# Introduction to MATLAB

MATrix LABoratory (MATLAB) is developed by The Mathworks, Inc. It is an interactive, integrated environment for numerical scientific computations and visualization, as well as symbolic computations, and others. MATLAB is known especially for its highly intuitive and interactive programming development and debugging environment which results in a relatively short development cycle compared with traditional compiled languages such as FORTRAN and C.

### Getting Started with MATLAB

• To start MATLAB in Windows: double click the desktop MATLAB icon
• To start MATLAB in Linux: enter `matlab` at the system prompt``` katana:~ % matlab```

In either case, a MATLAB command window appears, along with a >> prompt. Start entering any valid MATLAB commands at >>. The first example below demonstrates the use of a MATLAB utility function called `version` to query the current version of MATLAB you are using on this computer. Note that all typed characters to the right of the % symbol are is treated as comments or documentation for the line. Output, if any, appears immediately after the issuing of the command.

``````>> version   % this tells you the running MATLAB version

ans =

7.12.0.635 (R2011a)
``````

Throughout this tutorial, we will use this (%) inline comment feature to document the purposes of the commands. You should take advantage of this to document your own code wherever deemed appropriate to make clear your intentions for future reference.

``````
>> help         % lists available packages/toolboxes.
HELP topics:

matlab\general     - General purpose commands.
matlab\ops         - Operators and special characters.
matlab\lang        - Programming language constructs.
matlab\elmat       - Elementary matrices and matrix manipulation.
matlab\randfun     - Random matrices and random streams.
matlab\elfun       - Elementary math functions.
.  .  .  .  .  .
.  .  .  .  .  .

>> help elfun      % lists elementary math functions
Elementary math functions.

Trigonometric.
sin         - Sine.
sind        - Sine of argument in degrees.
.   .   .   .

>> help sin      % if you know function name but not it's usage
SIN    Sine of argument in radians.
SIN(X) is the sine of the elements of X.
.   .   .

>> lookfor cosine    % if you don't know the function name
acos                      - Inverse cosine, result in radians.
acosd                     - Inverse cosine, result in degrees.
acosh                     - Inverse hyperbolic cosine.
cos                       - Cosine of argument in radians.
.   .   .

>> doc sin     % spawns a new document window with details on sine

>> quit        % quits MATLAB
``````

### Rules on Variable Names

• Names are case sensitive, e.g., NAME and Name are 2 distinct names.
• Variable names begin with a letter, e.g., A2z or a2z. On the other hand, 2Az is not valid
• Names can be a mix of letters, digits, and underscores (e.g., vector_A)
• Cannot use reserved characters:    %    =    +   .   ~   ;   :     !     ‘     [   ]   (   )   ,   @     #     \$   &     ^
• Names can be up to 63 characters

### Reserved Characters   %   =   ;   ,

Some characters are reserved by MATLAB for various purposes. Some are arithmetic or matrix operators:

=,  +,  - ,  *,  / ,  \ and others are used to perform a multitude of operations. Reserved characters can not be used in variable, function, or file names.

``````
>> % text after % until end of line treated as comments
>>
>> a = 3     % define a to have the value 3

a =
3

>> a = 3; %  ;  suppresses printing
>>
>> b = 4; c = 5;  % ;  delimits multiple commands on same line
>>
>> d = 6, e = 7;  % ,  delimits commands but enables printing

d =
6
>> a#2=3   % illegal use of reserved character in variable name
??? a#2=3
|
Error: The input character is not valid in MATLAB statements or expressions.

``````

### Reserved Characters    :   [   ]   (  )

``````
>> x = 1:2:9   % define vector x with : operator (begin:interval:end)

x =
1     3     5     7     9

>> y = 3:5   % interval is defaulted to 1; same as y=[3:5]

y =
3     4     5

>> X = [1, 2, 3; 4, 5, 6]  % 2D array.
% [ ] prevents ambiguity for arrays
% ; concatenates vertically (new row)
% , concatenates horizontally  (new columns)

X =
1     2     3
4     5     6
``````

Parentheses, on the other hand, are used to specify the order of operations and express a statement more clearly. They are also used to refer to an element of a matrix.
``````
>> X(2,3)     % ( ) for subscripting;  why ans ?

ans =
6

``````

### Reserved Characters    ...   and    '

``````
>> x = [1 2 3 ...   % ... means to be continued
4 5 6]

x =

1     2     3     4     5     6

>> s = 'this is a character string';  % blanks preserved in quotes
>> x = [1 2 3]'    % ' is transpose (e.g., turns row into column)

x =
1
2
3

>> X = [1 2 3; 4 5 6]; size(X)   % size (dimensions) of X

ans =
2     3

>> X = [1 2 3; 4 5 6]; numel(X)  % number of elements in X

ans =
6

``````

### Reserved Character    ! (or system)

On occasions, there might be a need to perform tasks on the host system and return the output back to the MATLAB space. For this, you can enter the host system-based command, preceded with a !, at the MATLAB prompt.
``````
>> !dir     % runs a dos command on Windows host
Volume in drive C has no label.
Volume Serial Number is 6860-EA46
Directory of C:\Program Files\MATLAB704\work
01/31/2007  10:56 AM               .
01/31/2007  10:56 AM               ..
06/13/2006  12:09 PM                12 foo.exe
06/13/2006  08:57 AM                77 mkcopy.m

>> !ls -l   % runs a unix command on Linux host
total 0
-rw-r--r--  1 kadin scv 0 Jan 19 15:53 file1.m
-rw-r--r--  1 kadin scv 0 Jan 19 15:53 file2.m
-rw-r--r--  1 kadin scv 0 Jan 19 15:53 file3.m
>> system('ls  -l')   % more general form; also unix('ls  -l')
``````

### Array operations

``````
>> a = 1:3;        % a is a row vector
>> b = 4:6;        % b is a row vector
>> c = a + b       % c has same shape as a & b
c =
5     7     9
>> A = [a;b]   % combines rows to generate 2x3 matrix A
% what is the outcome of A=a;b  ?
A =
1     2     3
4     5     6

>> B = A'    % B is transpose of A
B =
1     4
2     5
3     6
``````

Other ways to create B ? (hint: with a and b )

### Matrix Operations

One of the many nice features of MATLAB is its ability to perform operations based on the properties of the operands. For instance, if a and b are scalars, then c = a * b is a scalar. However, if A and B are matrices, then * will be treated as a matrix multiply operator. As a result, the number of columns of A must match the number of rows of B.

``````>> C = A*B    % * is overloaded  as matrix multiply operator
C =
14    32
32    77

>> D = A.*A   % .* turns matrix multiply to elemental multiply
% i.e., Dij = Aij*Aij; for all i and j
D =
1     4     9
16    25    36

>> E = A./A   % elemental divide; Eij = Aij/Aij
E =
1     1     1
1     1     1

>> who        % list existing variables in workspace
A    B    C    D    E    a    b    d
``````

### Data Types

In many languages, programmers are required to declare variable data types, such as integer, float, character, and so on. In MATLAB, programmers are not required to declare the data types of variables. In MATLAB, the only default underlying data types are double and character. Essentially, a variable that is not defined between a pair of single quotes, such as a = 'this is a string' is considered a double precision number.
``````
>> whos     % detail listing of workspace variables
Name         Size          Bytes  Class
A         2x3              48  double array
B         3x2              48  double array
C         2x2              32  double array
D         2x3              48  double array
E         2x3              48  double array
a         1x3              24  double array
b         1x3              24  double array
c         1x3              24  double array
Grand total is 37 elements using 296 bytes

>> A = single(A);    % recast A to single data type to save memory
>> whos
Name         Size         Bytes  Class
A         2x3              24  single array
.   .   .   .

>> clear  % delete all workspace variables
``````

### For Loops

``````for k=1:5   % use for-loops to execute iterations / repetitions
for j=1:3
for i=1:4
a(i, j, k) = i + j + k;
end
end
end
``````

Utilities to initialize or define arrays: `ones, rand, eye, . . .`

Trigonometric and hyperbolic functions : `sin, cos, sqrt, exp, . . .`

These utilities can be used on scalar or vector inputs . . .

``````>> a = sqrt(5); v = [1 2 3]; A = sqrt(v);
``````

### if Conditional

Scalar operation . . .

``````a = zeros(3);
b = zeros(3);
for j=1:3
for i=1:3
a(i,j) = rand;     % use rand to generate a random number
if a(i,j) > 0.5
b(i,j) = 1;
end
end
end
``````

Equivalent vector operations . . .

``````
A = rand(3);      % A is a 3x3 random number double array
B = zeros(3);     % Initialize B as a 3x3 array of zeroes
B(A > 0.5) = 1;   % set B(i,j) to 1 if corresponding A(i,j) > 0.5
``````

Elemental Matrix Division
The purpose is to compute elemental division with the denominator matrix having zeroes. For those situations, `c` is to be set to 0.

Scalar form . . .

``````a = rand(4,3); b = rand(size(a)); c = zeros(size(b));
b(1,3) = 0; b(3,2) = 0;
for j=1:3
for i=1,4
if (b(i,j) ~= 0) then
c(i,j) = a(i,j)/b(i,j);
end
end
end``````

Equivalent vector form . . .

``````e = b~=0         % e is a logical array
e =

1      1      0
1      1      1
1      0      1
1      1      1

c(e) = a(e)./b(e)   % c = 0  ∀  b = 0
c =

0.9768    1.4940         0
2.3896    0.4487    0.0943
0.7821         0    0.2180
11.3867    0.0400    1.2741``````

In the above, `e` is a logical array and is used throughout the statement to avoid matlab dropping those elements that equal zero and hence make the equation's arrays with unmatched sizes. If c is not preallocated as 2D (with zeros), the operation
still works, but c would be a 1D array.

### Cell Arrays

A cell array is a special array of arrays. Each element of the cell array may point to a scalar,
an array, or another cell array.

``````>> C = cell(2, 3);   % create 2x3 empty cell array
>> M = magic(2);
>> a = 1:3; b = [4;5;6]; s = 'This is a string.';
>> C{1,1} = M; C{1,2} = a; C{2,1} = b; C{2,2} = s; C{1,3} = {1};
C =
[2x2 double]      [1x3 double]         {1x1 cell}
[2x1 double]      'This is a string.'    []
>> C{1,1}     % prints contents of a specific cell element
ans =
1     3
4     2
>> C(1,:)     % prints first row of cell array C; not its content
``````

Related utilities: iscell, cell2mat

### Structures

Ideal layout for grouping arrays that are related.

``````>> employee(1).last = 'Smith';  employee(2).last  = 'Hess';
>> employee(1).first = 'Mary';  employee(2).first = 'Robert';
>> employee(1).sex = 'female';  employee(2).sex = 'male';
>> employee(1).age = 45;        employee(2).age = 50;
>> employee(2)    % list contents of employee 2
ans =
last: 'Hess'
first: 'Robert'
sex: 'male'
age: 50
>> employee(:).last     % display last name of all employees
ans =
Smith
ans =
Hess
``````

To avoid seeing "ans", you can save the content to a variable first. Note however that because the last names vary in byte size, the variable should be a cell array.

``````>> a = {employee(:).last}    % a = employee(:).last would fail
a =

'Smith'    'Hess'
``````

Alternative style:

``````>> employee = struct('last',{'Smith','Hess'}, 'first',{'Mary','Robert'},
'sex',{'female','male'}, 'age',{45,50});
``````

Related utilities: isstruct, fieldnames, getfield, isfield

### File Types

There are many types of files in MATLAB :

• script m-files (.m) -- group of commands; reside in the same workspace from which it is invoked
• function m-files (.m) -- memory access controlled; parameters passed as input, output arguments; reside in own workspace
• mat files (.mat) -- binary (or text) files handled with save and load
• mex files (.mex) -- runs C/FORTRAN codes from m-file
• eng files (.eng) -- runs m-file from C/FORTRAN code
• C codes (.c) . C codes generated by MATLAB compiler
• P codes (.p) . converted m-files to hide source for security

Only script-, function-, and mat-files will be discussed.

### Script m-file

If you have a group of commands that are expected to be executed repeatedly, it is convenient to save them in a file so that you can just refer to the file name wherever you need to use it. Here is how you can create a file mytrig.m using the MATLAB editor.

``````>> edit mytrig.m   % invoke MATLAB editor;  enter following commands
a=sin(x);   % compute sine x (radians)
b=cos(x);   % compute cosine x (radians)
disp( [ 'a = '  num2str(a) ] )  % prints a and b on separate lines
disp( [ 'b = '  num2str(b) ] )  % [ ... ] constitutes a string array
``````

Select File/Save to save it as mytrig.m.

Note that x is NOT defined in the script m-file so you can set it prior to running it. A script m-file is designed to work in the same workspace (memory space) it is invoked in. The script mytrig.m has access to x as long as it is pre-defined.

As an example, we will define <eMx, then run mytrig.m (as a string of commands) :

``````>> x=30*pi/180; %  converts 30 degrees to radians
>> mytrig    % x is accessible to mytrig.m; both share same workspace
a = 0.5000
b = 0.8660
``````

### Function m-files

• A function m-file must be declared with the keyword function
• A function is encapsulated. It lives in its own workspace. All input and output variables to the function must be passed between the workspace from which the function is invoked and the function's own workspace.

As an example, use MATLAB editor to create a file that computes the average of a set of numbers:
>> edit average.m

``````function avg=average(x)
% function avg=average(x)
% Computes the average of x
% x      (input)   matrix for which an average is sought
% avg  (output) the average of x
avg = sum(x)/numel(x);    % the average
end
``````

Save the above with File/Save

Recommendation: save your file with the same name as your function name.

In the above, average is the function name and usually is also the file name to avoid confusion. All quantities (arrays and scalars) to be passed into the function appear as arguments (on the right hand side) to the function while the optional output appear on the left of the equal sign.

It may be called from a script, another function, or from the command line:

``````>> a = average(1:3)    % a = (1 + 2 + 3) / 3
a =
2
>> help average     % prints contiguous lines with % in average
``````

### Script or Function m-file ?

Scripts

• Pros:
• convenient; script’s variables are in same workspace as caller’s
• Cons:
• slow; script comands loaded and interpreted each time it is used
• risks of variable name conflict inside & outside of script

Functions

• Pros:
• Scope of function's variables is confined to within function. No worry of name conflict with those outside of function.
• What comes in and goes out are tightly controlled which helps when debugging becomes necessary.
• Compiled the first time it is used; runs faster subsequent times.
• Can easily be reused in another project.
• Auto cleaning of temporary variables.
• Cons:
• I/O is highly regulated, if the function requires many pre-defined variables, it is cumbersome to pass them in and out of the function. A script m-file is more convenient.

### Some Frequently Used Functions

``````
>> magic(n)      % creates a special n x n  matrix; handy for testing
>> zeros(n,m)    % creates n x m matrix of zeroes (0)
>> ones(n,m)     % creates n x m matrix of ones (1)
>> rand(n,m)     % creates n x m matrix of random numbers
>> repmat(a,n,m) % replicates a by n rows and m columns
>> diag(M)       % extracts the diagonals of a matrix M
>> help elmat    % list all elementary matrix operations (or elfun)
>> abs(x);       % absolute value of x
>> exp(x);       % e to the x-th power
>> fix(x);       % rounds x to integer towards 0
>> log10(x);     % common logarithm of x in base 10
>> rem(x,y);     % remainder of x/y
>> mod(x, y);    % modulus after division; unsigned rem
>> sqrt(x);      % square root of x
>> sin(x);       % sine of x; x in radians
>> acoth(x)      % inversion hyperbolic cotangent of x
``````

### MATLAB Graphics

• Line plot
• Bar graph
• Surface plot
• Contour plot
• MATLAB tutorial on 2D, 3D visualization tools as well as other graphics packages available in our tutorial series.

### Line Plot

``````
>> t = 0:pi/100:2*pi;
>> y = sin(t);
>> plot(t,y)
``````

### Line Plot - continues

``````
>> xlabel('t');
>> ylabel('sin(t)');
>> title('The plot of t vs sin(t)');
``````

### Line Plot - continues

``````
>> y2 = sin(t-0.25);
>> y3 = sin(t+0.25);
>> plot(t,y,t,y2,t,y3)   % make 2D line plot of 3 curves
>> legend('sin(t)','sin(t-0.25)','sin(t+0.25',1)``````

### Customizing Graphical Effects

Generally, MATLAB's default graphical settings are adequate which makes plotting fairly effortless. For more customized effects, use the get and set commands to change the behavior of specific rendering properties.

``````>> hp1 = plot(1:5)   % returns the handle of this line plot
>> get(hp1)    % to view line plot's properties and their values
>> set(hp1, 'lineWidth')   % show possible values for lineWidth
>> set(hp1, 'lineWidth', 2)     % change line width of plot to 2
>> gcf             % returns current figure handle
>> gca            % returns current axes handle
>> get(gcf)      % gets current figure's property settings
>> set(gcf, 'Name', 'My First Plot')   % Figure 1 => Figure 1: My First Plot
>> get(gca)     % gets the current axes.  property settings
>> figure(1)     % create/switch to Figure 1 or pop Figure 1 to the front
>> clf               % clears current figure
>> close          % close current figure; "close 3" closes Figure 3
>> close all     % close all figures``````
``` 2D Bar Graph >> x = magic(3); % generate data for bar graph >> bar(x) % create bar chart >> grid % add grid for clarity Save a Plot with print ```
``````>> x = magic(3);    % generate data for bar graph
>> bar(x)               % create bar chart
``````
• To add a legend, either use the legend command or use the insert command in the Menu Bar on the figure. Many other actions are available in Tools.
• It is convenient to use the Menu Bar to change a figure's properties interactively. However, the set command is handy for non-interactive changes, as in an m-file.
• Similarly, save a graph via the Menu Bar's File/'Save as' or
``>> print -djpeg 'mybar'      % file mybar.jpg saved in current dir``

### Use MATLAB Command or Function ?

Many MATLAB utilities are available in both command and function forms.

For this example, both forms produce the same effect:

```>> print  .djpeg  'mybar'    % print as a command
>> print('-djpeg', 'mybar')   % print as a function```

For this example, the command form yields an unintentional outcome:

```>> myfile = 'mybar';          % myfile is defined as a string
>> print .djpeg   myfile     % as a command, myfile is treated as text
>> print('-djpeg', myfile)    % as a function, myfile is treated as a variable```

Other frequently used utilities that are available in both forms are `save` and `load`

### Surface Plot

``````>> Z = peaks;   % generate data for plot
>> surf(Z)      % surface plot of Z
``````

Try these commands also:

``````>> shading flat
>> grid off
>> axis off
>> colorbar
>> colormap('winter')
>> colormap('jet')``````

### Contour Plots

``````>> Z = peaks;
>> contour(Z, 20)      % contour plot of Z with 20 contours
``````

``````
>> contourf(Z, 20);    % with color fill
>> colormap('hot')     % map option
>> colorbar            % make color bar
``````

### Integration Example

For a more practical example, we turn to numerical integration. While there are many integration techniques that are more efficient, we will use a mid-point integration for its simplicity. Lets consider the integration of cosine from 0 to π/2. In the following figure, 8 discrete increments are used for the numerical integration. In reality, of course, the number will be higher to get a reasonably accurate result. With a mid-point rule, the integrand is assumed to be constant within the increment (see the equation below).

In the above, a, b are, respectively, the lower and upper limits of integration while m is the number of increments. The increment, h, is determined by h = (b - a)/m.

``````% Integration with for-loop
tic
m = 100;             % number of increments
a = 0;               % lower limit of integration
b = pi/2;            % upper limit of integration
h = (b - a)/m;       % increment length
integral = 0;        % initialize integral
for i=1:m
x = a+(i-0.5)*h;   % mid-point of increment i
integral = integral + cos(x)*h;
end
toc
``````

``````% Integration with vector form
tic
m = 100;             % number of increments
a = 0;               % lower limit of integration
b = pi/2;            % upper limit of integration
h = (b - a)/m;       % increment length
x = a+h/2:h:b-h/2;   % mid-point of m increments
integral = sum(cos(x)*h);
toc
``````

In practically all cases, computations expressed with the vector form are significantly more efficient than its for-loop counterpart.

### Hands On Exercise

• Use the editor to write a program to generate the figure that describes the integration scheme we discussed. (Hint: use `plot` to plot the cosine curve. Use `bar` to draw the rectangles that depict the integrated value for each increment.) Save as plotIntegral.m
• Compute the integrals using 10 different increment sizes (h), for m=10, 20, 30, . . . , 100. Plot these 10 values to see how the solution converges to the analytical value of 1.

### Hands On Exercise Solution

``````a = 0;  b=pi/2;            % lower and upper limits of integration
m = 8;                     % number of increments
h = (b-a)/m;               % increment size
x= a+h/2:h:b-h/2;          % m mid-points
bh = bar(x,cos(x),1,'c');  % make bar chart with bars in cyan
hold                       % all plots superimposed on same figure
x = a:h/10:b;              % use more points to evaluate cosine
f = cos(x);                % compute cosine at x
ph = plot(x,f,'r');        % plots x vs f, in red
% Compute integral with multiple m to study convergence
for i=1:10
n(i) = 10+(i-1)*10;
integral(i) = sum(cos(x)*h);
end
figure   % create a new figure
plot(n, integral)
``````

### More Hands On Exercises

• How would you generalize the script for arbitrary a & b ?
• How to add a title ?
• How about x-, and y-label ?

### Where Can I Run MATLAB ?

There are a number of ways: