both statutory and constitutional, that shape and constrain state tax systems. We will consider the application of basic state tax concepts to current issues facing state tax administrators and practitioners, including tax-advantaged business structures, and some of the legislative responses to such issues.
LAW TX 930: Partnership Tax I
Presents an overview of subchapter K and the federal income tax treatment of partnerships and other entities, such as limited liability companies;. Topics include tax classification of a partnership versus a corporation or trust; considerations in choice of entity;basic partnership accounting and capital accounts, partnership formation and acquisition of partnership interests for property or services; determination of basis;basic rules allocations of income and loss ; taxation of normal partnership operations; distributions of cash and property; transactions between partners and partnership, including sales of partnership interests. Prerequisite or corequisite: Federal Income Taxation I and II, Introduction to Corporate Tax
LAW TX 933: Introduction to Corporate Tax
Income tax considerations relating to transfers of assets and liabilities to a corporation (during incorporation and otherwise), non-liquidating distributions, stock redemptions, related party stock purchases and corporate liquidations. Includes an overview of the treatment of a corporate shareholder versus other shareholders. Prerequisite or corequisite: Federal Income Taxation I and II
LAW TX 934: Estate Planning- Advanced
This course picks up the estate planning course (TX 935) leaves off. We will survey several "cutting edge" estate planning techniques-techniques that permit the transfer of large amounts of wealth at little or no gift tax or estate tax cost. We will zero in on valuation rules that apply to the estate tax and gift tax; we will discuss what to look for in appraisals; we will examine, in depth, the current status of planning involving family partnerships and LLCs; we will examine the rules that apply to GRATs, installment sales to "defective" grantor trusts, and how to structure transfers using these techniques; we will review the biases built into the actuarial valuation rules that the Internal Revenue Service requires us to apply; we will examine the effects of the UPC, the Uniform Trust Code, and will consider "decanting"; we will discuss some of the psychological aspects of estate planning including issues presented by parents' fears of making their children too wealthy too soon; and we will discuss trust design and the choice of trustees. There is no final exam but students will be required to write a 10 -- 15 page term paper. In addition there will be several quizzes throughout the semester. Prerequisite: Estate Planning and Estate and Gift Tax Recommended: Taxation of Trusts and Fiduciaries
LAW TX 935: Estate Planning
This course will examine in depth the theoretical and practical aspects of a variety of estate planning strategies currently being used in the real world. The primary focus of the course will be on federal income, estate, gift, and generation skipping transfer tax issues which arise in the estate planning context, although other planning issues, including professional ethics, will also be considered. The course will use case studies of specific tax driven planning strategies, including grantor trusts, marital deduction trusts, post- mortem planning, and planning for incapacity. Prerequisite or corequisite: Federal Income Taxation I and Estate and Gift Tax
LAW TX 937: Taxation of Trusts and Fiduciaries
Income tax consequences arising upon the death of a decedent and special income tax treatments of estates, trusts, and fiduciaries. Topics include determination of gross income and allocation between the decedent and the estate or trust; special problems with income in respect of a decedent; separate and conduit taxation of estates and trusts; allocation of tax attributes between an estate or trust and its beneficiaries; grantor trust rules, and other topics. Prerequisite: Federal Income Taxation I.
LAW TX 939: Outbound International Tax
This course examines the current outbound international tax rules, but will demonstrate that the law in this area is more than a collection of those rules. It is instead a process, ever evolving, to address its various contexts and constituencies. We will examine the relevant contexts -- Constitutional, international (WTO, OECD) and commercial -- and will engage in class discussions applying the rules within those frameworks. The objective is for students to gain enough grounding in the rules to start a path toward mastery, and to understand the drivers behind the rules so that students can apply them as they exist today, and analyze changes as they occur in the future. Pre or co- requisite: Tax Aspects of International Business (recommended)