NF-kB Target Genes

Target Genes of NF-kB

Cytokines/Chemokines and their Modulators
Proteins Involved in Antigen Presentation
Cell Adhesion Molecules
Acute Phase Proteins
Stress Response Genes
Cell Surface Receptors
Regulators of Apoptosis
Growth Factors, Ligands and their Modulators
Early Response Genes
Transcription Factors and Regulators

(*indicates that the gene has a kB site in the promoter but has not clearly been shown to be controlled by NF-kB; or the gene expression is associated with increased NF-kB activity but has not been shown to be a target directly)

Cytokines/Chemokines and their modulators

Gene Function Reference Acc # Human Gene Name
BAFF B-cell Activating Factor Moon & Park , 2007 NM_006573 TNFSF13B
BLIMP-1 B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein-1 Calame, 2008 NM_00198 BLIMP1 /PRDM1
CCL5 T-cell secreted factor Wickremasinghe et al, 2004 NM_002985 CCL5
CCL15/Leukotactin/ SCYA15 Chemokine for cell attraction Shin et al, 2005 NM_032965 CCL15
CCL17 Chemokine Takegawa et al, 2008 NM_002987 CCL17
CCL19 Recruitment of naive T cells to dendritic cells Pietila et al, 2007 NM_006274 CCL19
CCL20 Ligand of CC chemokine receptor 6 Lee et al, 2008; Battaglia et al, 2007 NM_004591 CCL20
CCL22 Epithelial cell chemokine at mucosa Nakayama et al, 2004 NM_002990 CCL22
CCL23/SYA23 Monocyte chemokine Shin et al, 2007 NM_005064 CCL23
CCL28 Chemokine for T-cell attraction Ogawa et al, 2004 NM_148672 CCL28
CINC-1 Cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant Blackwell et al, 1994 Ohtsuka et al, 1996 NM_001511 CXCL1
*CXCL 11 Chemokine ligand for CXCR3 Tensen et al, 1999 NM_005409 CXCL11
Eotaxin beta Chemokine, eosinphil-specific Hein et al, 1997 NM_001565. CXCL10
Fractalkine TNF-induced chemokine Ahn et al, 2004;Bhavsar et al, 2008 NP_002987 CXCL3
Gro alpha Melanoma growth stimulating activity Anisowicz et al, 1991 NM_001511 CXCL1
Gro beta Chemokine Anisowicz et al, 1991 AAP13104 GRO-beta
Gro gamma Chemokine Anisowicz et al, 1991 AAP13105. GRO-gamma
Gro-1 Growth regulated oncogene; chemokine Wood, 1995 NM_001511 CXCL1
*ICOS Inducible co-stimulator Haaning Anderson et al, 2003 NM_012092 ICOS
IFN-g Interferon Sica et al, 1992; Sica et al, 1997 NM_000619 IFNG
IL-1a Interleukin-1a Mori & Prager, 1996 NM_000575 IL1A
IL-1b Interleukin-1b Hiscott et al, 1993 NM_000576 IL1B
IL-1 receptor antagonist Inhibitor of IL-1 activity Smith et al, 1994 NM_173842 IL1RN
IL-2 Interleukin-2 Serfling et al, 1989; Hoyos et al, 1989; Lai et al, 1995 NM_000586 IL2
IL-6 Interleukin-6, inflammatory cytokine Libermann & Baltimore, 1990; Shimizu et al, 1990;Son et al, 2008 NM_000600 IL6
IL-8 Interleukin-8, alpha-chemokine Kunsch & Rosen, 1993; Kang et al., 2007 NM_000584 IL8
IL-9 Interleukin-9 Zhu et al, 1996; Chen et al, 2008 NM_000590 IL9
IL-10 Interleukin-10 Xu & Shu, 2002; Cao et al, 2006 NM_000572 IL10
IL-11 Interleukin-11 Bitko et al, 1997 NM_000641 IL11
IL-12B (p40) Interleukin-12 Murphy et al, 1995 NM_002187 IL12B
IL-12A (p35) Interleukin-12 Homma et al, 2007 NM_000882 IL12A
IL-13 Interleukin-13 Hinz et al, 2002 NM_002188 IL13
*IL-15 Interleukin-15 Azimi et al, 1998 NM_172174 IL15
IL-17 Interleukin-17 Shen et al, 2006 NM_002190 IL17
IL-23A (p19) Interleukin-23 (p19 gene) Carmody et al, 2006; Liu et al, 2007 NM_016584 IL23A
IL-27 (p28) Interleukin-27 (p28 subunit) Liu et al, 2007 NM_145659 IL27
EBI3/IL-27B EBV-induced gene 3 (IL-27beta chain) Poleganov et al, 2008 NM_005755 EBI3
beta-Interferon Interferon Hiscott et al, 1989; NM_002176 IFNB1
Lenardo et al, 1989
IP-10 alpha Chemokine Ohmori & Hamilton, 1993; Yang et al, 2007 NM_002994 CXCL5
KC alpha Chemokine Ohmori et al, 1995 S79767 KC
IiGp1 Cytokine Bunting et al, 2007 NM_021792 Iigp1
NM_002994 CXCL5
*LIX (mouse); ENA-78 (CXCL5) and GCP-2 (CXCL6) (human) LPS-induced CXC chemokines Smith et al, 2002 NM_002993 CXCL6
Lymphotoxin a TNF-like cytokine Worm et al, 1998 NM_000595 LTA
Lymphotoxin b Anchors TNF to cell surface Kuprash et al, 1996 NM_002341 LTB
MCP-1/JE Macrophage chemotactic protein, beta Chemokine Ueda et al, 1994; Ueda et al, 1997 NM_002982 CCL2
Teferedegne et al, 2006; Xing & Remick, 2007; Ishikado et al, 2009
MIG Monokine induced by IFN-gamma Bunting et al, 2007 NM_002416 CXCL9
MIP-1a,b Macrophage inflammatory protein-1, b Chemokine Grove & Plumb, 1993; Widmer et al, 1993 NM_002983 CCL3
NM_002984 CCL4
aka (LAG-1) Lymphocyte activation gene-1 Xu et al, 2002; Modi et al, 2001 NM_002984 CCL4
MIP-2 Macrophage inflammatory protein-2, b Chemokine Widmer et al, 1993; Lee et al, 2005 NM_002090 CXCL3
MIP-3alpha/CCL20 Macrophage inflammatory protein-3a Kwon et al, 2002; Tomimori et al, 2007 NM_004591 CCL20
*mob-1 A C-X-C chemokine Varley et al, 2003 NM_001565 CXCL10
Neutrophil activating peptide-78 Activates neutrophils Keates et al., 2001 NM_002994 CXCL5
RANTES Regulated upon Activation Normal T lymphocyte Expressed and Secreted,b Chemokine Moriuchi et al, 1997 NM_002985 CCL5
TCA3, T-cell activation gene 3 T-cell activation gene 3, beta chemokine Oh & Metcalfe, 1994 NM_002981 CCL1
TNFalpha Tumor necrosis factor alpha Shakhov et al, 1990; Collart et al, 1990 NM_000594 TNF
TNFbeta Tumor necrosis factor beta Paul et al, 1990; Messer et al, 1990 NM_000595 LTA
TRAIL (aka Apo2 ligand) Cytokine Baetu et al, 2001; Matsuda et al, 2005 NM_003810 TNFSF10
TFF3 (Treefoil factor) Peptide in response to gut irritation Baus-Loncar et al, 2004 NM_003226 TFF3
VEGI Vascular endothelial growth inhibitor Xiao et al, 2005 NM_005118 TNFSF15


Gene Function Reference Access # Human Gene Name
B7.1 (CD80) Co-stimulation of T cells via CD28 binding Fong et al, 1996; Zhao et al, 1996 NM_005191 CD80
BRL-1 B-cell homing receptor Wolf et al, 1998 NM_001716 BLR1
CCR5 Chemokine receptor Liu et al, 1998 NM_000579 CCR5
CCR7 Chemokine receptor Hopken et al, 2002 NM_001838 CCR7
CXCR Chemokine receptor Maxwell et al, 2007 NM_000634 IL8RA
CXCR2 Chemokine receptor Maxwell et al, 2007 NM_001557 IL8RB
CD137 TNF-like receptor Kim et al, 2003 NM_001561 TNFRSF9
CD154 CD40 ligand Srahna et al, 2001; Schubert et al, 2002; Pham et al, 2005 NM_000074 CD40LG
CD3gamma T-cell marker Willard-Gallo et al, 2005 NM_000073 CD3G
CD21 B-cell surface molecule Debnath et al, 2007 NM_001006658 CR2
CD38 NAD to cADP ribose converting molecule Kang et al, 2006; Tirumurugaan et al, 2008 NM_001775 CD38
CD40 TNF-receptor family member Hinz et al, 2001 NM_001250 CD40
CD48 Antigen of stimulated lymphocytes Klaman & Thorley-Lawson, 1995 NM_001778 CD48
CD83 T-cell development molecule McKinsey et al, 2000; Berchtold et al, 2002 NM_004233 CD83
CD86 Dendritic cell development molecule Zou & Hu, 2005 NM_175862 CD86
CD98 Membrane receptor, survival blood cells Yan et al, 2006 NM_001012661 SLC3A2
CD134 TNF-like receptor Tone et al, 2007 NM_003327 TNFRSF4
*F11-receptor Ig-like receptor for platelet adhesion Sobocki et al, 2005 NM_016946 F11R
FcRn Neonatal receptor for IgG Liu et al, 2007 NM_004107 FCGRT
Fc epsilon receptor II (CD23) Receptor for IgE Richards & Katz, 1997; Lu et al, 2006; Debnath et al, 2007 NM_002002 FCER2
HLA-G Human leukocyte antigen-G Langat et al., 2007 NM_002127 HLA-G
*ICOS T-cell activation factor Shilling et al., 2005 NM_012092 ICOS
IL-2 receptor a-chain IL-2 receptor subunit Ballard et al., 1988 NM_000417 IL2RA
Immunoglobulin Cgamma1 IgG heavy chain Lin & Stavnezer, 1996 J00230 IGHG2
Immunoglobulin gamma1 IgG heavy chain Dryer & Covey, 2005 J00228 IGHG1
Immunoglobulin gamma4 IgG heavy chain Agresti & Vercelli, 2002 K01316 IGHG4
Immunoglobulin e heavy chain IgE heavy chain Iciek et al, 1997 J00222 IGHE
Immunoglobulin k light chain Antibody light chain Sen & Baltimore, 1986 J00241 IGKC
Invariant Chain II Antigen presentation Pessara & Koch, 1990
Kinin B1 Receptor Cardiovascular homeostasis; inflammation Merino et al, 2005 NM_000710 BDKRB1
MHC class I (H-2Kb) Major histocompatibility antigen Israël et al, 1989a; Israël et al, 1989b
MHC Class I HLA-B7 Major histocompatibility antigen Johnson & Pober, 1994 NM_005514 HLA-B
b2 Microglobulin Chaperone for MHC class I-like molecules Israël et al, 1989a; Israël et al, 1989b; Gobin et al, 2002 NM_004048 B2M
Nod2 Intracellular pathogen recognition Gutierrez et al, 2002 NM_022162 NOD2
Polymeric Ig receptor Binds Ig Schjerven et al, 2001 AJ276452 pIgR
PGRP-S Peptidoglycan recognition protein-S Lang et al, 2007 NM_005091 PGLYRP1
T-cell receptor b chain T-cell receptor subunit Jamieson et al, 1989; McMillan & SIkes, 2008 NG_001333 TCRB
T-cell receptor/CD3gamma T-cell receptor subunit Badran et al, 2002 NM_000073 CD3G
TLR-2 Toll-like receptor Wang et al, 2001; Johnson & Tapping, 2007 NM_003264 TLR2
TLR9 Toll-like receptor Takeshita et al, 2004 NM_017442 TLR9
*TNF-Receptor, p75/80 (CD120B) High-affinity TNF receptor Santee & Owen-Schaub, 1996 NM_001066 TNFRSF1B
TREM-1 Neutrophil/monocyte Ig receptor Zeng et al, 2007 NM_018643 TREM1

Proteins involved in antigen presentation

Gene Function Reference Acc # Human Gene Name
Complement B Activator of alternative complement pathway Huang et al, 2002 NM_001710 CFB
Complement component 3 Component of complement pathway Moon et al, 1999 NM_000064 C3
Complement Receptor 2 Complement receptor for B-cell response to Ag Tolnay et al, 2002 NM_001006658 CR2
Proteasome Subunit LMP2 Subunit of 26S proteasome,cysteine protease Wright et al, 1995; Marques et al, 2004 NM_002800 PSMB9
Peptide Transporter TAP1 Peptide transporter for ER Wright et al, 1995; Marques et al, 2004 NM_000593 TAP1
Tapasin MHC class I presentation and assembly Herrmann et al, 2003 NM_003190 TAPBP

Cell adhesion molecules

Gene Function Reference Acc # Human Gene Name
CD44 Cell-surface receptor for hyaluronic acid Hinz et al, 2002 NP_000601 CD44
DC-SIGN Dendritic cell surface C-type lectin Liu et al, 2003 NM_021155 CD209
ELAM-1 (CD62E, E-selectin) E-selectin, endothelial cell leukocyte adhesion molecule Whelan et al, 1991; Schindler & Baichwal, 1994 NM_000450 SELE
Endoglin Endothelial cell membrane glycoprotein Botella et al, 2002 NM_000118 ENG
Fibronectin Extracellular attachment Lee et al, 2002; Norton et al, 2004 NM_002026 FN1
ICAM-1 Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 van de Stolpe et al., 1994; Bunting et al, 2007 NM_000201 CD54
MadCAM-1 Mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule Takeuchi & Baichwal, 1995 NM_130760 MADCAM1
NCAM Neural cell adhesion molecule Simpson & Morris, 2000 NM_000615 NCAM
P-selectin Platelet adhesion receptor Pan & McEver, 1995 NM_003005 SELP
Tenascin-C ECM protein controls cell attachment and migration, cell growth Mettouchi et al, 1997 NM_002160 TNC
VCAM-1 Vascular cell adhesion molecule Iademarco et al, 1992 NM_001078 VCAM1

Acute phase proteins

Gene Function Reference Acc # Human Gene Name
Angiotensinogen (Angiotensin II) Angiotensin precursor, regulates blood pressure Brasier et al, 1990; Ron et al, 1990 NM_000029 AGT
beta-defensin-2 Anti-microbial peptide Diamond et al, 2000; Tsutsumi-Ishii & Nagaoka, 2002; Kao et al, 2008 AF040153 DEFB2
C4b binding protein Complement binding protein Moffat & Tack, 1992 NM_000715 C4BPA
Complement factor B Complement factor Nonaka & Huang, 1990 NM_001710 CFB
Complement factor C4 Activates extrinsic pathway of complement activation Yu et al, 1989 NM_007293 C4A
C-reactive protein Host defense protein Zhang et al, 1995; Agrawal et al, 2003a
Agrawal et al, 2003b
NM_000567 CRP
Hepcidin Acute phase protein Liao et al, 2006 NM_021175 HAMP
Lipopolysaccharide binding protein Binds to LPS receptor (CD14) with LPS Schumann, 1995 NM_004139 LBP
Pentraxin PTX3 Pentraxin Basile et al, 1997 NM_002852 PTX3
Serum amyloid A proteins (SAA1, SAA2, SAA3) Serum components Edbrooke et al, 1991; Li & Liao, 1991; Thorn & Whitehead, 2002; Son et al, 2004 NM_000331 SAA1
Serum amyloid A proteins (SAA1, SAA2, SAA3) Serum components NM_030754 SAA2
Serum amyloid A proteins (SAA1, SAA2, SAA3) Serum components S73444 SAA3
Tissue factor-1 Activates extrinsic pathway of complement activation Mackman et al, 1991 NM_001993 F3
Urokinase-type plasminogen activator Activates fibrinogen for fibrin clot lysis Novak et al, 1991 NM_002658 PLAU

Stress response genes

Gene Function Reference Acc # Human Gene Name
*CYP2E1 Cytochrome p450 Abdel-Razak et al, 2004 NM_000773 CYP2E1
CYP2C11 Cytochrome p450 Morgan et al, 2002 X79081 CYP2C11
CYP7b Cytochrome p450 Dulos et al, 2005 NM_004820 CYP7B1
COX-2 Cyclooxygenase, prostaglandin endoperoxide synthase Yamamoto et al, 1995;Ackerman et al, 2008; Kaltschmidt et al, 2002 NM_000963 PTGS2
Ferritin H chain Iron storage protein Kwak et al, 1995 NM_002032 FTH1
Glutamate-cysteine ligase GSH biosynthesis Peng et al, 2010 GCLC
Glutamate-cysteine ligase modifier GCLC modifier protein Peng et al, 2010 GCLM
HSP90-alpha Heat shock protein Ammirante et al, 2007 NM_001017963 HSP90AA1
*5-Lipoxygenase (guinea pig) Arachidonic acid metabolic enzyme, leukotriene synthesis Chopra et al, 1992 XM_001127464 ALOX5
12-Lipoxygenase Arachidonic acid metabolic enzyme Arakawa et al, 1995 NM_000697 ALOX12
Inducible NO-Synthase NO synthesis Geller et al, 1993 NM_000625 NOS2A
*MAP4K1 Activator of stress-induced protein kinase pathway Carter et al, 2002 NM_001042600 MAP4K1
SENP2 SUMO-specific protease S Miyamoto, pers commun NC_0000013.10 SENP2
Cu/Zn SOD Superoxide dismutase Rojo et al, 2004 NM_000454 SOD1
SOD1 Manganese uperoxide dismutase Das et al, 1995 NM_000454 SOD1
SOD2 Manganese superoxide dismutase Xu et al, 1999a; 1991b; 2007a; 2007b NM_000636 SOD2
*Mx1 Viral resistance gene Gerardin et al, 2004 NM_002462 MX1
NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase (DT-diaphorase) Bioreductive enzyme Yao & O’Dwyer, 1995 NM_000903 NQO1
Phospholipase A2 Fatty acid metabolism Morri et al, 1994 AF058921 PLA2
SEPS1 Involved in cytokine production Gao et al, 2006 NM_018445 SELS

Cell-surface receptors

Gene Function Reference Acc # Human Gene Name
ABCA1 ATP-binding cassette transporter Gerbod-Giannone et al, 2006 NM_005502 ABCA1
ABCC6 ATP-binding, multidrug resistance-associated protein 6 transporter Jiang et al, 2005 NM_001171 ABCC6
A1 adenosine receptor Pleiotropic physiological effects Nie et al, 1998; Jhaveri et al, 2007 NM_000674 ADORA1
A2A Adenosine receptor Morello et al, 2006 NM_000675 ADORA2A
*ADAM19 Dendritic cell marker Ehrnsperger et al, 2005 NM_023038 ADAM19
Amiloride-sensitive sodium channel Sodium channel Baines et al, 2002; Haddad, 2005 NM_001038 SCNN1A
*alpha2B-adrenergic receptor adrenergic receptor Cayla et al, 2004 NM_000682 ADRA2B
Bradykinin B1-Receptor Pleiotropic physiological effects Ni et al, 1998 NM_000710 BDKRB1
*CD23 Cell-surface molecule Tinnell et al, 1998 NM_002002 FCER2/CD23
CD69 Lectin mainly on activated T cells Lopez-Cabrera et al, 1995 NM_001781 C69
DOR Delta opiod receptor Chen et al, 2005, 2006 NM_000911 OPRD1
Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Receptor for EGF Nishi et al, 2003; Thornburg & Raab-Traub, 2007 NM_005228 EGFR
ErbB2 EGF-like receptor Kitamura et al, 2005 NM_001005862 ERBB2
Gal1 Receptor Galanin receptor, neuroendocrine peptide Lorimer et al, 1997 NM_002256 KISS1
Lox-1 Receptor for Oxidized low density lipoprotein Nagase et al, 1998 NM_002543 OLR1
Ly49 Receptor on NK cells Pascal et al, 2007 NM_006611 KLRA1
Mdr1 Multiple drug resistance mediator (P-glycoprotein) Zhou & Kuo, 1997; Wang et al, 2007 NM_018849 ABCB4
Mu-opioid receptor Opioid Receptor Kraus et al, 2003 EU360599 OPRM1
mGlu2 Metabotropic glutamate receptor 2 Chiechio et al, 2006 NM_000839 GRM2
Neuropeptide Y-Y1 receptor Pleiotropic physiological effects Musso et al, 1997 NM_000909 NPY1R
*NMDA receptor subunit 2A (rat) Neural receptor for N-methyl-D-aspartate Richter et al, 2002 NM_000833 GRIN2A
*NMDA receptor subunit NR-1 (GRIN1 gene) Subunit of neural receptor for N-methyl-D-aspartate Begni et al, 2003 NM_021569 GRIN1
Oxytocin receptor Oxytocin receptor Terizidou et al, 2006 NM_000916 OXTR
PAF receptor 1 Platelet activator receptor Mutoh et al, 1994 NM_000952 PTAFR
P-gp P-glycoprotein-Drug resistance Wang et al, 2007 NM_000927 ABCB1
RAGE- receptor for advanced glycation end products Receptor for Advanced Glycation End products Li & Schmidt, 1997 NM_001136 AGER

Regulators of apoptosis

Gene Function Reference Acc # Human Gene Name
ASC Apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD Sun et al, 2007 NM_013258 PYCARD
Bax Pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 homologue Grimm et al, 2004 NM_004324 BAX
Bfl1/A1 Pro-survival Bcl-2 homologue Grumont et al, 1999; Zong et al, 1999 NM_004049 BCL2A1
Bcl-xL Pro-survival Bcl-2 homologue Chen et al, 1999; Lee et al, 1999 NM_138578 BCL2L1
Bcl-2 Pro-survival factor Catz & Johnson, 2001 NM_000633 BCL2
Bim Pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 homolog Wang et al, 2008 NM_138621 BCL2L11
B7-H1 Programmed cell death ligand 1 Lee et al, 2005 NM_014143 CD274
BNIP3 Hypoxia-inducible death factor Baetz et al, 2005; Shaw et al, 2006 NM_004052 BNIP3
Caspase-11 Caspase Schauvliege et al, 2002 NM_001225 CASP4
Nr13 Pro-survival Bcl-2 homologue Lee et al, 1999
c-FLIP Pro-survival factor Kreuz et al, 2001 NM_003879 CFLAR
CD95 (Fas) Pro-apoptotic receptor Chan et al, 1999; Zhou et al, 2005; Singh et al, 2006 NM_000043 FAS
CIDEA Cell death-inducing DFFA-like effector A Pettersson et al, 2008 NP_001270.1; NP_938031.1 CIDEA
*Fas-associated phosphatase-1 Protein phosphatase Irie et al, 2001 NM_006264 PTPN13
Fas-Ligand Inducer of apoptosis Matsui et al, 1998; Singh et al, 2006 NM_000639 FASLG
IAPs Inhibitors of Apoptosis You et al, 1997; Stehlik et al, 1998a, 1998b
IEX-1L Immediate early gene Wu et al, 1998 NM_052815 IER3
TRAF-1 TNF-receptor associated factor Schwenzer et al, 1999 NM_005658 TRAF1
TRAF-2 TNF-receptor associated factor Wang et al, 1998 NM_021138 TRAF2
*TRAF-2 binding protein (Carp) TRAF2 binding protein Chang et al, 2005 NM_052864 TIFA
XIAP X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis Turner et al, 2007 NM_001167 XIAP

Growth factors, ligands, and their modulators

Gene Function Reference Acc # Human Gene Name
Activin A TGF-beta-like factor Alexander et al, 2007 NM_002192 INHBA
Angiopoietin Tie-2 receptor ligand Scott et al, 2005 NM_001146 ANGPT1
BCAP B-cell Adaptor for Phosphoinositide 3-kinase Gupta et al, 2008 NM_152309 PI3KAP1
BDNF Brain-derived neurotrophic factor Saha et al, 2007 NM_001709 BDNF
BLyS B-lymphocyte stimulator Fu et al, 2006 NM_006573 TNFSF13B
BLNK B-cell linker Gupta et al, 2008 NM_013314 BLNK
BMP-2 Bone Morphogenic Protein-2 Feng et al, 2003; Fukui et al, 2006 NM_001200 BMP2
BMP-4 Bone Morphogenic Protein-4 Zhu et al, 2007 NM_001202 BMP4
CGRP Calcitonin gene-related peptide Bowen et al, 2005 NM_000728 CALCB
FGF8 Fibroblast Growth Factor 8 Armstrong et al, 2006 NM_006119 FGF8
FLRG Follistatin-related gene Bartholin et al, 2007 NM_005860 FSTL3
G-CSF Granulocyte Colony Stimulating Factor Nishizawa & Nagata, 1990 NM_000759 CSF3
GM-CSF Granulocyte Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor Schreck & Baeuerle, 1990; Bunting et al, 2007 NM_000758 CSF2
*HGF/SF Hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor Harrison & Farzaneh, 2000 NM_000601 HGF
EPO Erythropoietin Figueroa et al, 2002 NM_000799 EPO
*IGFBP-1 Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 Lang et al, 1999 NM_001013029 IGFBP1
IGFBP-2 Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-2 Cazals et al, 1999 NM_000597 IGFBP2
M-CSF (CSF-1) Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor Brach et al, 1991; Hohensinner et al, 2007 NM_000757 CSF1
Midkine (neurite growth promoting factor-2) Heparin Binding Growth Factor You et al, 2008 NM_001012334 MDK
NGF Nerve Growth Factor Heese et al, 2006 NM_002506 NGFB
NK-1R Neurokinin-1 Receptor Simeonidis et al, 2003; Ramkissoon et al, 2007 NM_015727 TACR1
NK4 Hepatocyte growth factor Zhou et al, 2003 NM_001012635 NK4
Nrg1 Neuregulin Frensing et al, 2007 NM_004495 NRG1
OPN Osteopontin Samant et al, 2007 NM_001040058 SPP1
PDGF B chain Platelet-derived Growth Factor Khachigian et al, 1995; Au et al, 2005 NM_002608 PDGFB
PlGF Placenta Growth Factor Cramer et al, 2005 NM_002643 PIGF
Proenkephalin Hormone Rattner et al, 1991 NM_006211 PENK
Prolactin Pituitary hormone Friedrichsen et al, 2005 NM_000948 PRL
Stem Cell Factor Mast Cell Growth Factor Da Silva et al, 2003; 2004 NM_000899 KITLG
*Thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) Matrix glycoprotein t Yang et al, 2003 NM_003246 THBS1
*Thrombospondin-2 (THBS2) Matrix glycoprotein t Adolph et al, 1997 NM_003247 THBS2
VEGF C Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Chilov et al, 1997 NM_005429 VEGFC
*WNT10B Secreted glycoprotein Katoh & Katoh, 2007 NM_003394 WNT10B

Early response genes

Gene Function Reference Acc # Human Gene Name
*B94 Early response gene Zhou et al, 2003 NM_006291 TNFAIP2
*Egr-1 Mitogen-induced early response gene; zinc finger Zhou et al, 2003 NM_001964 EGR1
p22/PRG1 Rat homologue of IEX Schafer et al, 1998 NM_052815 IER3
*p62 Non-proteasomal multi-ubiquitin chain binding protein Vadlamudi & Shin, 1998 NM_016221 DCTN4
*TIEG TGF-b early response gene; zinc finger protein Zhou et al, 2003 NM_001032282 KLF10

Transcription factors and their modulators

Gene Function Reference Acc # Human Gene Name
A20 TNF-inducible zinc finger Krikos et al, 1992 NM_006290 TNFAIP3
ABIN-3 NF-kB inhibitor Verstrepen et al, 2007 NM_024873 TNIP3
Androgen receptor Hormone receptor Zhang et al, 2004 NM_000044 AR
Bcl-3 Coactivator for NF-kB p50 and p52 Brocke-Heidrich et al, 2006 NM_005178 BCL3
BMI-1 Polycomb chromatin modifier Dutton et al, 2006 NM_005180 BMI1
CDX1 Homeobox protein Wong et al, 2005 NM_001804 CDX1
*c-fos (fish gene) Proto-oncogene Li et al, 2004 NM_005252 FOS
c-myb Proto-oncogene Toth et al, 1995 NM_005375 MYB
c-myc Proto-oncogene Duyao et al, 1990 NM_002467 MYC
c-rel Proto-oncogene Hannink & Temin, 1990; Capobianco & Gilmore, 1991 NM_002908 REL
C/EBPdelta Transcription factor Liu et al, 2007 NM_005195 CEBPD
*DC-SCRIPT Dendritic cell zinc finger protein Triantis et al, 2006 NM_152625 ZNF366
Dmp1 Myb-like transcription factor Taneja et al, 2007 NM_001079911 DMP1
E2F3a Cell cycle regulator Cheng et al, 2003 NM_001949 E2F3
Elf3 Ets family transcription factor Hou et al, 2004 NM_004433 ELF3
*ELYS Embryonic large molecule derived from yolk sac Okita et al, 2003 NM_015446 AHCTF1
*ETR101 TPA-inducible, Jun-like transcription factor Zhou et al, 2003 NM_004907 IER2
Gata-3 T-cell differentiation Factor Corn et al, 2005 NM_001002295 GATA3
*Glucocorticoid receptor Promoter 1B of the GR Schaff & Cidlowski, 2002 NM_000176 NR3C1
HIF-1alpha Hypoxia-inducible factor Bonello et al, 2007; Belaiba et al, 2007; van Uden et al, 2008; Gorlach & Bonello, 2008 NM_001530 HIF1A
HOXA9 Homeobox protein Trivedi et al, 2007 NM_152739 HOXA9
IRF-1 Interferon regulatory factor-1 Harada et al, 1994; Robinson et al, 2006 NM_002198 IRF1
IRF-2 Interferon regulatory factor-2 Harada et al, 1994 NM_002199 IRF2
IRF-4 Interferon regulatory factor-4 Grumont & Gerondakis, 2000; Saito et al, 2007 NM_002460 IRF4
IRF-7 Interferon regulatory     factor -7 Lu et al, 2002 NM_001572 IRF7
IkB-a Inhibitor of Rel/NF-kB Haskill et al, 1991; NM_020529 NFKBIA
Sun et al, 1993
de Martin et al, 1993
IkB-e Inhibitor of Rel/NF-kB Tian et al, 2005 NM_004556 NFKBIE
junB Proto-oncogene Brown et al, 1995 NM_002229 JUNB
jmjD3 Histone lysine demethylase G Natoli, pers comm XM_043272 JMJD3
Lef1 Transcription factor in Wnt/b-catenin pathway Yun et al, 2007 NM_016269 LEF1
LZIP Leukocyte cell mobility Jang et al, 2007 NM_006368 CREB3
Mail IkB-like protein Shiina et al, 2001; Ito et al, 2004 NM_001005474 NFKBIZ
nfkb2 NF-kB p100 precursor Lombardi et al, 1995 NM_001077493 NFKB2
nfkb1 NF-kB p105 precursor Ten et al, 1992 NM_003998 NFKB1
NLRP2 NF-kB pathway inhibitor Fontalba et al, 2007 NM_017852 NLRP2
NURR1 Nuclear orphan receptor McEvoy et al, 2002 NM_006186 NR4A2
Osterix Bone transcription factor Lu et al, 2006 AF477981 Osterix
p53 TF, Tumor suppressor Wu & Lozano, 1994; Schumm et al, 2006 NM_000546 TP53
Progesterone receptor Transcription factor Condon et al, 2005 NM_000926 PGR
PU.1 Transcription factor Bonadies et al, 2009 NM_001080547.1 SPI1
relb Transcription factor Bren et al, 2001 NM_006509 RELB
Snail Transcription factor Barbera et al, 2004; Julien et al, 2007 NM_005985 SNAI1
Sox9 Transcription factor Murakami et al, 2000 NM_000346 SOX9
Stat5a Transcription factor Hinz et al, 2002 NM_003152 STAT5A
Tfec Transcription factor Rehli et al, 2005 NM_001018058 TFEC
Twist Transcription repressor Horikawa et al, 2007; Pham et al, 2007 NM_000474 TWIST1
WT1 Zinc finger transcription factor Dehbi et al, 1998; Chen & Williams, 2000 NM_000378 WT1
YY1 Transcription factor Wang et al, 2007 NM_003403 YY1


Gene Function Reference Acc # Human Gene Name
*ABC Transporters ATP-binding membrane transporters Mutch et al, 2003 NM_019625 ABCB9
*N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase I (rat gene) N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase Fukuda et al, 2003 NM_001097634 GCNT1
ADH Liver alcohol dehydrogenase Potter et al, 2002 NM_000667 ADH1A
AID Activation-induced cytidine deaminase Gourzi et al, 2007; Endo et al, 2007 NM_020661 AICDA
AMACR alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase Chen et al, 2007 NM_014324 AMACR
ARF-related protein-1 GTPase Mueller et al, 2007 NM_003224 ARFRP1
Argininosuccinate synthetase Arginine synthesis Fan et al, 2005; Brasse-Lagnel et al, 2007 NM_000050 ASS1
Aromatase (promoter II) Estrogen synthesis Brasse-Lagnel et al, 2004 NM_000103 CYP19A1
ART2.1 Ecto-ADP-ribosyltransferase Hong et al, 2007 NM_004314 ART1
alpha 1ACT Anti-chymotrypsin Kiss et al, 2005 NM_001085 SERPINA3
BACE-1 beta site APP cleaving enzyme Sambamurti et al, 2004; Rossner et al, 2006: Bourne et al, 2007; Bruggia-Prevot et al, 2008 NM_012104 BACE1
Btk Bruton’s Tyrosine kinase Yu et al, 2008 NM_000061 BTK
Cathepsin B Lysosomal cysteine protease Bien et al, 2004 NM_001908 CTSB
*Cathepsin L Lysosomal cysteine protease Seth et al, 2003 NM_001912 CTSL1
cdk6 Cell-dependent kinase 6 Iwanaga et al, 2008 CDK6
*Ceramide glycosyltransferase Glycosphingolipid Ichikawa et al, 1998 NM_020120 UGCGL1
Chitinase 3-like protein Chitinase Recklies et al, 2005 NM_001276 CHI3L1
*cis-retinoid/androgen dehydrogenase type 1 (CRAD1) Short chain dehydrogenase Chai et al, 2001 NM_080436 Rdh1
*cis-retinoid/androgen dehydrogenase type 2 (CRAD2) Short chain dehydrogenase Tomita et al, 2000 NM_017473 Rdh7
Collagenase 1 Matrix metalloproteinase Vincenti et al, 1998 NM_002421 MMP1
*Dihydrodiol dehydrogenase Oxidoreductase, oxidation of trans-hydodiols Ciaccio et al, 1996 NM_00135 AKR1C1
*DYPD Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase Ukon et al, 2005 NM_000110 DPYD
DNASIL2 DNAse-like endonuclease Shiokawa et al, 2004 NM_001374 DNASE1L2
EL Endothelial lipase Kempe et al, 2005 NM_006033 LIPG
*ENO2 Enolase 2 gamma Carter et al, 2002 NM_001975 ENO2
*GAD67 Glutamic acid decarboxylase Szabo et al, 1996 NM_000817 GAD1
GD3-synthase Sialyltransferase Zeng et al, 1998: Kang et al, 2007 NM_003034 ST8SIA1
gp91 phox Subunit of NADPH oxidase Anrather et al, 2006 NM_007052 NOX1
Gelatinase B Matrix metalloproteinase He, 1996 NM_004994 MMP9
GSTP1-1 Glutathione S-transferase Xia et al, 1996 NM_000852 GSTP1
Glutamate-cysteine ligase Glutathione S-transferase synthesis enzyme Yang et al, 2001; Nagashima et al, 2007 NM_001498 GCLC
GCLC Glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit Yang et al, 2005 NM_001498 GCLC
*Glutamate-cysteine ligase modifier Glutathione S-transferase synthesis enzyme Yang et al, 2001 NM_002061 GCLM
*gamma glutamylcysteine synthetase Glutatamylcysteine synthesis Cheng et al, 2005 NM_001498 GCLC
*Glucose l-6-phosphate dehydrogenase Hexose monophosphate Garcia-Nogales et al, 1999 NM_000402 G6PD
Glucose-6-phosphatase Hexose phosphatase Xu et al, 2007 NM_000151 G6PC
GnRH II Gonadotropin-releasing hormone II Hoo et al, 2007 NM_001501 GNRH2
Granzyme B NK cell cytotoxicity Huang et al, 2006 NM_004131 GZMB
*Soluble Guanylyl cyclase alpha (1) Receptor for NO Vazquez-Padron et al, 2004 NM_000855 GUCY1A2
*Heparanase Cleaves heparin Cao et al, 2005 NM_006665 HPSE
HO-1 Hemeoxygenase Lavrovsky et al, 1994; Rushworth & O’Connell, 2004; Wu et al, 2004; Lin et al, 2007 NM_002133 HMOX1
Hyaluronan synthase Synthesizes hyaluronic acid Ohkawa et al, 1999; Kim, 2006; Saavalainen et al, 2007 NM_001523 HAS1
11bHSD2 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 Kostadinova et al, 2005 NM_000196 HSD11B2
*17bHSD 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase Villar et al, 2007 NM_014234 HSD17B8
H+-K+ATPase alpha2 Role in potassium homeostasis Zhang & Kone, 2002;Saha et al 2008 NM_000702 ATP1A2
Iodothyronine deiodinase (type 2) Converts T4 to T3 Fekete et al, 2003; Zeold et al, 2006 NM_000793 DIO2
*Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase Enzyme for Trp synthesis Ogasawara et al, 2009 NM_002164 IDO1
Lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase (L-PGDS) Prostaglandin D2 synthase in brain Fujimori et al, 2003 NM_000954 PTGDS
Lysozyme Hydrolyzes bacterial cell walls Phi van, 1996 NM_000239 LYZ
Mthfr Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase Pickell et al, 2005 NM_005957 MTHFR
*MKP-1 MAP kinase phosphatase Zhou et al, 2003 NM_004417 DUSP1
MMP-3, matrix metalloproteinaase-3 Secreted collagenase involved in metastasis Borghaei et al, 2004 NM_002422 MMP3
MMP-9, matrix metalloproteinaase-9 Secreted collagenase involved in metastasis Bond et al, 1998; Farina et al, 1999; Yan et al, 2004 NM_004994 MMP9
MLCK (Long) Myosin light chain kinase Graham et al, 2006 NM_053025 MYLK
iNOS Inducible nitric oxide synthase Morris et al, 2003; Guo et al, 2006; Hughes et al, 2008 NM_000625 NOS2A
n-NOS Neuronal nitric oxide synthase Nakata et al, 2006; Li et al, 2007a, 2007b NM_000620 NOS1
*PDE7A1 Phosphodiesterase 7A1 Torras-Llort, & Azorin, 2003 NM_002603 PDE7A
PIM-1 Ser/Thr kinase Zhu et al, 2002 NM_002648 PIM1
Plk3 Polo-like (Ser/Thr) kinase 3 Li et al, 2005 NM_004073 PLK3
PIK3CA Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase catalytic subunit Yang et al, 2008 NM_006218 PIK3CA
*PP5 Protein phosphatase 5 Matsuda et al, 2003 NM_006247 PPP5C
PKAalpha Protein kinase A isoform Kaltschmidt et al, 2006 NM_002730 PRKACA
PKCdelta Protein kinase D isoform Suh et al, 2003 NM_006254 PRKCD
PLCdelta 1 Phospholipase C isoform Kim et al, 2003 NM_006225 PLCD1
*PTGIS, prostaglandin synthase Prostaglandin synthase Yokoyama et al, 1996 NM_000961 PTGIS
*PGES, prostaglandin E synthase Prostaglandin synthase Zhou et al, 2003 NM_004878 PTGES
PTP1B Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B Zabolotny et al, 2008 NM_002827 PTPN1
PTHrP Parathryroid hormone related protein Nadella et al, 2007 NM_002820 PTHLH
RACK1 Receptor for Activated C kinase Choi et al, 2003 NM_006098 GNB2L1
*REV3 DNA polymerase zeta Yu et al, 2004 NM_002912 REV3L
Slfn-2 Schlafen-2 DNA/RNA helicase Sohn et al, 2007 NM_011408 Slfn2
Serpin 2A Serine protease Hampson et al, 2001 XM_372532 SERPINA2
SIAT1 Sialyltransferase Lo & Lau, 1999 NM_173216 ST6GAL1
SNARK SNF1/AMPK-related kinase Legembre et al, 2004 NM_030952 NUAK2
SSAT Spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase Babbar et al, 2006 NM_002970 SAT1
*SUV3 ATP-dependent RNA and DNA helicase Minczuk et al, 2005 NM_003171 SUPV3L1
TERT Telomerase catalytic subunit Yin et al, 2000: Hrdlickova et al, 2006 NM_198253 TERT
Transglutaminase Forms isopeptide bonds Mirza et al, 1997 NM_000359 TGM1
TTG Tissue transglutaminase Chen et al, 2008 NM_004613 TGM2
Type II-secreted phospholipase A2 Proinflammatory phospholipase Couturier et al, 1999 NM_000437 PAFAH2
Uridine phosphorylase 5-fluorouracil and capecitabine metabolism Wan et al, 2006 NM_003364 UPP1
*Xanthine Dehydrogenase Oxidative metabolism of purines Xu et al, 1996 NM_000379 XDH


Gene Function Reference Acc # Human Gene Name
*ABCG5 (bovine) ATP-binding cassette sterol transporters Viturro et al, 2006 NM_022436 ABCG5
ABCG8 (bovine) ATP-binding cassette sterol transporters Viturro et al, 2006 NM_022437 ABCG8
AbetaH-J-J Tripartite gene: aspartyl-beta-hydroxylase, junctin), junctate Feriotto et al, 2005 NM_004318 ASPH
alpha-1 acid glycoprotein Serum protein Mejdoubi et al, 1999 NM_000607 ORM1
alpha-fetoprotein Liver cancer marker Cavin et al, 2004 NM_001134 AFP
AMH Anti-Mullerian hormone Lukas-Croisier et al, 2003 NM_000479 AMH
*beta-amyloid Alzheimer’s precursor Song & Lahiri, 1998 NM_000484 A4
APOBEC2 Apolipoportein B mRNA-editing enzyme catalytic subunit 2 Matsumoto et al, 2006 NM_006789 APOBEC2
Apolipoprotein C III Apoprotein of HDL Gruber et al, 1994 NM_000040 APOC3
Apolipoprotein D Plasma lipocalin Do Carmo et al, 2007 NM_001647 APOD
Apolipoprotein E Protein assoc. with Alzheimers Lahiri, 2004; Du et al, 2005 NM_000041 APOE
AQP4 Aquaporin 4 Ito et al, 2006 NM_001650 AQP4
*Biglycan Connective tissue proteoglycan Ungefroren & Krull, 1996 NM_001711 BGN
BRCA2 Breast Cancer Susceptibility protein-2 Wu et al, 2000 NM_000059 BRCA2
Calsarcin-1 Muscle cell calcineurin-interacting protein Wang et al, 2007 NM_021245 MYOZ1
*Caveolin-1 Lipid raft protein Deregowski et al, 2002 NM_001753 CAV1
*Clone 330 Possible secreted protein Matsuda et al, 2003
*Clone 156 Unknown NF-kB inducer Matsuda et al, 2003
*Clone 68 Unknown NF-kB inducer Matsuda et al, 2003
*p21-CIP1 Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor Hinata et al, 2003 NM_000389 CDKN1A
*Claudin-2 Gap junction protein Yamamoto et al, 2004 NM_020384 CLDN2
a2(I) collagen Type I collagen Novitskiy et al, 2004; Nieto, 2007 NM_000089 COL1A2
*Connexin32 Gap junction protein Yamamoto et al, 2004 NM_000166 GJB1
Cyclin D1 Cell-cycle regulation Guttridge et al, 1999; Hinz et al, 1999; Toualbi-Abed et al, 2008 NM_053056 CCND1
Cyclin D2 Cell-cycle regulation Huang et al, 2004; Iwanaga et al, 2008 NM_001759 CCND2
*Cyclin D3 Cell-cycle regulation Wang et al, 1996 NM_001760 CCND3
DIF2 Monocyte differentiation gene Witcher et al, 2007 NM_003897 IER3
DMT1 Divalent metal ion transporter Paradkar et al, 2005 NM_000617 SLC11A2
Elafin Proteinase inhibitor Bingle et al, 2001 NM_002638 SKALP, PI3
Endothelin 1 Vasoconstrictor peptide/mitogen Quehenberger et al, 2000 NM_001955 EDN1
Ephrin-A1 Cell-cycle regulation Deregowski et al, 2002 NM_005232 EPHA1
Factor VIII Hemostasis Figueiredo & Brownlee, 1995 NM_000132 F8
Ferritin Heavy Chain Anti-oxidant Kwak et al, 1995 NM_002032 FTH1
Gadd45beta DNA repair/cell cycle De Smaele et al, 2001; Qiu et al, 2004 NM_015675 GADD45B
Galpha i2 G protein Arinze & Kawai, 2005 NM_002070 GNAI2
*GIF Cys-rich metal binding protein Hinata et al, 2003 NM_005954 MT3
Galectin 3 b-galactosidase-binding lectin Hsu et al, 1996 NR_003225 LGALS3
GBP-1 GTPase guanylate binding protein Naschberger et al, 2004 NM_002053 GBP1
epsilon-Globin Globin protein Hou et al, 2002, 2004 NM_005330 HBE1
zeta-Globin Globin protein Wang & Liebhaber, 1999 NM_005332 HBZ
*GS3686 Homology to microtubule aggregating protein Carter et al, 2002 NM_006820 IFI44L
Hair K5 keratin Hair keratin protein Gilon et al, 2007 NM_000424 KRT5
*HCCS1 Hepatocarcinoma suppressor 1 Zhu et al, 2006 NM_018289 VPS53
HMG14 High mobility group 14 Walker & Enrietto, 1996 NM_004965 HMGN1
IBABP Ileal bile acid binding protein Fang et al, 2007 NM_001445 FABP6
IMP2 Insulin-like growth factor-II mRNA binding protein Cleynen et al, 2007 NM_000597 IGFBP2
K3 Keratin Intermediate filament protein Wu et al, 1994 NM_057088 KRT3
K6b Keratin Intermediate filament protein Komine et al, 2000 NM_005555 KRT6B
K15 Keratin Intermediate filament protein Radoja et al, 2004 NM_002275 KRT15
*Lactoferrin Milk protein Zheng et al, 2005 NM_002343 LTF
Laminin B2 Chain Basement membrane protein Richardson et al, 1995 NM_002292 LAMB2
Lipocalin-2 Iron-siderophore-binding protein Fujino et al, 2005 NM_005564 LCN2
Mts1 Multiple tumor suppressor Tulchinsky et al, 1997 NM_002961 S100A4
Mir125b Micro-RNA TNFa Tili et al, 2007
Mir146a, b Micro-RNA for IRAK and Traf6 Taganov et al, 2006
Mir155 Micro-RNA for FADD, IKKe, Ripk1 Tili et al, 2007
MNE1 Monocyte/neutrophil elastase inhibitor Zeng et al, 2000 NM_030666 SERPINB1
Mucin (MUC-2) Airway defense glycoprotein Jono et al, 2002; Lee et al, 2000 NM_002457 MUC2
Myelin basic protein Neural sheath Paez et al, 2006 NM_001025081 MBP
MCT1 Monocarboxylate transporter isoform 1 Borthakur et al, 2007 NM_003051 SLC16A1
Naf1 Associates with HIV Nef Tian et al, 2005 NM_006058 TNIP1
Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin Anti-microbial protein in lung Cowland et al, 2003 NM_005564 LCN2
NLF1 IL-1beta induced Warton et al, 2004 NM_207322 FAM148A
*p11 Annexin II ligand Huang et al, 2003 NM_002966 S100A10
PA28 alpha Proteasome activator Ossendorp et al, 2005 NM_006263 PSME1
PA28 beta Proteasome activator Ossendorp et al, 2005 NM_002818 PSME2
PAI-1 Plasminogen activator inhibitor Hou et al, 2004 NM_000602 SERPINE1, PAI-1
*Pax8 Paired box gene Okladnova et al, 1997 NM_003466 PAX8
*PCBD 6-pyruvoyl-tetrahydropterin synthase Carter et al, 2002 NM_000317 PTS
Perforin Pore-forming effector molecule Zhou et al, 2002 NM_005041 PRF1
PGC-1β mitochondrial regulator PPAR-γ coactivator 1β Bakkar et. al. 2012
*PGK1 Phosphoglycerate kinase 1 Carter et al, 2002 NM_000291 PGK1
POMC Proopiomelanocortin Karalis et al, 2004; Asaba et al, 2007 NM_000939 POMC
Pregnancy-specific glycoprotein rnCGM3 Placental expression Wang et al, 2001 NM_019126 CGM3
Prodynorphin Neuropeptide Bakalkin et al, 1994 NM_024411 PDYN
Prostate-specific antigen Serum protein in prostate cancer Chen & Sawyers, 2002 NM_001030047 KLK3
PTEN Tumor suppressor Xia et al, 2007 NM_000314 PTEN
RAG-1 Immunoglobulin recombinase genes Verkoczy et al, 2005 NM_000448 RAG1
RAG-2 Immunoglobulin recombinase genes Verkoczy et al, 2005 NM_000536 RAG2
RbAp48 Retinoblastoma-associated protein 48 Pacifico et al, 2007 NM_005610 RBBP4
*RICK Adaptor Matsuda et al, 2003 NM_003821 RIPK2
SerpinE2 Serine protease inhibitor Suzuki et al, 2006 NM_006216 SERPINE2
S100A6 (calcyclin) Calcium binding protein Joo et al, 2003 NM_014624 S100A6
SH3BGRL SH3-binding glutamic acid-rich protein Majid et al, 2005 NM_003022 SH3BGRL
SK2 channels Small-conductance Ca2+-activated channels Kye et al, 2007 NM_021614 KCNN2
Skp2 S-phase kinase-associated protein 2 Schneider et al, 2006 NM_005983 SKP2
*Spergen-1 Sperm-specific mitochondrial protein Matsuoka et al, 2004 NM_174927 SPATA19
SWS1 Rainbow trout opsin Dann et al, 2004 NM_001708 OPN1SW
Syncytin-1 Env glycoprotein of endogenous human retrovirus Mameli et al, 2007 NM_014590 ERVWE1
Syndecan-4 Heparin sulfate proteoglycan Zhang et al, 1999 NM_002999 SDC4
TAUT Taurine Uptake Transporter Mochizuki et al, 2005 NM_003043 SLC6A6
TASK-2 Tandem P domain potassium channel Brazier et al, 2005 NM_003740 KCNK5
*Tissue factor pathway inhibitor-2 (TFPI-2) Serine protease inhibitor Konduri et al, 2003a, 2003b; Hube et al, 2003 NM_006528 TFPI2
*Transferrin (mosquito) Probable iron transport protein Harizanova et al, 2005 NM_001063 TF
TRIF TIR-containing adaptor protein inducing interferon beta Hardy et al, 2004 NM_014261 TICAM1
TRPC1 Thrombin activation of protease-activated receptor-1 Paria et al, 2006 NM_003304 TRPC1
*UBE2M Ubiquitin conjugating enzyme E2M Carter et al, 2002 NM_003969 UBE2M
*UCP-2 Uncoupling protein-2 Lee et al, 1999 NM_003355 UCP2
Uroplakin Ib Surface structural protein on urothelial cells Varga et al, 2004 NM_006952 UPK1B
25-hydroxyvtamin D3 1alpha hydroxylase Enzyme for liver vitamin D3 production Ebert et al, 2004 NM_000785 CYP27B1
Vimentin Intermediate filament protein Lilienbaum et al, 1990; Zheng et al, 2005 NM_003380 VIM
a1-antitrypsin Protease inhibitor Ray et al, 1995 NM_000295 SERPINA1
Gro-1 Growth regulated oncogene; chemokine Wood, 1995 NM_001511 CXCL1


Gene Function Reference
Adenovirus (E3 region) Adenovirus Williams et al, 1990
Avian Leukosis Virus Causes avian leukosis Bowers et al, 1996
Bovine Leukemia Virus Causes bovine leukemia Brooks et al, 1998
CMV Cytomegalovirus Sambucetti et al, 1989
EBV (Wp promoter) Epstein-Barr virus Sugano et al, 1997
HBV (pregenomic promoter) Hepatitis B virus Kwon & Rho, 2002
HIV-1 Human immunodeficiency virus Nabel & Baltimore, 1987; Griffin et al, 1989
HSV (ICP90, ICPO) Herpes simplex virus Rong et al, 1992; La Frazia et al, 2006
JC Virus Polyoma virus Ranganathan & Khalili, 1993
HPV type 16 Human Papillomavirus Fontaine et al, 2000
SIV Simian immunodeficiency virus Bellas et al, 1993
SV-40 Simian virus 40 Kanno et al, 1989

For 135 additional potential NF-kB target genes, which are predicted by computer-based methods to have  composite NF-kB/C/EBP regulatory sites, see Shelest et al., 2003.

For 9 additional potential NF-kB immune function target genes, see Liu et al., 2003.

For several hundred predicted NF-kB target genes in pancreatic cells, see Naamane et al, 2007.

For additional c-Rel-specific target genes, see Bunting et al, 2007.

For 23 possible additional NF-kB targets from microarrays see Takase et al, 2008

See also target gene information and binding sites.