Associate Professor, Associate Chair


Women’s, Gender & Sexuality Studies Program, Department of Psychological & Brain Sciences

Areas of Expertise

Adaptive developmental plasticity in sex-typical traits; evolutionary origins of sex/gender differences

View Professor Hodges-Simeon’s CV here (Continuously updated on Drop Box)



Carolyn Hodges-Simeon is an interdisciplinary social scientist, utilizing method and theory in human evolutionary biology, behavioral ecology, and biomedical anthropology to understand the origins and consequences of human biological and developmental variation.

Her work has two complementary threads. First, she seeks to understand adaptive developmental plasticity in sex-typical traits by studying the emergence of these traits during puberty and adolescence. In other words, how does the unfolding of development in boys and girls respond adaptively to social, ecological, and cultural inputs from the environment?

The second thread of her work emphasizes the evolutionary origins of sex/gender differences. She uses laboratory-based methods to test theories about the role of intra- and intersexual selection on the origins of sexually dimorphic vocal characteristics in humans.

Selected Publications

  • Hodges-Simeon, C.R., Weinberg, S., Albert, G., Gurven, M., & Gaulin, S.J.C. (2021). Is male facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR) a product of sexual selection? A life course approach. PLoS ONE 16(3): e0240284. [DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0240284]

  • Hodges-Simeon, C.R. , Grail, G., Albert, G.*, Groll, M.T., Stepp, C.E., Carré, J.M. & Arnocky, S. (2021). Testosterone therapy masculinizes speech and gender presentation in transgender men. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 1-10. [DOI: 10.1038/s41598-021-82134-2]

  • Arnocky, S., Hodges-Simeon, C.R., Davis, A., Desmarais, R., Greenshields, A., Liwski, R., Quillen, E., Cardenas, R., Breedlove, S.M., & Puts, D.A. (2021). Heterozygosity of the major histocompatibility complex predicts later self-reported pubertal maturation in males. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 1-10. [DOI:]


  • Human Biology, Behavior, and Evolution (AN102)
  • Evolutionary Psychology (AN234)
  • The Evolution of Human Life History (AN330/730)
  • Evolutionary Medicine (AN555)
  • Evolutionary Endocrinology (AN559)
  • A Natural History of the Human Pair Bond (AN597)