Table 3

Miscellaneous inhibitors to NF-kB

Inhibitor Molecule Effect or point of inhibition References
Azithromycin Inhibited expression of CD40 and CD86 Iwamoto et al, 2011
Conophylline (Ervatamia microphylla) Down regulated TNF-Receptors Gohda et al, 2003
MOL 294 (small molecule) Redox regulated activation of NF-kB Henderson et al, 2002
PEDF (pigment epithelium derived factor) ROS generation Yamagishi et al, 2004
Perrilyl alcohol Calcium pathway Berchtold et al, 2005
MAST205 TRAF6 binding Xiong et al, 2004
Rhein MEKK activation of NF-kB Martin et al, 2003′ Domagala et al, 2006
15-deoxy-prostaglandin J(2) PPARg activation of NF-kB Boyault et al, 2004
Palmitoylethanolamide PPARg activation of NF-kB Genovese et al, 2008
NSC697923 (small molecule) ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme Ubc13-Uev1A Pulvino et al, 2012
Acute alcohol binge Bcl-3 upregulation Bala et al, 2012
Antrodia camphorata extract IkBa upregulation Hsu et al, 2005
apigenin (4′,5,7-trihydroxyflavone) IkBa upregulation Shukla & Gupta, 2004
Aresenic trioxide IkBa upregulation Zhou et al, 2006
beta-amyloid protein IkBa upregulation Bales et al, 1998
Chromium Picolinate/ Histidinate IkBa upregulation Sahin et al, 2012
Huang-lian-jie-du-tang IkBa upregulation Hsu et al,2008
human breast milk IkBa upregulation Minekawa et al, 2004
Fruit Essential oil  (from Cinnamomum insularimontanum) IkBa upregulation; IKK and NF-kB downregulation Lin et al, 2008
FOXO3 IKK-β downregulation Luron et al, 2012
Surfactant protein A (SP-A) IkBa upregulation Wu et al, 2004
DQ 65-79 (aa 65-79 of the alpha helix of the alpha-chain of the class II HLA molecule DQA03011) IkBa upregulation and IKK inhibition Jiang et al, 2002
Cysteamine IkBa upregulation and RelA donsregulation Ozaki et al, 2007
C5a IkBa upregulation Riedemann et al, 2003
Down Syndrome candidate region 1 protein IkBa upregulation Kim et al, 2006
Glucocorticoids (dexamethasone, prednisone, methylprednisolone) IkBa upregulation Auphan et al, 1995; Brostjan et al, 1996; Ray & Prefontaine, 1994; Scheinman et al, 1995; Fong et al, 2007
IL-10 IkBa upregulation/DNA binding Ehrlich et al, 1998; Lentsch et al, 1997; Shames et al, 1998; Voboril & Weberova-Voborilova, 2007
IL-13 IkBa upregulation Ehrlich et al, 1998; Lentsch et al, 1997; Manna & Aggarwal, 1998
IL-11 IKKa; IkBa,IkBb upregulation Trepicchio & Dorner, 1998; Lgssiar et al, 2004
Mycoepoxydiene IkBa upregulation Wang et al, 2012
alpha-pinene IkBa upregulation Zhou et al, 2004
NEF (HIV-1) IkBa upregulation Qiao et al, 2006
Ometin IkBa upregulation Zhong et al, 2012
R-etodolac IkBa upregulation Neri et al, 2006
SR141716 IkBa upregulation Malfitano et al, 2007
Vitamin D IkBa upregulation Cohen-Lahav et al, 2006
Fox1j IkBb upregulation Lin et al, 2004
NSP1 (rotavirus) IkBa stabilizzation Sherry et al, 2009
Dioxin RelA nuclear transport Ruby et al, 2002
Agastache rugosa leaf extract Nuclear translocation Oh et al, 2005
Alginic acid Nuclear translocation Jeong et al, 2006
Allopurinol Nuclear translocation Aldaba-Muruato et al, 2011
Apilimod Nuclear translocation Billich, 2007
Astragaloside IV Nuclear translocation Zhang et al, 2003
Atorvastatin Nuclear translocation Haloui et al, 2003
Azacitidine Nuclear translocation Khong et al, 2008
Biaryl-based chalcones Nuclear translocation Zuo et al, 2012
Biophytum sensitivum Nuclear translocation Guruvayoorappan & Kuttan, 2008
Blue honeysuckle extract Nuclear translocation Jin et al, 2006
BMD (N(1)-Benzyl-4-methylbenzene-1,2-diamine) Nuclear translocation Shin et al, 2005
Buthus martensi Karsch extract Nuclear translocation Kim et al, 2005
Canine Distemper Virus Nuclear translocation Friess et al, 2005
Carbaryl Nuclear translocation Shimomura-Shimizu et al, 2005
Captopril Nuclear translocation He et al, 2007
Carnostic acid Nuclear translocation Yu et al, 2008
Celastrol Nuclear translocation Pinna et al, 2004
alpha-chaconine Nuclear translocation Shih et al, 2007
Chiisanoside RelA Nuclear translocation Won et al, 2005
CHS 828 Nuclear translocation Hassan et al, 2006
Corilagin Nuclear translocation Zhao et al, 2008
CP-1158 Nuclear translocation Kim et al, 2006
Dehydroxymethylepoxyquinomicin (DHMEQ) Nuclear translocation Chaicharoenpong et al, 2002; Katsman et al, 2007; Valera et al 2012
15-deoxyspergualin Nuclear translocation Hutchings et al, 2003
Dipyridamole Nuclear translocation Weyrich et al, 2005
Disulfiram Nuclear translocation Wang et al, 2003
Diltiazem Nuclear translocation; induced translocation of p50 dimers Severa et al, 2005
ERB-041 Nuclear translocation Xiu-Li et al, 2009
Eriobotrya japonica triterpene acids RelA nuclear translocation Huang et al, 2007
Eriocalyxin B Nuclear translocation/DNA binding Wang et al, 2006; Leung et al, 2006
Estrogen enhanced transcript Nuclear translocation Jin et al, 2003
Eutigoside C Nuclear translocation Lee et al, 2008
FAK-related nonkinase Nuclear translocation Qin & Liu, 2006
Florfenicol Nuclear translocation Zhang et al, 2008
beta-funaltrexamine Nuclear translocation Davis et al, 2007
Gangliosides Nuclear translocation Caldwell et al, 2003
Glucorticoid-induced leucine zipper protein (GILZ) Nuclear translocation Riccardi et al, 2001
Gymnocladus chinensis Baillon saponin Nuclear translocation Ma et al, 2007
Harpagophytum procumbens (Devil’s Claw) extracts Nuclear translocation Kaszkin et al, 2004
HDAC inhibitors sodium valproate, MS-275 RelB nuclear translocation; DNA binding Nencioni et al, 2007; Rao et al, 2007
Heat shock protein 72 Nuclear translocation Meldrum et al, 2003
Hirsutenone Nuclear translocation Kim et al, 2005
Huanglian Jiedu concocotion (geniposide, baicalin, berberine) Nuclear translocation Yuan et al, 2008
Indole-3-carbinol Nuclear translocation Rahman & Sarkar, 2005
JM34 (benzamide derivative) Nuclear translocation Carbonnelle et al, 2005
JSH-23 (4-Methyl- -(3-phenyl-propyl)-benzene-1,2-diamine Nuclear translocation Shin et al, 2004
KIOM-79 (combined plant extracts) Nuclear translocation Jeon et al, 2006
KL-1156 (6-Hydroxy-7-methoxychroman-2-carboxylic acid phenylamide) Nuclear translocation Kim et al, 2004; Kwak et al, 2007
Leptomycin B (LMB) Nuclear translocation Rodriguez et al, 1999
Levamisole Nuclear translocation Liu et al, 2004
Lidamycin Nuclear translocation Chen et al, 2007
Lycopus lucidus Turcz Nuclear translocation Lee et al, 2007
Magnolia ovovata extract Nuclear translocation Tanaka et al, 2007
MEB (2-(4-morpholynl) ethyl butyrate hydrochloride) Nuclear translocation Soderberg et al, 2004
Methimazole Nuclear translocation Crescioli et al, 2007
MNF (IkB-like Myxoma virus) Nuclear translocation Camus-Bouclainville et al, 2004
Montelukast Nuclear translocation; p65 HAT acitvity Wu et al, 2006; Tahan et al, 2008
NLS Cell permeable peptides (SN50) Nuclear translocation Lin et al, 1995
NSA9 (prothrombin fragment) Nuclear translocation Kim et al, 2008
2′,8″-biapigenin RelA nuclear translocation Woo et al, 2006
Divaricate saposhnikovia root RelA nuclear translocation Ge et al, 2007
Fineleaf schizonepeta herb RelA nuclear translocation Ge et al, 2007
Glimperide RelA nuclear translocation Jojima et al, 2008
Nucling RelA nuclear translocation Liu et al, 2004
o,o’-bismyristoyl thiamine disulfide (BMT) Nuclear translocation Shoji et al, 1998
Oregonin RelA nuclear translocation Lee et al, 2005
γ-Oryzanol (γ-ORZ) Nuclear translocation Sakai et al, 2012
Fermented Oyaksungisan (OY) Nuclear translocation Oh et al, 2012
1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-beta-d-glucose RelA nuclear translocation Kang et al, 2005
Pergolide Nuclear translocation Uberti et al, 2004
Platycodi radix extract RelA nuclear translocation Lee et al, 2004
Phallacidin Nuclear translocation Papakonstanti & Strounaras, 2004
Pimecrolimus Nuclear translocation Buchau et al, 2008
Piperine Nuclear translocation Pradeep & Kuttan, 2004
Pitavastatin Nuclear translocation Wang et al, 2006
PN-50 Nuclear translocation Letoha et al, 2005
POP2 Nuclear translocation Bedoya et al, 2007
Pravastatin Nuclear translocation Gu et al, 2007
Probiotics RelA nuclear translocation Bai et al, 2004
Propofol Nuclear translocation Jawan et al, 2008; He et al, 2008
RelA peptides (P1 and P6) Nuclear translocation Takada et al, 2004
Retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor-alpha Nuclear translocation Migita et al, 2004
Rhubarb aqueous extract RelA nuclear translocation Moon et al, 2005; Liu et al, 2008
Rolipram Nuclear translocation Sanchez et al, 2005; Ikezoe et al, 2004; Herve et al, 2008
Salvia miltiorrhoza Bunge extract Nuclear translocation Ding et al, 2005
SC236 (a selective COX-2 inhibitor) Nuclear translocation Wong et al, 2003
Selenomethionine Nuclear translocation Cherukuri et al, 2005
Sorafenib Nuclear translocation Echeverria et al, 2009
Cornuside RelA Nuclear translocation Kang et al, 2007
ShenQi compound recipe RelA Nuclear translocation Zhang et al, 2006
Sophorae radix extract Nuclear translocation Kwon et al, 2004
Sopoongsan Nuclear translocation Na et al, 2005
Sphondin (furanocoumarin derivative from Heracleum laciniatum) Nuclear translocation Yang et al, 2002
Src homology protein (SHP)-1 Nuclear translocation Wang et al, 2012
TAT-SR-IkBa; MTS-SR-IkBa Nuclear translocation Blackwell et al, 2004; Mora et al, 2005
Thymulin Nuclear translocation Dardenne et al, 2006
Tongxinluo Supermicro Powder Nuclear translocation Wu et al, 2007; Bu et al, 2008
Vaccinia virus (VACV) strain Western Reserve protein C4 Nuclear translocation Ember et al, 2012
violaxanthin RelA nuclear translocation Soontornchaiboon et al, 2012
Volatile anesthetic treatment Nuclear translocation Lee et al, 2004
White currant Nuclear translocation Rajakangas et al, 2008
Younggaechulgam-tang Nuclear translocation Shin et al, 2004
ZUD protein Activation of NF-kB; binds p105/RelA Zhang et al, 2004
ZAS3 protein RelA nuclear translocation; DNA competition Hong et al, 2003
Clarithromycin nuclear expression Ichiyama et al, 2001
Fluvastatin nuclear expression Azuma et al, 2004
Leflunomide RelA nuclear expression Yao et al, 2004
RASSF1A gene overexpression RelA nuclear expression Deng et al, 2005
VGX-1027 RelA nuclear expression Mangano et al, 2008
oxidized 1-palmitoyl-2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphorylcholine (OXPAPC) RelA expression Li et al, 2004
3C protease (Poliovirus) RelA expression (cleavage) Neznanov et al, 2005
5F (from Pteri syeminpinnata L) RelA expression He et al, 2005
AT514 (serratamolide) RelA expression Escobar-Diaz et al, 2005
Icariin RelA expression Xu et al, 2011
Sorbus commixta cortex (methanol extract) RelA expression Sohn et al, 2005
Astragalus membranaceus polysaccharide NF-kB expression Li et al, 2007
Azithromycin NF-kB expression Zhang et al, 2007
Cantharidin NF-kB expression He et al, 2005
Cornus officinalis extract NF-kB expression Li et al, 2005
Dan-shao-hua-xian NF-kB expression Wang & Cheng, 2008
Gamboic acid NF-kB expression Wang et al, 2008
Glycine NF-kB expression Laschke et al, 2007
Glycyrrhizic acid NF-kB expression Afnan et al, 2012
Korean mistletoe lectin NF-kB expression Khil et al, 2007
Lycium seed oil NF-kB expression Jiang et al, 2007
Meiduoluomi NF-kB expression Zhang et al, 2008
Neomycin NF-kB expression Garcia-Trapero et al, 2004
omapatrilat, enalapril, CGS 25462 NF-kB expression Pu et al, 2005
Onconase (Ranpirnase) NF-kB expression Tsai et al, 2004
Paeoniflorin NF-kB expression Liu et al, 2006
Pouterin RelA expression Boleti et al, 2008
Rapamycin NF-kB expression Lawrence et al, 2004
Sargassum hemiphyllum methanol extract NF-kB expression Na et al, 2005
Shenfu NF-kB expression Zhang et al, 2005; Wang et al, 2008
Tripterygium polyglycosides NF-kB expression Zhou et al, 2005
Triflusal nuclear expression Acarin et al, 2000
Verbascoside nuclear expression Paola et al, 2011
Zoledronic acid RelB, c-Rel expression Bringmann et al, 2007; Wypij et al, 2008
Chlamydiae CT441 protease Cleaves RelA Lad et al, 2007, 2007a
HSCO (hepatoma protein) Accelerates RelA nuclear export Higashitsuji et al, 2002
Andrographolide Covlalent adduct with Cys-62 of p50 Xia et al, 2004; Wang et al, 2007
Selencotyanates Covlalent adduct with Cys-62 of p50 Chen et al, 2007
Bee venom (melittin) DNA binding by binding to p50 Park et al, 2004; Moon et al, 2007
Ethyl pyruvate DNA binding by RelA thru Cys-38 Han et al, 2004
Abies georgei extracts DNA binding Yang et al, 2008
25-acetylcimigenol xylpoyranoside (from Black cohosh) DNA binding Qiu et al, 2007
1′-acetoxychavicol acetate DNA binding Ito et al, 2005
2-acetylaminofluorene DNA binding Kang et al, 2004; Jeon et al, 1999
Actinodaphine (from Cinnamomum insularimontanum) DNA binding Hsieh et al, 2004
Adiponectin DNA binding Ajuwon & Spurlock, 2004; Wu et al, 2007
ADP ribosylation inhibitors (nicotinamide, 3-aminobenzamide) DNA binding Le Page et al, 1998
AIM2 (Absent In Melanoma protein) overexpression DNA binding Chen et al, 2006
Albaconol DNA bindng Liu et al, 2008
Moderate alcohol intake DNA binding Mandrekar et al, 2006
7-amino-4-methylcoumarin DNA binding Kurokawa et al, 2003
Amrinone DNA binding Chanani et al, 2002
Angelicae Gigantis Radix extract DNA binding Kil et al, 2008
Angiopoietin-1 DNA binding Jeon et al, 2003
Anthocyanins (soybean) DNA binding Kim et al, 2006; Karlsen et al, 2007
Anti-Neu antibody + paclitaxel DNA binding Yin et al, 2007
(S)-armepavine DNA binding Liu et al, 2007
Arnica montana extract (sequiterpene lactones) DNA binding Kos et al, 2005
Artemisinin DNA binding Aldieri et al, 2003; Wang et al, 2006
Artepillin C DNA binding Paulino et al, 2008
Artesunate DNA binding Li et al, 2008
Arzanol DNA binding Appendino et al, 2007
Atrial Natriuretic Peptide (ANP) DNA binding; IkBa upregulation Gerbes et al, 1998; Kiemer et al, 2002
Atrovastat (HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor) DNA binding Bustos et al, 1998; Hernandez-Presa et al, 1998
Avocado-soybean unsaponifiables DNA binding Gabay et al, 2007
AvrA protein (Salmonella) DNA binding Collier-Hyams et al, 2002
Baicalein (5,6,7-trihydroxyflavone) DNA binding Suk et al, 2003
Bambara groundnut (Vignea subterranean) DNA binding Na et al, 2004
Benfotiamine (thiamine derivative) DNA binding Hammes et al, 2003
beta-catenin DNA binding Deng et al, 2002
beta-lapachone (a 1,2-naphthoquinone) DNA binding; IKKb Tzeng et al, 2003; Sumi & Kumagai, 2007
Biliverdin DNA binding Yamashita et al, 2004
Bisphenol A DNA binding Kim & Jeong, 2003
Bitter groud DNA binding Kobori et al, 2008
Bovine serum albumin DNA binding Zhang & Frei, 2002
Brazilian green propolis DNA binding Bae et al, 2005; Paulino et al, 2006
Bromelain DNA binding; proteolysis of TNF, IL-1 Hou et al, 2006; Huang et al, 2008; Chobotova et al, 2010
Calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase kinase (CaMKK) (and increased intracellular calcium by ionomycin, UTP and thapsigargin) DNA binding Chen et al, 2002
Calcitriol (1a,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3) DNA binding Harant et al, 1998; Chung et al, 2007
Campthothecin DNA binding Hentze et al, 2004
Cancer bush (Sutherlandia frutescens) DNA binding Na et al, 2004
Candesartan DNA binding Yu et al, 2007; 2007a
Cannabidiol DNA binding Esposito et al, 2006
Caprofen DNA binding Bryant et al, 2003
Capsiate DNA binding Sancho et al, 2002
Carbocisteine DNA binding Yasuda et al, 2006
Catalposide (stem bark) DNA binding Oh et al, 2002
Cat’s claw bark (Uncaria tomentosa; Rubiaceae); Maca DNA binding Aguilar et al, 2002; Valerio & Gonzales, 2005
CD43 overexpression DNA binding (RelA) Laos et al, 2004
CDX2 DNA binding Mutoh et al, 2007
Celecoxib and germcitabine DNA binding; nuclear translocation El-Rayes et al, 2004; Funakashi-Tago et al, 2008
Changtai granule DNA binding Liu et al, 2007
Cheongyeolsaseuptang DNA binding Kim et al, 2005
Chitosan DNA binding Seo et al, 2003; Chen et la, 2008
Chitooligosaccharides DNA binding Lin et al, 2006
Cinnamaldehyde, 2-methoxycinnamaldehyde, 2-hydroxycinnamaldehyde DNA binding/IKK Reddy et al, 2004; Lee et al, 2005; Kim et al, 2007; Liao et al, 2008
Chicory root (guaianolide 8-deoxylactucin) DNA binding Cavin et al, 2005
Chlorophyllin DNA binding Yun et al, 2005
Chondrotin sulfate from Styela clava tunic DNA binding Xu et al, 2008
Chondrotin sulfate proteoglycan degradation product DNA binding; nuclear translocation Rolls et al, 2006; Jomphe et al, 2007
Clarithromycin DNA binding Miyanohara et al, 2000
Cloricromene DNA binding Ianaro et al, 2004
CO-releasing molecules (CORM-2) DNA binding Sun et al, 2007
Cocaethylene DNA binding Tacker et al, 2006
Commerical peritoneal dialysis solution DNA binding Douvdevani et al, 1995
Compounds K and Rh(2) (from Panax ginseng) DNA binding/IKK Park et al, 2005; Choi et al, 2007; Chang et al, 2007
Cortex cinnamomi extract DNA binding Kwon et al, 2006
CP Compound (6-Hydroxy-7-methoxychroman-2-carboxylic acid phenylamide) DNA binding Rak Min et al, 2005
Cryptotanshinone DNA binding Zhou et al, 2005; Jeon et al, 2008
Cyanoguanidine CHS 828 DNA binding Johanson et al, 2006
Cytochalasin D DNA binding Kim et al, 2003
DA-9201 (from black rice) DNA binding Lee et al, 2005
Danshenshu (esp Salvionic acid B) DNA binding Jiang et al, 2001; Luo et al, 2008
(kB site) Decoy oligonucleotides DNA binding Kupatt et al, 2002; Morishita et al, 1997
Deoxypodophyllotoxin DNA binding Jin et al, 2008
Diallyl trisulfide DNA binding Zhu et al, 2007
Diamide DNA binding Toledano & Leonard, 1991
Diarylheptanoid 7-(4′-hydroxy-3′-methoxyphenyl)-1-phenylhept-4-en-3-one DNA binding Yadav et al, 2003
alpha-difluoromethylornithine (polyamine depletion) DNA binding Facchini et al, 2005
S-diclofenac (2-[92,6-dichlorphenyl-amino]benzeneacetic acid 4-[3H-1,2,dithiol-3-thione-5-y) pheny ester) DNA binding Li et al, 2007
7,7′-dihydroxy bursehernin DNA binding Pokharel et al, 2006
3,3′-diindolymethane DNA binding Kong et al, 2007; Rahman et al, 2007
DIM/13C DNA binding Li et al, 2005
Dimemorfan DNA binding Wang et al, 2008
Diterpenoids from Isodon rubescens or Liverwort Jungermannia DNA binding Leung et al, 2005; Kondoh et al, 2005
Docetaxel (Taxotere) DNA binding Banerjee et al, 2007
Dohongsamultang DNA binding Kim et al, 2007
DTD (4,10-dichloropyrido[5,6:4,5]thieno[3,2- d':3,2- d]-1, 2, 3-ditriazine) DNA binding Rioja et al, 2002
Duchesnea indica extract DNA binding Zhao et al,  2008
E1B (Adenovirus) DNA binding Limbourg et al, 1996
E3330 (quinone derivative) DNA binding Hiramoto et al, 1998; Kimura et al, 1997
Ellagic acid DNA binding Edderkaoui et al, 2008
Emodin DNA binding Guo et al, 2012
ent-kaurane diterpenoids (Croton tonkinensis leaves; Isodon excisus) DNA binding Giang et al, 2003; Hong et al, 2007
Epinastine hydrochloride DNA binding Kanai et al, 2006
(+)-Episesamin DNA binding Freise et al, 2011
Epoxyquinol A (fungal metabolite) DNA binding Li et al, 2002
Ergosterol peroxide, ergosterol, cervisterol (from Canthaellus cibarius) DNA binding Kobori et al, 2006; Kim et al, 2008
Erythromycin DNA binding/transactivation Ren et al, 2004; Desaki et al, 2004
Evans Blue DNA binding Sharma et al, 2004
Evodiamine DNA binding Choi et al, 2006
Fenoldopam DNA binding Aravindan et al, 2006
Fexofenadine hydrochloride DNA binding Asano et al, 2004
Fentanyl DNA binding Liu et al, 2006
Fibrates DNA binding Hirano et al, 2002
Fish oil feeding DNA binding Fan et al, 2004; Ma et al, 2007
FK778 DNA binding Zeyda et al, 2005
FLN29 overexpression DNA binding Mashima et al, 2005
FLICE-Like Inhibitory Protein (FLIP) DNA binding Bannerman et al, 2004
Flunixin meglumine DNA binding Bryant et al, 2003
Flurbiprofen DNA binding Fratelli et al, 2003
Flutamide DNA binding Shimizu et al, 2007
fMLP (bacterial peptide) DNA binding Eswarappa et al, 2008
Folimycin DNA binding Park et al, 2004
Fomes fomentarius methanol extracts DNA binding Park et al, 2004
Fucoidan DNA binding Haneji et al, 2005
G-120 (Ulmus davidiana Nakai glycoprotein) DNA binding; IkB increases Son et al, 2004; Lee et al, 2005
Gallic acid DNA binding Kim et al, 2005
Ganoderic acid DNA binding Jiang et al, 2008
Ganoderma lucidum (fungal dried spores or fruting body) DNA binding Sliva et al, 2002
Garcinol (fruit rind of Garcinia spp) DNA binding Hong et al, 2005
Gax (homeobox protein) DNA binding Patel et al, 2005
Geranylgeraniol DNA binding Espindola et al, 2005
Geranylgeranylacetone DNA binding Hayakawa et al, 2007
Ghrelin DNA binding Li et al, 2004
Gigantol (Cymbidium georingii) DNA binding Won et al, 2006
Gingyo-san DNA binding Yeh et al, 2007
Ginkgolide B DNA binding Nie et al, 2004
Ginseng saponin 20-O-b-D-glucopyranosyl-20(S)-protopanaxadiol DNA binding Choo et al, 2008
Glycyrrhizin DNA binding Wang et al, 1998; Yuan et al, 2006
H4/N5 (IkB-like proteins of Microplitis demolitor bracovirus) DNA binding Thoetkiattikul et al, 2005
Halofuginone DNA binding Leiba et al, 2006
Heat (fever-like) DNA binding Salanova et al, 2005
Helenalin (sesquiterpene lactone) DNA binding Kim et al, 2005
Hematein (plant compound) DNA binding Oh et al, 2001
Heparin DNA binding Lee et al, 2007
Herbal compound 861 DNA binding You et al, 2001
Hesperetin DNA binding Kim et al, 2006
HIV-1 Resistance Factor DNA binding Lesner et al, 2005
Hottuynia cordata Thunb extract DNA binding Kim et al, 2007
Hyaluronan DNA binding Yasuda & Nakamura, 2007
Hydroxyethyl starch DNA binding Tian et al, 2003; Feng et al, 2006
Hydroxyethylpuerarin DNA binding/Nucl Translocation Lou et al, 2004; 2007; Ding et al, 2007
Hypercapnic acidosis DNA binding Chonghaile et al, 2005
Hypericin DNA binding Bork et al, 1999
Hyperosmolarity DNA binding Lang et al, 2003
Hypothermia DNA binding Hassoun et al, 2003
Hydroquinone (HQ) DNA binding Pyatt et al, 1998
ICP27 (HSV-1) DNA binding Melchjorsen et al, 2006
Interleukin 4 (IL-4) DNA binding Manna & Aggarwal, 1998; Voboril & Weberova-Voborilova, 2007
IkB-like protein A238L (encoded by ASFV) DNA binding Powell et al, 1996; Revilla et al, 1998
Ilimaquinone DNA binding Lu et al, 1996
Indoxam DNA binding Sonaki et al, 2008
Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 DNA binding Williams et al, 2006
Irisilidone DNA binding Park et al, 2006
JNP3 DNA binding Yu et al, 2012
JSH-21 (N1-Benzyl-4-methylbenzene-1,2-diamine) DNA binding Min et al, 2004
Kamebakaurin DNA binding Lee et al, 2002
Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus K1 protein DNA binding Lee et al, 2002
Ketamine DNA binding Sun et al, 2004; Yu et al, 2007
KT-90 (morphine synthetic derivative) DNA binding Sueoka et al, 1998
Lactobacillus fermentum phospholipid DNA binding Frick et al, 2007
Lichochalcone E DNA binding Chang et al, 2007
Lignin DNA bindin Mitsuhashi et al, 2007
Linoleic acid DNA binding Zhao et al, 2005; Cui et al, 2006
Lithospermi radix DNA binding Chung et al, 2005
Lovastatin DNA binding Sun & Fernandes, 2003
Lornoxicam DNA binding Yin et al, 2008
Lucidenic acid DNA bindng Weng et al, 2007
Macrolide antibiotics DNA binding Nguyen et al, 2002
Malloapelta B DNA binding Van Luu et al, 2006
Mediterranean plant extracts DNA binding Stalinska et al, 2005
Mercaptopyrazine DNA binding Lim et al, 2004
2-methoxyestradiol DNA binding; 

Transactivation

Shimada et al, 2004; Takada et al, 2004
6-(Methylsulfinyl)hexyl isothiocyanate (Wasabi) DNA binding; 

Transactivation

Uto et al, 2005
Metals (chromium, cadmium, gold, lead, mercury, zinc, arsenic) DNA binding/IKK Shumilla et al, 1998; Yang et al, 1995; Zuscik et al, 2002; Momeny et al, 2009
Mevinolin, 5′-methylthioadenosine (MTA) DNA binding Law et al, 1992
Methylglyoxal DNA binding Laga et al,  2007
Mirtazapine DNA binding Zhu et al,  2008
Monomethylfumarate DNA binding Litjens et al, 2004
Morphine DNA binding Liu et al, 2006; Lin et al, 2007
Moutan cortex DNA binding Chung et al, 2007; Kim et al, 2007; Chun et al, 2007
Moxifloxacin DNA binding Werber et al, 2005; Shalit et al, 2005
Myricetin DNA binding Kang et al, 2005; Lee et al, 2007
NDPP1 (CARD protein) DNA binding Zhang & Fu, 2002
N-ethyl-maleimide (NEM) DNA binding Toledano & Leonard, 1991
Naringen DNA binding Kanno et al, 2005
Nicorandil DNA binding Katamura et al, 2005
Nicotine DNA binding Sugano et al, 1998
Nifedipine DNA binding Horiuchi et al, 2006; Tomita et al, 2008; Aoki et al, 2008
Nitric oxide-donating aspirin DNA binding Kashfi & Rigas, 2005
Nilvadipine DNA binding Iwasaki et al, 2005
Nitrosoglutathione DNA binding Kuo et al, 2004; Khan et al, 2005
NS1 (Influenza A) DNA binding Wang et al, 2000
NS3/4A (Hepatitis C virus) DNA binding Karayiannis, 2005
Extracts of Ochna macrocalyx bark DNA binding Tang et al, 2003
Leucine-rich effector proteins of Salmonella & Shigella (SspH1 and IpaH9.8) DNA binding Haraga & Miller, 2003
Oleic acid DNA binding Cui et al, 2006
Mediterranean diet (virgin olive oil) DNA binding Perez-Martinez et al, 2007; Brunelleschi et al, 2007
Melilotus suaveolens Ledeb extract DNA binding Zhao et al, 2007
Omega-3 fatty acids DNA binding Sethi, 2002
Orazipone DNA binding Sareila et al, 2007
Oridonin (diterpenoid from Rabdosia rubescens) DNA binding Ikezoe et al, 2005
p8 DNA binding Vasseur et al, 2004
1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucose DNA binding Oh et al, 2001
p202a (interferon inducible protein) DNA binding by p65 and p50/p65; increases p50 Ma et al, 2003
p21 (recombinant) DNA binding Khanna et al, 2005
PC-SPES (8 herb mixture) DNA binding Ikezoe et al, 2003; 2006
Panepoxydone DNA binding Erkel et al, 1996
Peptide nucleic acid-DNA decoys DNA binding Penolazzi et al, 2004
Pentoxifylline (1-(5′-oxohexyl) 3,7-dimetylxanthine, PTX) DNA binding Biswas et al, 1993; Wang et al, 1997; Ji et al, 2004
Peptide YY DNA binding Vona-Davis et al, 2004
Pepluanone DNA binding Corea et al, 2005
Perindopril DNA binding Li et al, 2005
Phellodendri cortex extract DNA binding Park et al, 2007
6(5H)-phenanthridinone and benzamide DNA binding Chiarugi, 2002
Phyllanthus amarus extracts DNA binding Kiemer et al, 2003
Phylligenin (lignan, Forsythia koreana) DNA binding Lim et al, 2008
Phyllostachys nigra var. henonis (bamboo) extract DNA binding Kim et al, 2007
PIAS1 (protein inhibitor of activatated STAT1) RelA DNA binding Liu et al, 2005
Pioglitazone (PPARgamma ligand) DNA binding Takagi et al, 2002; Xu et al, 2007; Xing et al, 2007
Pirfenidone DNA binding Tsuchiya et al, 2004; Nakanishi et al, 2004
Polyozellin DNA binding Jin et al, 2006
Ponapensin DNA binding Salim et al, 2007
Pregabalin; gabapentin DNA binding Park et al, 2008
Prenylbisabolane 3 (from Croton eluteria Bennett) DNA binding Campagnuoloe et al, 2005
Pro-opiomelanocortin DNA binding Liu et al, 2005
Procyandin B2 DNA binding Mackenzie et al, 2008
Prostaglandin E2 DNA binding and RelA nuclear translocation Min et al, 2002; Gomez et al, 2005
Protein-bound polysaccharide (PSK) DNA binding Zhang et al, 2003
PYPAF1 protein DNA binding Jeru et al, 2006
Pyridine N-oxide derivatives DNA binding Stevens et al, 2006
Pyrithione DNA binding Kim et al, 1999
Pyrrole-imidazole polyamides DNA binding Wurtz et al, 2006
Quinadril (ACE inhibitor) DNA binding Bustos et al, 1998; Hernandez-Presa et al, 1998
Quinic acid DNA binding Akesson et al, 2005
Raf Kinase Inhibitor Protein (RKIP) DNA binding Keller, 2004
Rapomycin DNA binding Dichtl et al, 2005
Raloxifene RelA DNA binding Olivier et al, 2006
Raxofelast DNA binding Altavilla et al, 2003
Reactive oxygen species DNA binding Yang et al, 2007
Rebamipide DNA binding Hahm et al, 2003
Red  and Siberian ginseng DNA binding Park et al, 2007; Lin et al, 2008
Rhus verniciflua Stokes fruits 36 kDa glycoprotein/ phenolic fraction DNA binding Ko et al, 2005; Jung et al, 2006; Oh et al, 2006
Ribavirin DNA binding Fiedler et al, 1996
Rifamides DNA binding Pahlevan et al, 2002
Ritonavir DNA binding Ikezoe et al, 2004
RNA aptamer to NF-kB DNA binding Mi et al, 2007; Wurster et al, 2009
Rosiglitazone DNA binding Gruden et al, 2005
Roxithromycin DNA binding Kim et al, 2004
Rungia pectinata (linn.) Nees extract DNA binding Zhao et al, 2008
Sanggenon C DNA binding Li et al, 2002
Santonin diacetoxy acetal derivative DNA binding Kim et al, 2006
Scapharca broughtonii factor DNA binding Kim et al, 2007
Secretory leukoprotease inhibitor (SLPI) DNA binding Jin et al, 1997: Greene et al, 2004; Taggart et al, 2005
Serotonin derivative (N-(p-coumaroyl) serotonin, SC) DNA binding Kawashima et al, 1998
Sesamin (from sesame oil) DNA binding Jeng et al, 2005
Shen-Fu DNA binding Qian et al, 2006
Short chain fatty acids (sodium butyrate, sodium phenylbutyrate, sodium phenylacetate) DNA binding Park et al, 2007; Debierre-Grockiego et al, 2007; Kuefer et al, 2007; Tedelind et al, 2007
Siah2 DNA binding Habelhah et al, 2002
Silibinin DNA binding Schumann et al, 2003
Simvastatin DNA binding/IkB phosphorylation Li et al, 2002; Kalyanasundaram et al, 2006; Lee et al, 2007
Sinomenine DNA binding/nuclear translocation Chen et al, 2004; Zhao et al, 2007
SIRT1 Deacetylase overexpression DNA binding Chen et al, 2005
Siva-1 DNA binding Gudi et al, 2006
SM-7368 (small molecule) DNA binding Lee et al, 2005
Sodium tanshinone IIA sulfonate DNA binding Xu et al, 2008
Solanum nigrum L. 150 kDa glycoprotein DNA binding Heo et al, 2004; Lee & Lim, 2006; Oh & Lim, 2006
SP100030 DNA binding Moore-Carrasco et al, 2007
Styrax japonica terpenes and lignans DNA binding Yun et al, 2006
Suberosin DNA binding Chen et al, 2006
Sulfasalazine DNA binding Egan & Sandborn, 1998
SUN C8079 DNA binding Matsumori et al, 2004
Surfactant protein A DNA binding Alcorn & Wright, 2003
Sword brake fern extract DNA binding Wu et al, 2003
(+) Syringaresinal-di-O-beta-d-glucoside DNA binding Yamazaki et al, 2007
T-614 (a methanesulfoanilide anti-arthritis inhibitor) DNA binding Aikawa et al, 2002
Talosin A DNA binding Hwang et al, 2009
Tanacetum larvatum extract DNA binding Petrovic et al, 2003
Tansinones (Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, Labiatae roots) DNA binding Choi et al, 2004
Taurine + niacine DNA binding Giri, 2003; Kim & Kim, 2005
Temozolomide DNA binding Yamini et al, 2007
Tetramethylpyrazine DNA binding Cheng et al, 2006
Tobacoo smoke DNA binding Zhong et al, 2006
Tom1 (target of Myb-1) overexpression DNA binding Yamakami & Yokosawa, 2004
Thiazolidinedione MCC-555 DNA binding Kurebayashi et al, 2005; Ohga et al, 2006
Trachelospermi caulis extract DNA binding Lee et al, 2007
Transdominant p50 DNA binding Logeat et al, 1991
Trichostatin A; 4-Me(2)N-BAVAH RelA DNA binding Hu & Colburn, 2005; Papeleu et al, 2007
Triclosan plus cetylpyridinium chloride DNA binding Kim et al, 2005
Triptolide (PG490, extract of Chinese herb) DNA binding/transactivation Qiu et al, 1999; Kim et al, 2004; Yinjun et al, 2005; Jang et al, 2007; Chang et al, 2007; He et al, 2007; Liou et al, 2008
Tyrphostin AG-126 DNA binding Moore et al, 2003
UNBS1450 01 (from C procera) DNA binding Juncker et al, 2009
Uranyl acetate DNA binding Hartsock et al, 2007
Ursolic acid DNA binding Hsu et al, 2004
Uteroglobin DNA binding Mandal et al, 2004
V,C proteins (Sendai virus) DNA binding Komatsu et al, 2004
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) DNA binding Oyama et al, 1998; Gabrilovich et al, 1998
Verapamil DNA binding Li et al, 2006
Wei-Pi-Tang-Hab-Wu-Ling-San extract DNA binding Jung et al, 2007; Seok et al, 2008
Withaferin A DNA binding; IKKb; proteasome Mohan et al, 2004; Kaileh et al, 2007; Yang et al, 2007; Singh et al, 2007
Wogonin (5,7-dihydroxy-8-methoxyflavone) DNA binding Lee et al, 2003; Piao et al, 2004;
Xanthohumol (a hops prenylflavonoid) DNA binding Colgate et al, 2006
Xanthorrhizol DNA binding Chung et al, 2007
Xylitol DNA binding Han et al, 2005
Yan-gan-wan DNA binding Yang et al, 2005
Yan Xin Qigong DNA binding Yan et al, 2007
YC-1 DNA binding Lu et al, 2007
Yin-Chen-Hao DNA binding Cai et al, 2006
Yucca schidigera extract DNA binding Marzocco et al, 2004; Cheeke et al, 2006
Zapotin (from Caimiroa edulis) DNA binding Maiti et al, 2007
Overexpressed ZIP1 DNA binding Khadeer et al, 2005
Zyflamend DNA binding Sandur et al, 2007
Plant compound A (a phenyl aziridine precursor) DNA binding and transactivation De Bosscher et al, 2005
L(pro) (Foot & Mouth Disease Virus) RelA degradation de Los Santos et al, 2007
8-acetoxy-5-hydroxyumbelliprenin (from Asafetida) Transactivation Appendino et al, 2006
agonist for the A(3) adenosine receptor Transactivation Varani et al, 2012
AMP-activated protein kinase Transactivation Cacicedo et al, 2004
APC0576 Transactivation Yuzawa et al, 2003
Artemisia sylvatica sesquiterpene lactones Transactivation (reporter assays) Jin et al, 2004
Artemisolide Transactivation; IKKb Reddy et al, 2006; Kim et al, 2007
Asteraceae sesquiterpene lactones (enhydrin, tetraludin A, repandins A, B, D, E) Transactivation Ma et al, 2006
BSASM (plant extract mixture) Transactivation (reporter assays) Lee et al, 2005
Bifodobacteria Transactivation Riedel et al, 2006
Breast cancer metastasis suppressor 1 (BRMS1) Transactivation Samant et al, 2007
Bupleurum fruticosum phenylpropanoids Transactivation Bremner et al, 2004
Blueberry and berry mix (Optiberry) Transactivation Atalay et al, 2003
BZLF1 (EBV protein) Transactivation Morrison et al, 2004
ceramide-1-phosphate Transactivation Hankins et al, 2011
Chromene derivatives Transactivation Cheng et al, 2003
D609 (phosphatidylcholine-phospholipase C inhibitor) Transactivation Bergmann et al, 1998
Dehydroevodiamine Transactivation Noh et al, 2006
4′-demethyl-6-methoxypodophyllotoxin (lignan of Linum tauricum Willd. ssp. tauricum) Transactivation Vailev et al, 2005
5alpha-dihydrotestosterone Transactivation Itoh et al, 2007
Ethyl 2-[(3-methyl-2,5-dioxo(3-pyrrolinyl)) 

amino]-4-(trifluoromethyl)

pyrimidine-5-carboxylate

Transactivation Palanki et al, 2002
Chemical library inhibitors Transactivation Lee et al, 2007
CHFR RelA Transactivation Kashima et al, 2009
Cycloprodigiosin hycrochloride Transactivation Kamata et al, 2001
DC-81 Transactivation Hu et al, 2008
Dimethylfumarate (DMF) Nuclear translocation Loewe et al, 2002; Meili-Butz et al, 2008
E1A (Adenovirus) Transactivation Cook et al, 2002
Eckol/Dieckol (seaweed E stolonifera) Transactivation Joe et al, 2006
Ethanol Transactivation Klei & Barchowsky, 2008
FAD24 RelA transactivation Johmura et al, 2008
Feijoa sellowiana Berg Fruit extract Transactivation Rossi et al, 2007
Fructus Benincasae Recens extract Transactivation Kwon et al, 2003
Gallotannins Transactivation Lee et al, 2007
Glucocorticoids (dexametasone, prednisone, methylprednisolone) Transactivation and increases IkBa levels Auphan et al, 1995; Brostjan et al, 1996; Ray & Prefontaine,1994; Scheinman et al, 1995
Glcodelin-A Transactivation Tee et al, 2008
Gypenoside XLIX (from Gynostemma pentaphyllum) Transactivation (PPAR-alpha-dependent) Huang et al, 2006
Hesperidin Transactivation Yeh et al, 2007
Heterocyclic ring-substituted pyrimidines Transactivation Ha et al, 2007
Histidine Transactivation Son et al, 2005
HIV-1 protease inhibitors (nelfinavir, ritonavir, or saquinavir) Transactivation Equils et al, 2004
4-Hydroxykobusin Transactivation Pokharel et al, 2007
ICT (3, 5, 7-Trihydroxy-4′-methoxy-8-(3-hydroxy-3- methylbutyl)-flavone) Transactivation Wu et al, 2011
IE2p86 (CMV) Transactivation Gealy et al, 2007
N-aminoimidazole derivatives (NR-818) Transactivation Stevens et al, 2007
Kwei Ling Ko (Tortoise shell-Rhizome jelly) Transactivation Yip et al, 2005
Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort root Transactivation Liu et al, 2005
Low gravity Transactivation Boonyaratanakornkit et al, 2005
Lys-Pro-Val tripeptide Transactivation Dalmasso et al, 2007
LZAP Transactivation Wang et al, 2007
Nobiletin Transactivation/DNA binding Murakami et al, 2005; Choi et al, 2007
NRF (NF-kB repression factor) Transactivation Jianfeng et al, 2004
Paeonol (from Mountain Cortx) Transactivation Ishiguro et al, 2006;Tsai et al, 2008
Phenethylisothiocyanate Transactivation Gerhauser et al, 2003
4-phenylcoumarins (from Marila pluricostata) Transactivation Bedoya et al, 2005
Phomol Transactivation Weber et al, 2004
Pimpinella oils Transactivation Tabanca et al, 2007
PIAS3 Transactivation Jang et al, 2004
Pranlukast Transactivation Ichiyama et al, 2003; Ishinaga et al, 2004
Psychosine Transactivation Haq et al, 2003
Pycnogenol Transactivation Matsumori et al, 2007
Quinazolines Transactivation Tobe et al, 2003
Resveratrol RelA nuclear localization and transactivation Manna et al, 2000; Pendurthi et al, 2002;; Kang et al, 2009
RO31-8220 (PKC inhibitor) Transactivation Bergmann et al, 1998
Saucerneol D and saucerneol E Transactivation Hwang et al, 2003
SB203580 (p38 MAPK inhibitor) Transactivation Bergmann et al, 1998
SB216763 (GSK-3β inhibitor) Transactivation Die et al, 2012
Selenium Transactivation Christensen et al, 2007; Youn et al, 2008
SH protein (Mumps virus) Transactivation Wilson et al, 2006
Silica-ceramic Transactivation Huang et al, 2006
Streptochlorin Transactivation Choi et al, 2007
Tranilast [N-(3,4-dimethoxycinnamoyl)anthranilic acid] Transactivation Spiecker et al, 2002
3,4,5-trimethoxy-4′-fluorochalcone Transactivation Rojas et al, 2003
Uncaria tomentosum plant extract Transactivation Akesson et al, 2003
LY294,002 Transactivation Sizemore et al, 1999
Anatabine citrate RelA phosphorylation &  transactivation Paris et al, 2011; 2013
Mesalamine RelA phosphorylation &  transactivation Egan et al, 1999
Mesuol RelA phosphorylation &  transactivation Marquez et al, 2005
Multivalent liposomal antibodies (trastuzumab and rituximab) RelA phosphorylation and transactivation Chiu et al, 2007
PTX-B (pertussis toxin binding protein) RelA phosphorylation and transactivation Iordanskiy et al, 2002
Pyrolae herba extract RelA phosphorylation and transactivation Lee et al, 2007
9-aminoacridine (9AA) derivatives (including the antimalaria drug quinacrine) RelA phosphorylation and transactivation Gurova et al, 2005
SK-126 RelA phosphorylation Kang et al, 2007
Tetrandrine RelA phosphorylation He et al, 2011
Adenosine and cyclic AMP Transactivation Majumdar & Aggarwal, 2003; Minguet et al, 2004
17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin Transactivation Rakitina et al, 2003
5-Aminoisoquinolinone Transactivation Wu et al, 2012
6-aminoquinazoline derivatives Transactivation Tobe et al, 2003
Luteolin p65 Transactivation Kim et al, 2003; Chen et al, 2007
Manassantins A and B p65 Transactivation Lee et al, 2003; Son et al, 2005
MYBBP1a p65 Transactivation Owen et al, 2006
Paromyxovirus SH gene products Transactivation Wilson et al, 2006
Qingkailing and Shuanghuanglian (Chinese medicinal preparations) Transactivation Chen et al, 2002
Smilax bockii warb extract (flavenoids) Transactivation Xu et al, 2005
Soyasaponin Ab Transactivation Lee et al, 2011
Sphingosine-1-phosphate Transactivation Hughes et al, 2008
Telithromycin Transactivatiion Leiva et al, 2008
Tetracyclic A Transactivation (ROS production) Turbyville et al, 2005
Tetrathiomolybdate Transactivation Pan et al, 2002
Trilinolein Transactivation Liu et al, 2004
Troglitazone Transactivation Ruan et al, 2003
Valerenic acid/acetylvalerenolic acid Transactivation Jacobo-Herrera et al, 2006
Witheringia solanacea leaf extracts Transactivation Jacobo-Herrera et al, 2006
Wortmannin (fungal metabolite) Transactivation Reddy et al, 1997; Manna & Aggarwal, 2000
Xia-Bai-San Transactivation Yeh et al, 2006
Alpha-zearalenol Transactivation Li et al, 2005
Antithrombin (III) RelA-p300 interaction; IkB phosphorylation Uchiba et al, 2004; Hagiwara et al, 2007
Extract of the stem bark of Mangifera indica L. NF-kB mRNA expression Leiro et al, 2004
Rifampicin Glucocorticoid receptor modulation Yerramesetti et al, 2002
Mangiferin Inhibition of RelA and RelB expression Leiro et al, 2004
Shigella flexneri OspF protein Histone H3 phosphatase Arbibe et al, 2006
Human CD4(+)CD25(hi)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (T(regs)) Inhibition of Ca2+ signals Schmidt et al, 2011