Real-Time X-ray Studies of Materials Processes
Our research investigates how materials evolve on atomic and nano- length scales during growth, patterning or electrochemical function using real-time x-ray techniques. Many of the experiments use the high brightness of synchrotron x-ray sources – the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS-II) at Brookhaven National Laboratory on Long Island, the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory outside of Chicago, the Cornell High-Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS) at Cornell, and the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) at SLAC. Where possible, our research makes contact with fundamental theory and simulation. In the last few years, our detailed interest has been in two directions – understanding surface and thin film processes and studying the relationship between atomic structure and function in solid oxide fuel cell cathodes.
“Using Coherent X-rays to Directly Measure the PropagationVelocity of Defects During Thin Film Deposition”, Jeffrey G. Ulbrandt, Meliha G. Rainville, Christa Hoskin, Suresh Narayanan, Alec R. Sandy, Hua Zhou, Karl F. Ludwig, Jr. and Randall L. Headrick, Nature Physics 12, 794 (2016).
“Co-GISAXS as a New Technique to Investigate Surface Growth Dynamics”, M.G. Rainville, C. Hoskin, J.G. Ulbrandt, S. Narayanan, A.R. Sandy, H. Zhou, R.L. Headrick and K.F. Ludwig, Jr., Phys. Rev. B 92, 214102 (2015).
“Model-Independent Test of the Crater Function Theory of Surface Morphology Evolution during Ion Bombardment”, E. Anzenberg, J. Perkinson, M. Aziz and K. Ludwig, Phys. Rev B 89, 115433 (2014).
“Nanoscale Surface Pattern Formation Kinetics on Germanium Irradiated by Kr+ Ions”, E. Anzenberg, J.C. Perkinson, C.S. Madi, M.J. Aziz and K.F. Ludwig, Jr., Phys. Rev. B 86, 245412 (2012)
“High Contrast X-ray Speckle from Atomic-Scale Order in Liquids and Glasses”, S. Hruszkewycz, M. Sutton, P. Fuoss, B. Adams, S. Rosenkranz, K.F.Ludwig, W. Roseker, D. Fritz, M. Cammarata, D. Zhu, S. Lee, H. Lemke, C. Gutt, A. Robert, G. Gruebel and G.B. Stephenson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 185502 (2012).
For a full list of publications, please see the attached CV.