Volume 46, Number 3
IN THIS ISSUE
- RETIRING PRESIDENT MEYERS HONORED AT SPRING MEETINGS . . . 1
- ASOR SETTLES INTO NEW QUARTERS . . . 1
- CAP TOUR FINDS FIELD RESEARCH FAST PACED . . . 2
- CALL FOR NOMINATIONS TO ASOR BOARD OF TRUSTEES . . . 3
- OUTREACH EDUCATION . . . 4
- ASOR NEWSLETTER A "KEEPER" . . . 5
- FROM THE PUBLICATIONS DESK . . . 6
- GEOLOGIC CORING AND PALEOENVIRONMENTAL RECONSTRUCTION OF THE ANCIENT HARBOR AT PAPHOS, WESTERN CYPRUS Richard K. Dunn . . . 7
- NEWS FROM CAARI . . . 8
- HAVE DOMINION OVER EVERY LIVING THING: THE DAILY USE OF ANIMALS IN ANCIENT ISRAEL Oded Borowski . . . 9
- THE PROMONTORY PALACE AT CAESAREA: FINAL STUDIES Kathryn L. Gleason . . . 10
- TELL EN-NASBEH: THE CERMAIC DATING OF STRATA 1 to 5 Jeffrey Zorn . . . 11
- THE MILITARY INTERACTION OF EGYPT WITH THE SOUTHERN LEVANT DURING THE LATE BRONZE/EARLY IRON AGE TRANSITION Michael G. Hasel . . . 12
- ANNUAL MEETING PROGRAM AND ABSTRACTS . . . 13
- THE BUREAUCRACY OF TRADE IN THE LATE BRONZE AGE EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN Nicolle Hirschfeld . . . 21
- NEWS AND NOTICES . . . 24
- HOT OFF THE PRESS . . . 27
- ASOR E-MAIL DIRECTORY . . . 28
- EVENTS CALENDAR . . . 29
In addition to a plaque commemorating his term of presidential service to ASOR, Meyers was also given an original seriograph entitled "Peace is our gift to you" created by Patty O'Connor-Seger. In expressing warm thanks and congratulations on behalf of the whole ASOR constituency, Seger concluded the presentation stating "Eric, part of your vision is fulfilled! May we all together continue to pursue it!"
I can't possibly mention the names of all the people who went out of their way at Boston University to get us settled in. From the President of the University to plant operations, everyone has been great. It is taking time to become familiar with the paperwork, code numbers and who deals with what, but people like Jean Holtman, Assistant Director of Personnel, Dr. Julie Hansen, Chair of the Department of Archaeology, and Evelyn LaBree, Department Administrator, have been a tremendous help. Mark Meister and his AIA staff welcomed us warmly when we arrived, and have been available to help or give advice when we needed it.
We have had some excellent temporary help from Department of Archaeology students until we are able to find a replacement for Pam Turner through the University personnel system. We have contracted with Wallace Niedzwiecki to handle our accounting, so we are catching up with our general ledger, monthly reports and spread sheets, and bills are being paid by someone other than myself. We are looking forward to having our staff set early in October.
ACOR is operating effectively with Carrie Nee settled into the ACOR area with its view of the Charles River, on the opposite end of the floor from where I overlook Kenmore square and can see Fenway Park a little way off to the south. CAARI and AIAR trustees have visited to see their office space. AIAR has also contracted with Wally Niedzwiecki to do its accounting and we are planning on hiring work-study students to help them, the ASOR centennial effort, and to work on Tell Qarqur materials.
We look forward to a long, productive and exciting time for ASOR in Boston, and again thank our friends and colleagues in the Boston area for their help.
Executive Director, ASOR Boston
Contact was made with nineteen ASOR-affiliated project groups, three in Cyprus, seven in Israel, one in territory of the Palestine National Authority, and eight in Jordan. Formal conversations were also held with the Directors of Antiquities Departments in both Israel and Jordan, and visits were made to a number of other excavation sites, projects, and institutes where Americans are working and/or are participating in an instrumental way.
In-country assistance was provided by the directors and staff of each of the three ASOR-affiliated overseas centers, CAARI, ACOR, and AIAR. At each, opportunities were taken to discuss activities, problems and concerns related to local operations. Special discussions were also conducted regarding ways that ASOR can better support each center's work, and better articulate the services members of the ASOR constituency can expect from each of them.
Overall, the tour found the pace of ASOR-related research activity in the region to be intense and exciting. Details of the projects themselves will begin appearing shortly on-line on the World Wide Web through the Cobb Institute of Archaeology web site at http://www.cobb.msstate.edu at "ASOR Digs 96." More detailed reports will form the core of presentations at the November Annual Meetings in New Orleans.
Joe D. Seger, Former Chair
Committee on Archaeological Policy
- Three (3) trustees from the Corporation to be elected by representatives of Founding, Consortium, and Advisory ("Corporate") Members, to serve July 1, 1997 through June 30, 2000.
- Three (3) trustees from the individual members to be elected by individual voting members, to serve July 1, 1997 through June 30, 2000. (NOTE: As currently defined, an ASOR "Individual Voting Member" is one that pays Professional Member dues of $110 and receives BA and BASOR.)
- Candidates must be members of ASOR in good standing, willing to serve a three-year working term and to attend both fall and spring meetings. A one-paragraph biography should accompany the nomination.
Current list of Trustees:
Class of 1997 Class of 1998 Class of 1999 C. Harris D. Albright W. Aufrecht (Corp) P. MacAllister P. Burger J. Blakely (Ind) J. Ross J. Cooper W. Dever (Corp) J. Seger N. Frederick W. H. Gibbs (Board) G. Vincent G. Thompson H. Hendrix (Board) W. Rast E. Campbell P. Jacobs (Corp-ex officio) D. Wimmer T. Schneider A. Leonard (ex officio) E. Meyers (Ind) All 1997 and 1998 Trustees were R. Scheuer (Board) elected by the Board before the L. Shufro (Ind) restructuring of ASORNominations will be accepted through November 19, 1996, by the Nominations Committee for the following committee positions:
- One (1) Agenda Committee member from the Corporation to be elected by representatives of Founding, Consortium and Advisory ("Corporate") Members, to serve July 1, 1997 through June 30, 1999.
- One (1) Agenda Committee member from the individual members to be elected by individual voting members, to serve July 1, 1997 through June 30, 1999.
Current members of Agenda Committee:
Ex Officio Class of 1997 Class of 1998 J. Seger T. Schaub (Corp) B. Dahlberg (Corp) J. Ross J. Zorn (Ind) M. Risser (Ind)
- One (1) Nominations Committee member from the Corporation to be elected by representatives of Founding, Consortium and Advisory ("Corporate") Members, to serve July 1, 1997 through June 30, 1998.
- One (1) Nominations Committee member from the individual members, to be elected by the individual voting members, to serve July 1, 1997 through June 30, 1998.
Current members of Nominations Committee:
Ex Officio Current Members (1996-1997) P. E.MacAllsiter R. Hallote (Ind) C. Miller (Corp) J. Seger H. Hendrix (Board) T. Schneider (Corp)Committee candiates must be members of ASOR in good standing and willing to serve a one-year working term. A one paragraph biography should accompany the nomination.
The Nominations Committee will review all nominations received and select slates for election at the Annual Meeting in November. The ballots will be mailed to corporate and individual voting members by October 31, 1996 and should be brought to the November meeting. Instructions will be included for absentee ballots.
Please send nominations to Charles H. Miller, Chairperson, ASOR Nominations Committee, St. Mary's University, San Antonio, TX, Tel. (210) 436-3737, or Fax to (210) 431-2279. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
AGENDA ITEMS: If you have an item you would like to include on the agenda, please send it to the Boston ASOR Office and it will be passed along to the agenda committee.
Each participant is given a folder packed with copies of the papers given during the morning session, detailed handouts to accompany the small group sessions, and information about local museum and archaeological society activities. This is a good opportunity for ASOR members to solicit volunteers for the excavations, and Carolyn Draper, Chair of the Outreach Education Section, is willing to insert informational flyers about ASOR digs into each packet.
We are in the process of developing a mechanism to evaluate the success of our efforts once the participants return to their classrooms, but already we have some interesting feedback. Peter Feinman, a participant in the session at The Oriental Institute in 1994 and a presenter this year, has been instrumental in the development of the Manhattanville College (Purchase, NY) Education Research Center. The college has agreed to establish a non-profit resource center for archaeology education on its campus with programs designed for the general public, teachers, education majors and K-12 students. There are also plans for a speakers bureau. Peter has also conducted faculty in-service programs in the New York area. Building on the success of last year's program at the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, which attracted nearly two hundred teachers, the Museum is planning another teacher workshop for this December in conjunction with ASOR Outreach Education. A number of our workshop speakers, including Christine Nelson, have been invited to conduct programs for individual schools.
For some years, ASOR has been talking about greater cooperation between archaeological societies. Outreach Education has already been doing this, principally through contacts with the AIA. On the individual member and local levels, there has been a sharing of speakers and workshop presentations as well as resources and publicity for ASOR Outreach Education workshops. Recently Carolyn Draper attended an informal meeting at SAA headquarters in Washington, D.C. of representatives of several archaeological and anthropological societies to explore the possibility of cooperative efforts in archaeology education.
We look forward to our 1996 session at the New Orleans Museum of Art. Although the program is open to all participating in the Annual Meeting, others are also welcome. Separate registration is required. For information about workshop registration contact Lee Morais, Assistant Director for Education, New Orleans Museum of Art, Tel. 504-484-2631; Fax. 504-484-6662. For more information about Outreach Education activities or for those wishing to become involved, contact Carolyn Draper, 1295 N. Providence Road, A204, Media, PA 19063. Telefax: 610-566-3823; e-mail: email@example.com.
Carolyn Draper and Maria-Louise Sidoroff
Question #1: How regularly do you receive the ASOR Newsletter?
The great majority of respondents had no complaints about the regularity with which they receive the Newsletter. The only problems involved overseas members, who tend to receive issues with several months delay, which, among other things, makes it difficult for them to submit abstracts in time for the Annual Meeting. This is a difficult problem because ASOR has a substantial overseas membership, however, postage via airmail is prohibitively expensive. Currently the Newsletter is sent by surface mail to its overseas members to minimize costs. One short term solution will be implemented this year-to send the Call for Papers (the Winter issue) by air mail and the remaining issues by surface mail. Other alternatives are being explored. In the meantime, overseas members should keep in mind that the Call for Papers and other important information is available on ASOR's World Wide Web page at http://scholar.cc.emory.edu/scripts/ASOR/ASOR-MENU.html. For domestic members, the best way to ensure timely receipt is to supply ASOR with prompt notification of any change of address. Those with summer residences should keep in mind when requesting that mail be forwarded, that only first-class mail is forwarded. Special arrangements must be made for standard (formerly third class) mail to be forwarded as well.
Question #2: How long do you retain back issues?
It was gratifying to learn that most members keep back issues of the Newsletter indefinitely. One respondent informs us that his file is complete since he joined ASOR in 1976. Another's collection, although not complete, goes back to August 6, 1963! Since the Newsletter has become the voice for the Annual Meeting program and abstracts, it is expected that more members will retain the Newsletter for longer periods. Question #3: How much of the Newsletter do you read?
Again it was gratifying to learn that the Newsletter is read nearly in its entirety by most of the Membership, confirming not only the desire of the readership to keep in touch with news and events, but also that the Newsletter continues to provide the kind of information its readers want and need to receive.
Question #4: Which of the following features of the Newsletter do you find most interesting or helpful?
Of the items listed, the most interesting or helpful turned out to be information on the Annual Meeting, notices of upcoming meetings and conferences, and news from ASOR's Overseas Centers. Next in order of usefulness were reports from ASOR's various committees, obituaries and the e-mail directory. Of somewhat less value were the announcements of fellowships, recent appointments and awards. Job openings seems to be the least valuable aspect of the Newsletter.
Question #5: Which of the following features not currently in the Newsletter would you like to see included, if any?
Of the three suggestions for additional features to be offered by the Newsletter, the response was evenly split between including letters to the editor, short topical articles, and internet updates. Additional suggestions included providing information on candidates for election, and an explanation of the by-laws of ASOR and the overseas centers. We hope to comply with all of these requests in the coming issues. To this end, I invite all ASOR members to submit brief bulletins, reports, letters, or anything else that might prove interesting to Newsletter readers.
Question #6: Are you satisfied with the current Newsletter format?
A number of respondents who checked "no" seem to have misunderstood the question, which referred to the design and format of the Newsletter. Most had little to say about the current format, indicating only that they were satisfied with it. A handful, however, thought the Newsletter could be more attractive, citing other academic Newsletters as examples to follow. This issue contains a few design changes that I hope will meet with the approval of readers. How the Newsletter looks in the coming issues will depend on the feedback of its readership.
The value of the Newsletter has much to do with the quality of its editors over the years. I would like to take this opportunity to thank Vic Matthews on behalf of ASOR for his six years of service to this Newsletter. The results of this survey are a testimony to his hard work and dedication.
Billie Jean Collins
ASOR Newsletter Editor
Leonard Takes Over as the Chair of ASOR's Committee on Publications
During the summer, former Chair, Tom Schaub, and Leonard were able to meet at a secret rendezvous in Sonoma County (CA) where they spent a weekend reviewing the history and mission of the committee, as well as tasting several, very fine cabernets.
Leonard sees as one of this main tasks as Chair the maintanence of the high standards of ASOR's journals and series that have been established by their individual editors and, in addition, would like to continue to expand the book publishing program set in place by Jim Flanagan and nurtured so well by Schaub. During his tenure in office, Leonard also plans to emphasize the role of electronic publishing in the production and maintenance of ASOR's sizeable stable of publications.
Leonard is especially interested in receiving input from the ASOR membership, and asks both corporate and individual members to "please write to me directly, or to Billie Jean Collins, our very capable Director of Publications, and tell us how you like what we are doing, how we could do it better, or how we could do it differently. "
Weinstein Appointed for Another Term as BASOR EditorJames Weinstein has been reappointed to his second consecutive three-year term as editor of BASOR. For the past three years Weinstein has co-edited BASOR with Al Leonard, Jr., who has since been elected to the position of Chair of the Committee on Publications (COP) and is therefore giving up his position with BASOR to serve it in another capacity. ASOR's flagship journal will no doubt continue to prosper under Weinstein's solitary direction. Manuscripts of short preliminary reports and articles of interest to ASOR members should be sent to James M. Weinstein, Department of Classics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853. BASOR now has a dedicatd telephone/fax line at 607-257-0457. The editor may also be contacted by e-mail at jmw123@clarity connect.com.
Geologic Coring and Paleoenvironmental Reconstruction of the Ancient Harbor at Paphos, Western CyprusRichard K. Dunn
University of Delaware
My research was carried out as part of a larger CAP project, the Paphos Ancient Harbor Exploration Project (PAHEP). During the eight days of field research in Paphos in May and June of this year, I was fortunate to have the Cyprus Geological Survey Department's truck-mounted rotary auger drilling rig and its four man crew at my disposal. A combination of rotary augering and hand-driven augering enabled us to take fourteen complete cores in the vicinity of the ancient harbor at Paphos. The research focused on the western half of what was believed to be the ancient harbor for two reasons: (1) extensive development in the eastern area precluded drilling holes in this area, and (2) the active construction of a parking lot in the western area gave rise to the need for immediate geological subsurface studies.
In the eastern area of the proposed ancient harbor, I was able to make one rotary auger bore hole approximately in the center of this half of the ancient harbor. In the western area thirteen truck-mounted rotary auger holes were made and were supplemented by several short hand-driven auger holes.
The majority of the holes (11) were spaced fairly evenly throughout the western area, including holes along the presumed perimeter and in the central portion of the area. Two holes were drilled behind what is presumed to be an ancient seawall (or possibly two seawalls). These two holes were drilled in an effort to establish whether the sea had ever been landward of the wall(s).
The cores recovered from the various holes have revealed that the sea did in fact extend landward to the position of the proposed seawalls. Shallow marine silty sands and beach sands, both containing marine molluscs, were found in the shallow subsurface in all cores from the western harbor area. These core lithologies indicate that the western harbor area, after initial flooding due to regional sea-level rise, was a relatively shallow embayment. Roman ceramic fragments, Roman glass, and abundant charcoal in the cores attest to the fact that the embayment was open and extended to the seawalls in Roman times. Mud and organic-rich mud in the core from the eastern harbor area indicate that this portion of the harbor remained a shallow water and marshy area until recently. Mud in this area was probably deposited in a fresh-to-brackish river floodplain that merged seaward into marshy mudflats.
The eastern harbor area has probably always been a shallow water muddy area in a relatively low energy environment. The western harbor area has been subjected to higher wave and current energy, and contains former beaches, shallow marine sands, and possibly submarine sand spits or bars.
The fact that all holes were drilled to bedrock enables me to produce a map of the bedrock floor of the embayment/harbor. Bedrock configuration of the former embayment indicates a shallow basin that deepened to seaward (to the south). There is a north-south trending bedrock high in the central part of the ancient harbor. This high would have been a shallow submerged natural divide of the former embayment. With only one hole in the eastern area of the ancient harbor it is not possible to determine whether bedrock highs exist in the eastern area; although both natural and human-made divides have been suggested by various authors.
Careful determination of stratigraphic units, their environments of deposition and their present elevations relative to mean sea level indicates that the ancient harbor area may have undergone seismic uplift since Roman times. In several cores, silty sand containing marine molluscan fauna is found above present sea level. These marine deposits may have been uplifted by a series of seismic events over the last 2000 years. This geological interpretation helps to corroborate the 1222 AD writings of Oliverus Scholasticus. Scholasticus reported that the Paphos harbor "dried up" following a large earthquake. Although it is unlikely that one seismic event caused the total amount of uplift found today, the earthquake damage reported by Scholasticus may have been near the end of a series of seismic events that have slightly uplifted the region. Another possible explanation for the fact that marine units occur slightly above present mean sea level is that the marine units represent barrier overwash deposition. In this case, during storms, shallow marine sediment would have been carried over the beach and deposited landward. At present it is unclear whether seismic uplift or barrier overwash is responsible for the "raised" marine units; although it is likely that both processes have contributed to produce the present stratigraphic architecture.
Clearly, several factors have contributed to the changing coastal geomorphology and geography at Paphos. Natural marine sedimentation in an embayment has produced sand and silty sand deposits that, with time, have decreased the size and depth of the embayment. Also, significant coastal change may have taken place following seismic uplift events. Perhaps humans have had the most dramatic effect on the harbor configuration and coastal change through time. By building the eastern and western breakwaters, and possibly inner-harbor quays, humans would have altered the natural alongshore transport of sediment. This change would have effectively shut down the natural system that flushed sand through and out of the embayment. Once breakwaters and quays were constructed, shallow water deposition of silt and sand would have increased. Increased sedimentation in the harbor would have led to the "silting up" of the harbor in Roman and later times.
All remaining work is in the form of drafting and final interpretation of stratigraphic units based on sedimentology and micropaleontology. After producing geologic cross-sections I will make a Roman period paleogeographic map of the ancient harbor, and possibly paleogeographic maps of the area showing environmental change through time. This fall we expect to submit a report of our findings at Paphos in the form of a Report of the Department of Antiquities, Cyprus (RDAC) In order to report details of the study and to reach a wider audience we intend to submit a paper to a scientific journal.
While in Cyprus I spent some time on each end of my trip at CAARI, which provided room/board and logistical support. Nancy Serwint and staff were exceptionally friendly and helpful. Although I only visited briefly, I was fortunate to be able to attend a lecture and reception, where I met several scholars currently working in Cyprus.
In fact, during my three weeks in Cyprus I was fortunate to meet many scholars and officials from whom I learned a great deal about Cypriot archaeology in general and, in many cases, about the archaeology and history of the Paphos site itself. The opportunity to discuss the Paphos project with people from a variety of backgrounds has given me a persective on the entire history of the Paphos site and harbor-a history that I can now incorporate into an understanding of coastal environmental change over the last 2000 years. Thanks to the many people and agencies involved, this project is truly interdisciplinary in nature.
Research activity at CAARI has been further heightened by the arrival of scholars who have been awarded fellowships for 1996-1997:
Dr. Barbara Kling, Department of Classics at Montclair State University in New Jersey, is the NEH Fellow. Her research project involves a reassessment of the pottery from the Late Bronze Age site of Apliki. Apliki was a copper mining village located in northwest Cyprus, and an investigation of the pottery promises to inform on the expansion of the copper industry in Cyprus.
Dr. Mariusz Burdajewicz, Keeper of the National Museum in Warsaw and Lecturer at the Institute of Archaeology at Warsaw University, has been awarded a grant from the J. Paul Getty Grant Program. The award is earmarked for scholars from Central and Eastern Europe. Dr. Burdajewicz's research details the arms and armor from Cyprus during the Bronze and Iron Ages. While in residence at CAARI, he will use the CAARI library and study artifacts in the Cyprus Museum as well as from other district museums on the island.
Michael Mueller is one of two graduate students who have been awarded Fulbright student awards. Michael is a Doctoral Candidate in the Ph.D. Program in Anthropology of the Graduate School of The City University of New York in New York City. His project deals with social reorganization and identity among Greek Cypriot refugees living in the south of Cyprus. Joseph Parvis has also received a Fulbright award. Joe is a Doctoral Candidate in Cultural and Intellectual History at the University of Michigan, and his dissertation research focuses on the public and private responses to early photographs of Cyprus and its people during the nascent years of British administration of the island.
New American Ambassador Comes to CAARI
Ambassador Kenneth Brill has recently arrived in Cyprus to assume his post in Nicosia for the next three years. Soon after his arrival, the Ambassador, his wife Mary, and their children Catherine and Christopher were invited to CAARI to visit the premises, meet the residents, and see what CAARI is all about. While the Ambassador and Mrs. Brill talked with staff and browsed the library shelves, the children opted to construct replicas of terracotta votive figurines out of Play Doh.
CAARI Launches 1996-1997 Program
After the conclusion of the summer excavation season, traditionally a slow period in terms of public events and academic programming, activity is in high gear again beginning in September with field trips and scheduled lectures. Field trips to museums and archaeological sites include Larnaca District Archaeological Museum (led by Nancy Serwint), Khirokitia (led by Mme. Odile Le Brun), Pierides Foundation Collection (led by Nancy Serwint), Paphos Mosaics and the Villa of Theseus (led by Professor Viktor Dashweski), Hala Sultan Tekke (led by Professor Paul Astrûm), Kition-Bamboula (led by Mme. Marquerite Yon), and Polis-Marion/Arsinoe (led by Nancy Serwint).
Nicolle Hirschfeld, 1995-1996 Fulbright Fellow and Ph.D. Candidate at the University of Texas at Austin, lectured at CAARI to a packed house on "Scratches and Scribbles on Late Bronze Age Pottery," dealing with her dissertation research on Late Bronze Age pot marks in the eastern Mediterranean.
Dr. Peter Matthews, Research Fellow at the NationalMuseum of Ethnology in Osaka, Japan has been in residence at CAARI during the late summer researching taro in in Mediterranean food culture. In October he is slated to lecture on the history of kolocasi in the Mediterranean basin.
Following the theme of Nicosia Cultural Week (14-21 September 1996), focusing on the fifteenth century chroniclers Machairas and Boustronios, CAARI has invited Dr. Costas Constantinides, Professor of Byzantine History at the University of Ioannina, to speak at the Institute on "The Greek Book in Mediaeval Cyprus."
Have Dominion Over Every Living Thing: The Daily Use of Animals in Ancient IsraelOded Borowski
As the term of my appointment to the Annual Professorship at the Albright comes to an end, it is time to look back and reflect on the accomplishments achieved during this period. The Annual Professorship is awarded for work on a long-term research project that needs to be carried out in Israel, with special benefits afforded by residence at the Albright. In addition, the Annual Professor is responsible for supervising the field trip program, hosting monthly dinners with local scholars, and supporting the Institute Director in maintaining the productive intellectual environment of the Institute. My research involved the study of the daily use of animals in biblical times. While the biblical record was a starting point and served as a framework, extra-biblical documents, ancient artistic representations, zooarchaeological and ethnographic data were examined for supporting evidence and provided additional or clarifying information that was used for illustration and better understanding of the topics under study. I examined information concerning ruminants (small and large cattle), their by-products, their manufacture and uses, pack and track animals, other mammals (dog, pig, cat), birds, insects (bees, locust), water fauna (fish, molluscs), and more. With each of the animals I tried to find its history of relationship with man, its influence on culture and the economy, and examine whether there were any changes through time of the role each animal played in the life of its users, especially the Israelites. Furthermore, I looked at the place wild animals occupied in the economy and dealt with the role of animals in the cult. I have made great progress, to the point of almost completing a manuscript which will be ready for publication within a year.
The Albright's field trips literally covered the country from Dan to Beer-sheva trying to see sites from every period starting with the Pre-Pottery Neolithic site of Munhata (seventh millennium BCE) and the Early Bronze sites of Tel Yaqush and Beth Yerah (third millennium BCE) and extending to the Roman period and the sites of Caesarea, Beth Shean, Sepphoris and the Beit Alpha synagogue. We also visited the enormous salvage excavations involving many periods, conducted by the Israel Antiquities Authority (IAA) at Ramat Beth Shemesh, where a new city is being built. The Iron Age, the biblical period, received special attention and we visited Tell Hamma, Lachish, Dothan, Taanach, and Yoqneam.
Day trips were taken to the western part of the Judean Shephelah (Lahav, Tell Beit Mirsim, Hesi and Nagila), to the northwestern Negev (Tell Farah South, Ein Besor, Tell Jemmeh, Tell Haror), and to the Galilee (Oreimi, Hazor, Dan, Banias). A short trip took us to the Land of Benjamin (Tell el-Ful, Nasbeh, Nabi Samuel), and another day was spent in the northeastern Negev (Beersheba, Aroer, Massos, Ira).
Being in Jerusalem enabled us to visit the Islamic sites on the Temple Mount, the new excavations by the Western Wall and the Dung Gate where we were guided by the director, Ronnie Reich of the IAA, and the tunnels along the Temple platform where we were guided by Hillel Geva of the Israel Exploration Society.
Some of the highlights included a day long visit to Arad guided by Ruth and David Amiran, a special trip to Islamic sites (Khirbet el-Minyah, Tiberias, Khan el-Tujar, Belvoir) led by our United States Information Agency Islamic Studies Fellow, Robert Schick, a day trip to Qumran led by Hanan Eshel of Bar Ilan University, and a visit to Maresha and Beth Govrin guided by Tikva Levin of the IAA. Special visits were made to the boat from Maagan Michael and the Hecht Museum at Haifa University, both led by Elisha Linder of Haifa University. There were thirty-two field trips in all, to Israel, the West Bank, and Jordan, with visits to over 114 sites and museums. These trips introduced the fellows to the topography and historical geography of ancient Israel, Ammon, Moab, and Edom, allowing them to keep current on archaeological research presently being carried out in Israel and the neighboring countries. Our annual out-of-the-country trip to Jordan was planned and guided by Robert Schick, who has worked in Jordan and is very familiar with the country and its archaeological sites. Assistance was extended to us by the American Center of Oriental Research's director, Pierre Bikai, and his staff, which helped to make the trip so successful. Our itinerary took us from Aqaba northward through Petra to Amman stopping at many out-of-the-way sites. Much of the trip was made possible by special permits issued to us by Ghazi Bisheh, director of the Antiquities Department of Jordan. Other members of the department were also very helpful. A visit in the Dead Sea region and Amman was guided by Muhammad Waheeb, also of the Jordanian Antiquities Department.
In addition to the regular reports and seminars conducted by the Fellows, we hosted several local scholars for dinner and discussion, including Avner Raban and Rachel Hachlili of Haifa University, Dan Bahat of Bar Ilan University, Abraham Malamat of Hebrew University, and Yaakov Meshorer of the Israel Museum. The Fellows visited local institutions such as the Israel Museum, the Bible Lands Museum, and attended the lecture series sponsored by AIAR and HUC at the Rockefeller Museum. Several visiting scholars presented lectures, among them Professor Sava Tutundzic of Belgrade University, Professor Hans J. Nissen of Freie UniversitÉt in Berlin, and Dr. Shimon Gibson of the Palestine Exploration Society in London. Some of the visiting scholars were co-sponsored by other institutions, such as the British School of Archaeology and Birzeit University
I wish to thank the trustees of the Albright Institute and its fellowship committee for this award. The opportunities it offered me for my own research and the role it allowed me to play in the Albright's academic community have greatly enriched my scholarly experience. Special thanks are due to the United States Information Agency and the Horace Goldsmith Foundation for their financial support of the Annual Professorship.
The Promontory Palace at Caesarea: Final StudiesKathryn L. Gleason
University of Pennsylvania
Since my NEH fellowship began in July 1995, most of my efforts at the Albright Institute have been directed toward the preparation of the final publication of the University of Pennsylvania Museum's Excavations of the Promontory Palace at Caesarea, which I direct in collaboration with Barbara Burrell and Ehud Netzer. A secondary project has been to research my contribution for a publication entitled Gardens of the Roman Empire, for which I am the editor of the section "The Gardens of the Roman East." During the year, I brought artifacts excavated between 1990 and 1995 to the Albright for review. Where specialists had not already been assigned, I raised the funds and arranged for appropriate doctoral students or specialists. From May 19-24, Barbara Burrell, Ehud Netzer and I met to establish the outline, content, and format of the final publication. We anticipate gathering the specialist reports by early 1998 for editing and submission for publication later that year.
My work on the Caesarea material was greatly assisted by interns who helped to process the material as part of a formal academic course requirement. During the course of the winter intensive ulpan at Hebrew University, I met several students majoring in archaeology in the U.S. who were attending the Overseas Program, which requires that students undertake an internship for ten hours each week over the course of the semester. Four students became interns, working at the Albright for Caesarea and Tel Miqne-Ekron, and also helping to coordinate other student volunteers to participate on the dig at Masada during the spring vacation, with the Institute of Archaeology at Hebrew University. These interns planned to go on to work over the summer of 1996 as student volunteers at Caesarea, Tel Miqne-Ekron, and other sites in Israel. The Director will make the internship part of the formal program at the Albright next year.
Rome was greatly influenced by the gardens and architecture of the eastern provinces. During the fellowship year, I focused my travel opportunities on exploring sites of ancient gardens. In August, I visited Egypt and spent a day driving along the canals near the Nile studying the agricultural fields, groves and gardens, looking particularly at traditional irrigation methods. In early March, I travelled to Jordan to look at Herod's fortress palace at Machareaus and to visit the terraced gardens of the late Hellenistic site of Araq el-Amir, palace of Hyrcanus the Tobiad. Planting season in Jordan was in full swing, and I was able to study a variety of horticultural techniques and methods of cultivation. In April, I spent a week on Masada as a specialist with the Institute of Archaeology's excavations, studying the southern area of the mountain and evaluating evidence on the ground for dramatic marks on early aerial photographs. Six fellows and three interns from the Albright assisted me and the excavation team during the course of the week. The results of this study include two entries for the Oxford Encyclopedia of Near Eastern Archaeology, "Preclassical Gardens" and "Classical Gardens." In November, I co-hosted a conference with Wilhelmina Jashemski at the University of Pennsylvania Museum, "Gardens of the Roman Empire" and presented the results of my research. This conference is now being prepared for publication, and I am editing my own entries and those of other scholars contributing information on gardens of the eastern Mediterranean. Archaeology Magazine has requested an article based on this conference. On April 11, I presented a public lecture at the Albright Institute, "The Gardens of the Eastern Roman Empire." I will be closing my fellowship year by presenting the Annual Lecture in Landscape Architecture at the Technion in Haifa, speaking on the future of archaeological sites in Israel and the role of the landscape architect in their conservation and development.
The success of this year of work is due, in large part, to the quiet, productive atmosphere that prevails at the Albright and, in no small part, to my colleagues and the staff. Afternoon tea and the evening meal were invariably both delicious and congenial. The field trip program was very thoughtfully organized by the Albright Director and effectively led by Annual Professor, Oded Borowski. The lecture and workshop program also enriched my understanding of the archaeology of this region. The guest evenings with important figures in Israeli archaeology were quite special. I joined other fellows in attending another important forum for meeting with Israeli colleagues, the seminar series at the Institute for Advanced Studies, which focussed this year on the topic of "Acculturation in the Graeco-Roman Period."
Finally, I found the staff of the Albright to be gracious, hard working and generous with their assistance, particularly during the stressful period of the "closure." We all enjoyed being part of the great tradition of Omar's cooking, and- no less-Walid's interpretations and new introductions. The fellows all appreciate how a served meal allows for unbroken dinner table discussions; however, during the "closure", Nawal awed us with her wonderful pastries and delicious meals (prepared after a full day of work at Schmidt's College and her cleaning chores at the Albright) and we became closer as a group by pitching in to help. Nadia, Edna, Muneira, and Said also contributed greatly to the comfort of my stay, helping me to locate necessary equipment and facilities. Final thanks go to Albright Director, Sy Gitin, as well as the Annual Professor, Oded Borowski, to whom I am thankful for good advice on many matters of conducting archaeological research in Israel, as well as for offering explanations, translations, and context as many dramatic events unfolded during this difficult and dramatic year in the history of Israel. For me personally, it has been a productive and memorable sabbatical year, and a pleasant prelude to my new academic position at Cornell.
My project has its roots in my previous time at the Albright in 1991-1992 when, as the Samuel H. Kress Fellow, I completed the bulk of the text for my Ph.D. dissertation, "Tell en-Nasbeh: A Re-evaluation of the Architecture and Stratigraphy of the Early Bronze Age, Iron Age and Later Periods." The wide exposure of the site achieved by W. F. Bad¶ between 1926 and 1935 makes Tell en-Nasbeh one of the most important sites in Palestine for understanding ancient settlement planning. Due to the immense amount of material excavated at Tell en-Nasbeh, the dating of the revised stratigraphy I worked out then was based on correlations with the known history of Biblical Mizpah of Benjamin, the town with which Tell en-Nasbeh is identified. This historical model suggested that there should be a settlement on the site from Iron I through the end of Iron II, that a major fortification system attributable to King Asa of Judah in the early ninth century should be found, that there should be a visible change in the site's plan coinciding with the settlement's new role as a Babylonian administrative center after the fall of Jerusalem in 586 BC, and that the site should still be occupied at least until the middle of the Persian Period.
The opportunity to test this historical model against the site's ceramic evidence came when I was awarded a National Endowment for the Humanities Fellowship at the Albright for the 1995-1996 academic year. Tell en-Nasbeh was excavated according to the Reisner-Fisher method, i.e. before the introduction of more sophisticated field and recording methodologies. All debris coming from the level of the top course of the walls of a room down to the floor of the room (and down to the base of the walls if no floor could be discerned) was assigned the same provenance number. Thus the great mass of pottery recorded from the site was not valuable for dating purposes. Prior to taking up residence at the Albright I was able to determine the types of deposits that would be most useful for my attempts to date the site's revised stratigraphy, and was then able to isolate the most likely loci from among those types. These deposits include sealed cisterns, in situ deposits seen in photos or implied by whole vessels, dismantled walls, bedrock installations cut by walls of later strata, other relatively homogenous deposits from unsealed cisterns and from rooms in an area of clear super-imposed strafigraphy in the southwest corner of the site.
The dating of Stratum 1 is difficult as it consists of isolated features just below topsoil apparently of the Hellenistic to Roman periods, though with some remains into the Ottoman Period. The most significant result achieved to date has been the identification of half a dozen deposits of different types with ceramics which conclusively demonstrate the existence of a Babylonian to Persian Period phase at Tell en-Nasbeh, known as Stratum 2 in the revised site stratigraphy. Materials from sealed cisterns demonstrate a late seventh to early sixth century date for the end of Stratum 3. The dating of Stratum 4 (and thus the dating of the beginning phase of Stratum 3) is problematic as relatively little ceramic material was recorded from the scores of rock-cut installations assigned to this phase. However, the several dozen Philistine sherds of local manufacture, the collar rim pithoi and the Iron I cooking pots found in fills, clearly indicate that Tell en Nasbeh was settled in the Iron I Period, which is the assumed date for Stratum 4. It was also possible to isolate deposits of Early Bronze Ib to date Stratum 5. Not only was I able to bring the above research to a successful conclusion, but I was also able to complete final, or near final, drafts of the following articles: my portion of "The Fourteenth and Fifteenth Seasons of Excavations at Tel Dor (1 994-1995) - Preliminary Report for 1994-1995," "An Inner and Outer Gate Complex at Tell en-Nasbeh," "This Old Site: Issues in the Reappraisal of Early Excavations, Additional Data Concerning Wedge- and Circle-impressed Poffery," "The Date of a Bronze Vase from Tell en Nasbeh," and "An Unrecognized Mesopotamian Jar Burial from Hazor."
Upon returning to the US, my plans are to complete the illustrations for the articles mentioned above. My next year will be devoted to the completion of the stratigraphic report for my area at Tel Dor. The following two years will be spent integrating the results achieved in my time at the Albright with the portions of my dissertation research bearing on the Babylonian-Persian Period Stratum 2. This material will then be combined with the scanty material remains known from the Babylonian phase in the rest of ancient Israel and textual sources bearing on this period. The resulting monograph will be a ground breaking new synthesis of what has been until now an almost unknown phase in the material cultural history of the region.
The other Albright Fellows formed an especially congenial and social community this year. Dinners, field trips, tea times and other outings were always a delightful mix of scholarly discussion and lively chitchat. Special thanks go to Annual Professor Oded Borowski for organizing not only a fine series of field trips, climaxed by our visit to Jordan and our sister institute ACOR, but also for his culinary abilities as manifested in our extraordinary monthly barbecues. A personal highlight was the chance to excavate at Masada with the Hebrew University to assist Albright NEH Fellow Kathryn Gleason examine evidence for the gardens of King Herod.
As an independent scholar working in the "real world" a period of time for pure research is akin to a well-earned sabbatical. None of the many rich results that I have accomplished this year would have been possible without the financial support of NEH or the wonderful library resources available at the Albright. The Institute's close proximity to the Rocke-feller was a special boon, making my inspection of the Nasbeh material held there very convenient. The Albright staff was supportive, as always. Special commendation must go to Nawal Ibtisam Rsheid who cheerfully and almost effortlessly not only handled most of the cleaning but all of the cooking during much of the spring Closure. I look forward to the opportunity of returning to the Albright at some future date to continue my research on Tell en-Nasbeh.
The Military Interaction of Egypt with the Southern Levant During the Late Bronze/Early Iron Age TransitionMichael G. Hasel
University of Arizona
The privilege of holding the ap- pointment as the Samuel H. Kress Fellow at the Albright Institute made possible the completion of a significant portion of dissertation research and writing. My topic, which I plan to submit in 1996 to the Department of Near Eastern Studies at the University of Arizona, deals with the military interaction of Egypt with the southern Levant during the Late Bronze/Early Iron Age transition. Military activity continues to be a major focus in recent scholarly models of the cultural development of societies in the fields of anthropology, sociology and archaeology. This is particularly true for transition periods where widescale discontinuities are apparent in the archaeological record. These discontinuities or destructions are often attributed to the military activity of various ethnic groups. However, little research has gone into the military tactics and policies of these groups. My interest is to focus on Egyptian military activity. What was the military policy of Egypt? Did they completely destroy cities or were only parts of them destroyed? What was the extent, nature, and focus of destruction? What were the effects of Egyptian military activity on specific sites and local cultures? These questions are addressed in a synthetic way that encompasses textual, iconographic, and archaeological data in an attempt to synthesize all the evidence available for this period. The expected result is a paradigm of Egyptian military policy as it may appear in the textual and iconographic data and that may be inferred from the archaeological correlates of destruction at various sites.
Egyptian presence and military activity in the southern Levant is established in a brief analysis of architectural ("governors'" residencies, forts, temples, naval bases) and material culture elements (weapons, ivory, doorjambs and lintels, stelae, statues and plaques, pottery and alabaster, anthropoid coffins, scarabs and cylinder seals, and ostraca), including an overview of how this data has been interpreted through several different models (imperialism, peer-polity interaction/elite emulation). This work is preliminary to the main goal of the dissertation, the investigation of textual, iconographic, and archaeological correlates for Egyptian military activity and tactics. A chapter incorporates a detailed analysis of the textual and iconographic evidence in all the military documents of the XlXth and XXth Dynasties. Over thirty military terms and expressions were studied in their semantic contexts and occurrences in order to determine what the Egyptian perception was of their military expeditions and how it was presented to the public. This included a careful investigation of the concepts of ideology, kingship, and legitimation in these texts and reliefs. The reliefs were studied within their contexts and compared with the texts that accompanied them. Broad conclusions were drawn from this investigation. Appendix A was a supplement to this chapter providing a concordance of the Egyptian military terminology. This is followed by the investigation of archaeological sites (Akko, Aphek, Ashkelon, Beth-Anath, Beth Shan, Gezer, Hazor, Kadesh, YenoÈam) lands/regions (Moab, SeÈir-Edom) and other socioethnic and political entities (Israel, ª3sw) mentioned in Egyptian military documents. This investigation includes: (1) an evaluation of the context of the toponym in Egyptian documents; (2) a suggested identification of the toponym with a known site; (3) an outline of the history of archaeological investigation of the site; (4) a description of the archaeological data, including the correlates for destruction, the chronology and stratigraphy, and the degree of continuity/discontinuity from one phase to another; and finally (5) an assessment of the possibility that this can be associated with Egyptian military tactics. The references made in this chapter provide the archaeological basis of comparison with Egyptian texts and reliefs.
Since this basic research is now complete, the textual, iconographic and archaeological data will be combined to provide a suggested paradigm for Egyptian military policy in the southern Levant. This will provide archaeologists with a systematic methodology that can be used to evaluate discontinuity in the archaeological record during this period. The final chapter will provide the conclusions of this study.
Results of this study will be presented at the SBL/ASOR annual meetings in New Orleans, November, 1996 in a talk entitled "Domination and Resistance: Egyptian Military Activity in the Southern Levant During the Late Bronze/Early Iron Age Transition." In addition I was able to write several book reviews this year for Biblical Archaeologist and Andrews University Seminary Studies.
As a recipient of the Kress Fellowship, I was able to make the best use of my time here in relationship to my research project. A brief trip to Egypt, prior to my stay at the Albright Institute, brought me into contact with the original monuments and inscriptions analyzed in this study, and with different Egyptologists working in the field. The remaining ten months were used to visit most of the sites that were part of this investigation. Important discussions with the excavators and other specialists, the opportunity to visit important collections and see the material firsthand, as well as the availability of the excellent resources at the Albright Institute and neighboring libraries in Jerusalem, made this a significant and crucial year for my research project. The Albright program also provided important and informative field trips, seminars, workshops, guest lectures, and appointees evenings with guest scholars. One of the most outstanding field trips was to Dothan, Ta'anach, Megiddo, and Yokne¹am, for it allowed me to visit some sites that I had not seen in the past.
The Kress Fellowship made it possible to complete a major portion of my dissertation research by providing access to the sites, material, institutions and individuals. Special thanks goes to the Albright Institute trustees for awarding this fellowship to me, and for the staff in making this experience one that will be of great benefit both today and in future research in Near Eastern archaeology.
The Bureaucracy of Trade in the Late Bronze Age Eastern MediterraneanNicolle Hirschfeld
University of Texas at Austin
Imported objects, royal and personal archives stacked with commercial documents, and shipwrecked cargoes provide evidence for widespread contact and exchange in the Late Bronze Age (LB) eastern Mediterranean. Attempts to reconstruct the patterns and motives for this trade usually concentrate on studies of the documents and the trade items themselves. One category of evidence that, although frequently noted, has not been subjected to rigorous examination, is the secondary marks with which objects-ingots and pottery, for example-were labelled in the course of exchange. Signs incised or painted on pottery are a particularly good source of information, since the widely-exported ceramics have often survived the ravages of time. By tracing how and where the vases were marked, it may be possible to learn something specific about the routes that the vases travelled, the people who carried them from place to place, and the administration of trade.
Trade marks are usually isolated signs, often unassociated with any known formal script. It is, therefore, difficult to "read" the mark itself, and interpretation depends on deciphering patterns of occurrence in the vases and contexts where marks of a particular type appear. Marks on pottery transported from one region to another add another wrinkle, for it is impossible to judge their meaning without first understanding marking systems in the place whence the pot came, where it ended up, and through which it passed along the way. The important first step, therefore, is to define local marking practices. Only then can the fun begin of figuring out when, where and why the pot was marked, and what that tells us about the general organization of trade.
I recently spent two months as a Barton Fellow at the Albright Institute, learning about potmarking practices in LB Israel. It was a short time for such a tall order, and the fact that I managed to make significant progress is in large measure due to the generous help of the many excavators, museum curators and staff, professors and fellow graduate students working with and thinking about the material record of LB Canaan. No less crucial was the support offered by the staff at the Albright. I am grateful for the opportunity to acknowledge publicly all those who have helped me and continue to do so. Partially due to the large amount of material that was made accessible to me, my work in Israel is only half done and the thoughts that I present here are very much a work in progress. Yet, enough data have been collected to make a few things clear, to allow for some hypotheses, and to raise further questions.
One thing is certain: there was, in general, little need to mark pottery in LB Israel. From the mounds of pottery uncovered in the past century of excavation from all LB sites in Israel, I have, so far, been able to identify only ninety-eight LB vases bearing a mark incised or painted after firing. Doubtless the actual total is higher. Many publications do not catalogue all, or even any, of the marked vases, and many excavations have not (yet) been published. At least one-quarter of the marked vases that I have identified were culled from unpublished finds, and this pattern is bound to continue as I have opportunities to look at other unrecorded assemblages. Nevertheless, there is absolutely no reason to believe that the general picture is incorrect; all the excavators with whom I have spoken have observed that a vase with a post-firing mark is a rare thing in LB contexts. Those few vases that are marked usually fall into one of two categories: either they are imports (most often, Mycenaean) or they are large storage/transport containers alternately referred to as amphoras, "Canaanite" jars or store jars. The assemblage from Tell Abu Hawam-where more Mycenaean and Cypriot pottery has been found than any other site in Israel-best illustrates how the imports were marked. The fact that only fourteen (out of at least two hundred) Mycenaean vases were marked, underscores the rarity of their occurrence in LB Israel. Most of these bear incised (rather than painted) signs that, when they are distinctive enough to be identified specifically, are clearly derived from Cypro-Minoan, the script in use on LB Cyprus. This link between the incised marks on Mycenaean pottery and Cyprus is strengthened by the fact that it was common practice for the islanders to mark their ceramics, whereas this was not the case either in the Mycenaean Aegean or, as has been noted, in LB Canaan. In short, the incised marks on Mycenaean pottery in LB Israel support the hypothesis proposed by Vronwy Hankey many years ago that Mycenaean trade with the Near East passed by way of Cyprus.
I cannot yet provide a similarly straightforward interpretation for the Mycenaean vases marked with painted signs. No definite links with an identifiable script or marking system can be made, and the patterns of vase shapes and geographical distribution in which the signs occur are fuzzier; perhaps this will change as I collect and analyze more examples.
Marked amphoras are even more of a puzzle in several ways. First, unlike the Mycenaean wares, which were definitely imported, the range of fabrics and shapes that are referred to as "Canaanite" jars have not yet been classified satisfactorily according to places of manufacture. Many "Canaanite" jars may even have been made in Cyprus! Thus, the study of how these jars are marked is somewhat hampered because it is not easy to detect correlations between a certain kind of mark, a specific jar type, and a production center. It is not immediately possible, for example, to say whether the amphora with a clear Cypro-Minoan sign incised on its handle found at Tel Nami is a Cypriot jar or one made in Canaan. There are, of course, very different avenues of interpretation for the mark depending upon whether it is of local or foreign manufacture.
Another complication in studying the marked amphoras is that, like the shapes and fabrics of the jars, the signs incised upon them fall into a variety of categories that are not easily definable. Sometimes the marks can be identified with the signs of a script. Certainly there are examples of Cypro-Minoan signs incised upon amphora handles; the identification of some marks as Proto-Canaanite is more problematic. Simple "x's," or crosses, or "t's" can, of course, be interpreted as corresponding to a number of scripts, but should not be placed into any category until there is more substantial evidence to support a particular identification. Series of parallel horizontal or vertical lines are a common sort of mark that may indicate quantity of some kind, but that is an extremely tenuous hypothesis. There are many other kinds of marks that are not immediately identifiable with any particular system. The study of all these signs is in progress, and specific conclusions will be reported when the evidence to substantiate them has been compiled. It is, however, already clear that the kinds of marks incised on amphoras are generally not the same as those incised on Mycenaean pottery, and both are different from the painted signs that appear on Mycenaean pottery and, occasionally, amphoras. Different people were keeping track of different kinds of containers for different reasons.
The archaeological contexts of the vases-an aspect that is not usually considered in discussions of how to interpret the marks-may provide clues to the reasons for their marking. Determining the occurrence and distribution of marked vases within a site, a region, or in even larger contexts, is the most challenging aspect of this study; two months in Israel were enough to build a substantial skeleton of understanding but there is much still to be fleshed out. Again, the beginnings of conclusions can be drawn: Marked vases seem to be limited to sites with evidence of substantial participation in interregional trade.
This holds true for most of the coastal sites, although the vases vary greatly in size and type. The Mycenaean finds from Tell Abu Hawam have already been discussed above; in addition, a marked "Caananite" jar, possibly imported from Cyprus, and two marked amphora handles were alse found here. What was not discussed was how these finds fit into the general archaeological picture at Hawan, a site whose geographical position-at the first natural harbor (excluding river estuaries) along the Levantine coast north of Egypt and at the head of a major route inland (via Megiddo and Beth Shan) to the Jordan valley-and abundan
ce of imports leave no doubt that exchange of goods was a vital aspect of its LB existence. This association between a coastal trading site and the presence of marked "Canaanite" jars holds true at many of the other LB sites along the Israeli coast. They occur, for example, at Tel Nami, Ashdod and especially Deir el-Balah in substantial numbers, and as individual finds from Akko, Tel Mevorakh, Tel Mor and Tell el-Ajjul. The report of only single examples from Akko, Mor, and el-Ajjul should probably be regarded as the tip of the iceberg, for almost all of the material from Akko and Mor has yet to be published and that from el-Ajjul, dug by Petrie at the beginning of this century, was, by today's standards-only cursorily published. Tel Mevorakh is a small site and the finding of a single marked jar handle in the even smaller area excavated may be more notable for its presence than the fact that there is only one.
There are other coastal sites-Tel Michal, Tel Gerisa, and Ashkelon-whose LB ceramic assemblages do not include any vases with post-firing marks. One aspect of my continuing research is to evaluate the nature of LB levels and finds uncovered at these sites in order to understand why no marked vases have been found. Is it a function of the kinds of assemblages that were uncovered, or were marked amphoras used only on specific trade routes, or in the exchange only of certain commodities?
Inland, the association between centers of trade and marked vases means that only large and important sites or, occasionally, smaller sites located along major trade routes are likely to produce marked vases. So, for example, Hazor (24) and Beth Shan (8) have produced substantial numbers of marked amphoras, while sites such as Dothan, Tell el-Far'ah (North), Jericho, Gezer, Tel Miqne, and Tell Beit Mirsim have not. But I admit that the occurrences of marked vases at inland sites is not completely consistent with this explanation and I am still in the process of formulating a satisfactory explication for patterns that, after all, I am still in the process of identifying. For example, I was surprised to find a compartively large number (10) of amphorae with post-firing signs among the LB vases from Tel Batash, a relatively small inland site. It is probable that these are locally made, though this needs to be confirmed. If they are indeed locally produced, then this has important ramifications for the study of marking practices, for it demonstrates that here, at least, marks were inscribed and, given their residential context, used locally-and not, therefore, connected with interregional trade. The oddity of finding marked vases at Tel Batash is highlighted by the dearth of marked vases from the nearby sites of Tel Miqne and Gezer. Was Batash's location on the Sorek River-and thence its direct contact with the coast-a factor? Or was there something special about the well-built residence in which all the marked pottery was found? It will be interesting to see if any marked vases appear in the excavations of the recently expanded LB exposure at Miqne or in the renewed excavations at Tel Zafit this coming year.
Finally, another aspect that is being explored is "the Egyptian connection." The question of Egyptian control and influence is a crucial one for LB Canaan studies, and the topic of potmarks is no exception. One of the obvious places to start is Deir el-Balah, a site peppered with remnants of Egyptian presence. Mycenaean pottery also made its way here, and four of the jars are marked with typical Cypriot signs. But the greater number of marks (8) occur on storage jars. It is too early to say yet whether there is any connection with Egypt, either in marks themselves or in the vases that are marked. But this is a possibility worth exploring, for the New Kingdom Egyptians, like the LB Cypriots, routinely scratched signs on the handles, shoulders and bellies of their vases. It may be no coincidence that, as I learn more about the LB material from sites in southern Palestine and northern Sinai, I discover more and more marked amphoras. Maybe, too, the explanation for the large number of incised amphoras from Beth Shan, a center of Egyptian administration in northern Canaan, has an Egyptian element to it.
These are only a few examples of the kinds of questions and thoughts that a close look at the marked jars found in LB Canaan provokes. Two months' tenure in Israel has served to introduce me to the sites, the material and the excavators-and them to me and my work. I have managed already to collect a library of data, and plans are set to gather most of the rest. The ideas expressed here are those of a work in progress-progress that would not have been made without the support of the W.F. Albright Institute, and that would not have continued and keep continuing without the generosity of so many scholars and, now, friends.
Thomas Levy, a professor of anthro-
pology and a member of the Judaic Studies Program at the University of California, San Diego, has been selected to receive this year's Presidential Award for Excellence in Undergraduate Research.
UCSD Anthropologist Receives Award for Excellence in Undergraduate Research
According to Professor Donald Tuzin. Chair of the Department of Anthropology at UCSD, since joining the department in 1992, Levy, an archaeologist, has displayed an "astounding amount of energy and commitment in drawing undergraduate students into the research enterprise."
From his first year at UCSD, Levy has participated in the campus Faculty-Mentor program, and every year has involved undergraduates in his research projects. He also organized a UC-wide Education Abroad Program in Israel, which helped to introduce undergraduates not only to archaeological fieldwork, but also to the post-excavation laboratory analysis of discovered artifacts. Since 1992, Levy has also conducted the Department's Anthropology-Archaeology Field School in Israel during the summer, and each year has taken approximately twenty UCSD and other UC students to participate in the program.
"This hands-on research program has sparked interest in the Department's expanding archaeology program," said Tuzin, "and it has inspired many students to pursue graduate studies in the field."
Tuzin also credits Levy with the design and establishment of an archaeology lab in the new Social Sciences Building. The laboratory, which houses state-of-the-art computing equipment, is geared to accommodate the needs of undergraduate research projects.
"Not only has Professor Levy made a difference in the lives of many undergraduate students, he has made a difference in the life of the department, " added Tuzin. "With fellow UCSD anthropologist Guillermo Algaze, he has sponsored the Undergraduate Anthropology Society, which, since 1994-95, has brought outstanding speakers to the campus, generating an unprecedented vibrancy of interest among our undergraduates."
Levy, considered to be one of the most prolific and respected archaeologists currently digging in Israel, is the author of more than forty publications on the late prehistory and early history (ca. 6000-3000 B.C.) of the Middle East. Professor Levy's most recently edited book is called The Archaeology of Society in the Holy Land, published by Leicester University Press in the UK and Facts on File in the U.S. His archaeological explorations at the sites of Gilat,
Shiqmim, and Nahal Tillah in Israel's Negev desert have unearthed numerous environmental and cultural artifacts that have contributed significantly to our understanding of how urbanism evolved in the Middle East.
The Concordia Archaeological SocietyConcordia Seminary of St. Louis is pleased to announce the formation of the Concordia Archaeological Society. The announcement was made at a convocation held on April 17, at which Dr. Rudolph Dornemann of the American Schools of Oriental Research spoke on the current assessment of archaeology in its relationship to biblical research. The Society, sponsored by Concordia Seminary, a school of the Lutheran Church-Missouri Synod, seeks to promote interest in archaeology and to coordinate logical field work and research among the various education institutions of the church.
Dr. Lee A. Maxwell, guest professor of archaeology at Concordia Seminary, was named the first Director of the Society. Along with one student from the Seminary, he participated this past summer in the excavation at Tell Qarqur in northwestern Syna. The work at Tell Qarqur is an ASOR-sponsored excavation under the direction of Dr. Dornemann.
Concordia Seminary's first endeavor into archaeological research began in the 1960s with the formation of the Committee for Concordia Archaeological Studies in the Near East. This committee established as its first project the Joint Concordia-ASOR Excavation at Tell Taanek (Biblical Taanach) in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. Three seasons of excavation were conducted in 1963, 1966, and 1968.
In addition to participating in field work, sponsoring educational activities, and publishing a newsletter, the Concordia Archaeological Society will also develop resources for archaeological research and maintain a museum display on the St. Louis campus. For more information about the Society, please write to Dr. Maxwell in care of Concordia Seminary, 801 DeMun Avenue, St. Louis MO 63105.
Breaking New Ground for an Archaeology of the Ottoman Empire
A Conference Held at SUNY Binghamton on April 20, 1996Tobacco pipes, Iznik wares, shipwrecks, architecture, ag ricultural production, and the politics of nationalism were some of the topics discussed at "Breaking New Ground for an Archaeology of the Ottoman Empire: A Prologue and A Dialogue," a conference held at SUNY Binghamton on April 20, 1996.
Bringing together archaeologists, anthropologists, and historians who have studied the period during which the Ottoman Empire ruled the eastern Mediterranean (roughly the fifteenth through twentieth century), this first attempt at constructing an archaeology of the Ottoman Empire was a great success. The enthusiasm, ideas from extant fieldwork, goals and ideas from the participants bode well for this new field of study.
This conference was the first time that scholars interested in the development and recognition of an Ottoman archaeology were ever congregated specifically for that purpose. The goals for the conference were relatively simple:
- To bring together scholars who had experience with or interest in the material culture and artifacts of the Ottoman Empire;
- To build networks of communication in order to raise the level of discourse on the archaeology of the Ottoman past; and
- To review the research that has been done, consider what can be accomplished, and lay out goals for this archaeology.
The gathering was small in number, most closely resembling a seminar. Nine people presented papers and prepared comments; about thirty people engaged in the discussions. Those present represented the disciplines of archaeology, anthropology, history, sociology, and classics. Participants came from as far away as the University of Chicago, North Carolina, and Bilkent University of Turkey. The archaeological sites ranged from Crete to the Red Sea, with much discussion centering on Ottoman Palestine.
The day began with a presentation by Neil Asher Silberman. He introduced a challenge to the study of the Middle East: to fully consider the period that the Ottoman Empire ruled the region and to move away from commemorating the "Golden Age" of the distant past. Silberman set the tone by combining a critique of past practices with a vision of new directions. Following Silberman were a series of theoretical and empirical papers.
The morning papers focused on agricultural practices on Crete (Allaire Brumfield), a shipwreck in the Red Sea (Cheryl Haldane), the excavation of a village in Palestine (Ghada Ziadeh-Seeley), and observations on the use of light in the Ottoman mosque style (Alison Snyder). The afternoon presentations focused on foodways in Jordan (Oystein LaBianca), consumption and commodities in Palestine (Uzi Baram), and ceramics and consumption in Anatolia (Lynda Carroll). Ottoman historian Donald Quataert led the discussion both by raising questions regarding the papers and by introducing issues for the group to consider.
The discussion was a dialogue among historians, anthropologists, and archaeologists on the potential of archaeological research into this recent past, the avenues that might provide the most success, debate on understandings of the Ottoman Empire, consideration of "history from below"-a view from the masses rather than the elite, and future directions. The politics of archaeology and the implications of this study of the past for the nation- states of the eastern Mediterranean were elucidated.
One of the directions agreed upon by the assembly was to continue the dialogue. The papers are being organized for publication. And while crossing disciplinary boundaries is always difficult-especially when the places we are studying have ideological reasons for opposing certain questions-the goal of richer, more holistic interpretations of the Ottoman past seems within reach. While some new ground was broken by this conference, more work, more discussion, and even more debate is necessary ƒ and welcome.
For more information, contact Uzi Baram, Department of Anthropology, Machmer Hall, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003; email: firstname.lastname@example.org Uzi Baram
POSITION ANNOUNCEMENTThe Department of Classical and Near Eastern Studies at the University of Minnesota invites applications for a full-time nine month position, beginning September 1997, at the rank of tenure-track assistant or beginning tenured associate professor, depending on qualifications and experience, and consistent with existing collegiate and university policy. We seek candidates with demonstrated promise of excellence in teaching and research (minimum: Ph.D. in hand by 9/16/97) and with primary expertise in Mediterranean art and archaeology. The research focus is open; in addition to Greece and Rome, research may include Late Antiquity, early Byzantine studies or the Ancient Near East. Ability to contribute to a broad curriculum in ancient Mediterranean studies is a must.
Applications must include a letter of application, curriculum vitae and at least three letters of recommendation sent to the address below by the deadline. In addition, candidates are encouraged to send writing samples (30 pages maximum), evidence of excellence in teaching, and for recent Ph.D.'s a graduate school transcript. Please include a statement of availability for possible informational conversations in New York City, Dec. 28-30. All materials must be postmarked by Nov. 15, 1996 and addressed to: Professor George Sheets, Chair, Search Committee, Department of Classical and Near Eastern Studies, University of Minnesota, 330 Folwell Hall, 9 Pleasant St. SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455-0125.
The University of Minnesota is committed to the policy that all persons shall have equal access to its programs, facilities, and employment without regard to race, color, creed, religion, national origin, sex, age, marital status, disability, public assistance status, veteran status, or sexual orientation.
"The Aegean and the Orient in the Second Millennium" Organized by the University of Cincinnati Cincinnati, 18-20 April 1997The Classics Department of the University of Cincinnati and the Cincinnati chapter of AIA are pleased to announce a three-day international conference to be held 18-20 April 1997 at the University of Cincinnati. The Semple Symposium will honor the seventieth anniversary of the arrival of Blegen and Rawson to Cincinnati and the fiftieth anniversary of the publication of Kantor's influential AIA Monograph in 1947, which is being reprinted this year in conjunction with the symposium.
The thirty papers begin Friday morning, 18 April 1997, and continue through Sunday afternoon, 20 April 1997. The first day of papers will be devoted to exploring and updating the topics addressed by Kantor in her monograph. The second day of papers will be devoted to topics of interest to Blegen and Rawson, including overviews of the relations between the Aegean and other areas of the Eastern Mediterranean. The third day of papers will focus on presentations by scholars investigating future directions for the field.
Attendance at the Semple Symposium will be limited by the capacity of the meeting hall, and is open to all interested scholars and students on a first-come, first-served basis. The conference registration fee of $85 includes breakfasts, lunches, coffee breaks, and seating for all sessions. An optional charge of $31.50 will include the Banquet Saturday night, with keynote speaker Dr. James D. Muhly, whose distinguished publications have encompassed most of the topics to be addressed in the conference. Attendees will be responsible for arranging their own housing, and a block of rooms has been reserved at the Vernon Manor Hotel, 1-800-543-3999.
For more information, including a conference registration form and a preliminary program, please write: Dr. Diane Harris-Cline, Dr. Eric H. Cline, Conference Coordinators, Classics Department, M.L. 0226, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221-0226.
Albright Wedding BellsDr. Jeffrey Zorn and Dr. Kathryn Gleason, who met at the Albright Institute as NEH Fellows in the spring of 1996, are pleased to announce that they were engaged on July 18, 1996. Their wedding took place in Sage Chapel at Cornell University on September 29, 1996. Kathryn is Assistant Professor of Landscape Architecture, and Jeff is Visiting Scholar in the Near Eastern Studies Department at Cornell. They may be reached at 1422 Hanshaw Rd., Ithaca, NY, 14850, (607) 257-5114.
In August the Leon Levy Expedition to Ashkelon gave an outdoor picnic for over seventy guests. Pictured here, left to right, in the Albright kitchen are Ashkelon Director Lawrence Stager, and staff members Norma Dever and Ross Voss. They made and served Larry's potato salad, Norma's baked beans, Ross's lasagna and Gary Hunter's barbecued hamburgers and hot dogs, American style. Polly Munson's homemade brownies, Omar's potato chips and fresh watermelon added to the picnic around the grill near the old tennis court. Ashkelon was saying thanks to Barbara Johnson, who was leaving the position as Director of the Ashkelon Lab, and a big welcome to Todd Sanders, Cheryl and baby Marcel, as Todd will be the new Ashkelon Lab Director.
Luce Foundation Gives $1.5 Million for New Center for Study of Religion
Religious Studies News, a publication of the American Academy of Religion and the Society of Biblical Literature, carried an article in the September 1996 issue announcing the awarding of a $1.5 million grant by the Henry Luce Foundation for the construction of a new building to house the Scholars Press Consortium. The new three-story, 24,000 square foot structure will house Scholars Press, the executive offices of the American Academy of Religion and the Society of Biblical Literature, the Publications office of ASOR, and certain programs of the Association of Theological Schools in the United States and Canada. ASOR is among the sponsor's who have pledged financial support for the building.
The article said that the new center's mission will be fourfold: "(1) to collect and analyze data on the study of religion and use that information to advance the case for more, better-funded higher-education programs in religion; (2) to strengthen faculty teaching and research by providing pedagogical workshops, an extensive World Wide Web library of course syllabi, and information on resources for research funding, and by facilitating the training and recruitment of scholars from underrepresented racial and ethnic minorities; (3) to expand the audience for scholarly research by internationalizing scholarship, making research accessible on-line,a nd improving the broad public understanding of religion; and (4) to enhance and broaden scholarly publishing, both electronic and traditional." The building is scheduled to be completed by January 1998.
Royal Temple Inscription found at Philistine Ekron
The following press release summarizes a story that appeared in the New York Times, Tuesday, July 23, 1996, B5-6.
Jerusalem, July 10, 1996 - A royal dedicatory temple inscription that bears the name of a Biblical city and its kings has been discovered for the first time in Israel in excavations carried out this season at Tel Miqne-Ekron. The inscription provides conclusive evidence of the identity of Ekron, one of the five capital cities of the Philistines.
The name Ekron and the kings Achish and his father Padi were found in a five-line inscription, written in Phoenician script, on a large block of stone excavated from the ruins of a temple that formed part of a monumental palace. The palace and the entire city were burned to the ground in 603 BCE during the campaign of the Babylonian king Nebuchadnezzar.
The discovery of the inscription was made by an archaeological team headed by Professor Trude Dothan, Director of the Philip and Muriel Berman Center for Biblical Archaeology at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, and Professor Seymour Gitin, Dorot Director and Professor of Archaeology at the W. F. Albright Institute of Archaeological Research in Jerusalem.
The Tel Miqne-Ekron excavation is a joint project of the two institutions and is supported by a consortium of 22 North American and Israeli institutions, the Dorot Foundation, and the Berman Center for Biblical Archaeology.
This is the thirteenth and last of the current series of archaeological excavations at the site, which is located near Kibbutz Revadim, some 25 miles south of Tel Aviv.
The newly discovered inscription states that Achish, the son of Padi, king of Ekron, built a temple dedicated to a goddess. Achish corresponds to the name Ikausu, who is mentioned in the Assyrian annals of the seventh century BCE as the king of Ekron.
An earlier Achish (not the one referred to in the inscription) was the name of a Philistine king mentioned in the Bible in the books of I Samuel and I Kings during the period of King David and King Solomon.
Ikausu was one of the twelve kings of the Mediterranean seacoast called upon by the Assyrian King Esarhaddon in the first quarter of the seventh century BCE to provide building materials and their transport for construction of Esarhaddon's palace at Nineveh. Ashurbanipal, his successor son, called upon the vassal kings of the Philistine cities, including Ikausu of Ekron, to support his military campaign against Egypt and Ethiopia.
Padi, the father of Ikausu, is mentioned in the Assyrian King Sennacherib's annals of his 701 BCE military campaign in the Land of Israel in which Sennacherib conquered Ekron, which at that time was under Judean control. He restored its status as a city-state and forced Hezekiah, King of Judah, to reinstate Padi as king of Ekron.
The inscription at Ekron is being studied by Professors Gitin and Dothan as well as by the Hebrew University epigrapher Professor Joseph Naveh, who, in his survey of the site in 1957, based on new data supplied by Natan Aidlin of Kibbutz Revadim, suggested the identification of Tel Miqne as Philistine Ekron.
A New Hittite Monument Found in Turkey
Reported to the Newsletter for Anatolian Studies (June 1996) by Peter Ian Kuniholm - On Friday, May 31, 1996 at the XVIII International Symposium of Excavations, Surveys, and Archaeometry held in Ankara, Ali DinÙol announced that in the village of Hatip about 17 km south of KarahûyÄk by Konya, a rock relief rather like the Karabel monument has been found. It shows a Hittite king striding to the right. In his outstretched left hand is a vertical spear. On his head is a tall, conical hat. Over his right shoulder hands a bow. He wears a kilt and a short sword stuck through his belt. On his feet are shoes with curly pointed toes. Behind him is the inscription: KURUNTA, GREAT KING, HERO, SON OF MUWATALLI, GREAT KING, HER. The KURUNTA part is very clear: a deer, which one reads as HRUN or KURUN, and then a foot above it, which is the -TA suffix.
'Royal grave' at Tell Banat
Reported to the ANE discussion list in the Spring of 1996 by Anne Porter and Thomas McClellan - The tomb, discovered at Tell Banat in Syria (reported at the Deir ez-Zor Colloquium) is an extensive five chambered structure with connecting corridors. It is roofed with nine large limestone slabs, each approximately 3m x 2m. The stone blocks used in its walls were carefully cut and fitted into place. Bitumen not only sealed the massive roof slabs and was used to mortar and patch the masonry of the walls, but also completely covered the floors, which were of baked brick tiles.
Preliminary analysis suggests the tomb was constructed in the mid-third millennium BC. However it was reused in the second half of the third millennium, possibly around 2300 BC. Each chamber has a series of wall niches that contained ceramics and objects, including a decorated ostrich egg with a stopper inlaid with lapis and mother of pearl, and Syrian bottles encrusted with tiny stone and shell beads. In the largest chamber, a wooden coffin contained traces of an articulated human skeleton, covered with beads including gold beads that have exact parallels with the beads from Schliemann's treasure at Troy. An equid burial (not yet confirmed) was next to this coffin, and some of the grave goods in this room seem to have accompanied the horse rather than the human. Those include a series of gold studs that may have come from a harness, and some inlaid strips. The treatment of this animal burial was identical to the treatment of other human burials at the site (for example Porter, "Tell Banat - Tomb 1," Damaszener Mitt. 8, 1995). Equid burials have been found in other parts of the site. A second group of bones were found in another chamber with a gold pendant and some lapis lazuli fly beads. Two human burials were found overlying the entrance to the shaft. These were articulated and belonged to a female, 20 to 30 years, and a child, 2 to 4 years old.
The tomb seems to comprise part of a much larger complex, which includes a public building set on three terraces descending from east to west over a distance of 45m. These terraces are dug into a huge man-made gravel platform. The architecture of the highest terrace seems to be almost entirely eroded, with the exception of the remains of two column bases and one in situ sub-surface column foundation. On the second terrace, a series of rooms are arranged around a 7m x 7m floor of baked brick tiles mortared by bitumen, from which steps lead on both the north and south to the rooms situated on the third terrace.
The construction of this building should be dated to the mid-third millennium. It was demolished and a second building of a different orientation was erected over it, reusing the floors of the earlier one. The gravel platform overlays a structure that at this stage of excavation looks very similar to White Monument II (McClellan and Porter, Orient Express 3, 1994, and McClellan, Subartu, forthcoming), an artificially constructed mound approximately 20 m high with a white corrugated surface, the function of which is still unclear.