# Teaching

## EC500 A2: Quantum Engineering & Technology

Course description:This course introduces graduate students to Quantum Engineering and Technology (QET) by providing a comprehensive and rigorous discussion of the basic principles and engineering design concepts of quantum coherent structures and devices for communications, computation, simulation, metrology, and sensing. The course will provide in-depth discussions of design methods, mathematical techniques, and engineering applications for the control of coherent quantum systems that drive the rapidly emerging “quantum supremacy” paradigm of computing and information processing. This course provides a broad yet rigorous foundation of quantum technology that exploits non-classical correlations and coherent superposition effects to achieve fundamentally novel optical and electronic functions on photonic and solid-state devices. A distinctive feature of this course is to present the material in strong partnership with “hands-on” computer simulations that demonstrate quantum mechanical principles and ideas “in action”, leveraging the Google Cirq platform for the simulation of quantum hardware using Python.## ENG SC 777: Nano-Optics

Course description:Nano-optics lies at the heart of the current Nanotechnology revolution as an interdisciplinary and fascinating research field that studies the unique convergence of optical and electronic properties of advanced materials at the nanoscale. This course will provide a comprehensive overview of the physical concepts that are necessary to understand the operation of a variety of advanced optical devices that rely on the behavior of optical fields and materials systems confined in nanoscale environments. In particular, fundamental aspects of light-matter interactions at the nano scale and the physics of advanced quantum and photonic structures will be discussed in relation to novel device applications. The study of the physical principles, design and device applications of optical materials and structures is of interest to a multidisciplinary audience, ranging from physics, electronics and photonics engineers to researchers in industry and academia. 4crs.

Syllabus(full-version):

- Fundamentals of electrodynamics, diffraction theory and optical response theory
- Strongly confined fields and near-field optics: optics below the diffraction limit, near-field optical microscopy.
- Light-matter interactions in confined systems: quantum emitters, energy coupling phenomena, plasmonic structures, photonic crystals and resonators
- Applications to optical devices: plasmon sensing, nano-lasers, random lasers, plasmon waveguides, micro-ring and ultra high Q resonators, photonic crystal structures, optical antennas.

Instructor:Prof. Luca Dal Negro(dalnegro@bu.edu)

Prerequisites:Electromagnetics, introductory quantum mechanics, semiconductor physics.## ENG SC 770: Guided-wave optoelectronics

Course description:Optoelectronics lies at the heart of the current information revolution as an interdisciplinary and fascinating research field that studies the unique convergence of optical and electronic properties of semiconductor and metal-dielectric materials. This course will provide a comprehensive overview of the physical concepts that are necessary to understand the operation, and design the characteristics, of a variety of advanced optoelectronic devices. In particular, we will discuss the physics and engineering aspects of semiconductor waveguides, light sources, modulators and quantum semiconductor devices, such as quantum-based detectors, emitters and modulators.

The study of the physical principles, design and device applications of optoelectronics materials and structures is of interest to a multidisciplinary audience, ranging from physics, electronics and photonics engineers to researchers in industry and academia. 4crs.

Syllabus(full-version):

- Fundamentals of electrodynamics, review of dielectrics and metals optics and semiconductor physics
- Dielectric optical waveguides, waveguide coupling theory, optical resonators, slot waveguides and introduction to photonic crystal structures
- Light-matter interactions in semiconductors, semiconductor light sources, laser structures, detectors.
- Semiconductor quantum structures, quantum wells, superlattices, quantum dot emitters and modulators
- Optoelectronic integration: optical integrated circuits and optical switching
- Introduction to plasmonics: optoelectronics application of metal and metal-dielectric nanostructures

Instructor:Prof. Luca Dal Negro(dalnegro@bu.edu)

Prerequisites:EC562 Engineering Optics, Electromagnetics, or permission of the instructor.

Suggested readings:Theory and computation of electromagnetic fields,by Jian-Ming Jin, (J. Wiley-EEE Press, 2nd Ed., 2015);Advanced Engineering Electromagnetics,by Constantine A. Balanis (John Wiley, 2nd Ed. 2012);Quick Finite Elements for Electromagnetic Waves,by G. Pelosi et al. (Artech House, 2nd Ed. 2009);The Finite Element Method: Theory, Implementation, and Applications, by Mats G. Larson and Fredrik Bengzon(Springer-Verlag 2013);The essence of dielectric waveguides,by C. Yeh, F. I. Shimabukuro, (Springer, 2008);Photonic Devices,by Jia-Ming Liu (Cambridge University Press, 2005)Notes by the instructor will be distributed.

EC562: Engineering Optics

Prereq: Matlab programming, Electromagnetics, and knowledge of statistics (with stochastic processes)

Proposed Catalog/Course TopicsThis course deals with the engineering aspects of optics and its main emphasis is on applying the

knowledge of optics to the solution of many engineering problems.

The course is a graduate level class that covers the mathematical theory, the fundamental physical concepts and Matlab-based numerical implementations of Fourier optics for the design of diffractive elements, imaging systems and light propagation in complex media. The course will provide in-depth discussions of scalar wave diffraction theory and inversion with emphasis on engineering applications to focusing, realistic imaging systems with aberrations, spatial light modulators, optical sensors, optical speckle patterns, and light propagation through random media. Generalizations to vector waves will also be provided when appropriate. The goal of the course is to present a consistent formulation of wave propagation and diffraction in complex linear systems for the engineering of advanced optical devices in strong partnership with computer simulations and engineering-led implementations. Numerous programming examples and notes will be provided per course topic and all students will be able to challenge their creativity in designing advanced optical devices as part of their course assignments and for the required final project.

GoalsThis course deals with the engineering aspects of optics and its main emphasis is on applying the

knowledge of optics to the solution of many engineering problems.

Focus on scalar waves and spatial frequency concepts for complex linear systems, Fresnel and Fourier transforms in different coordinate systems. Introducing linear shift-invariant systems (LSI) theory, correlation and convolution operations with applications to optical engineering and elements of linear canonical transformation for phase-space control. Point patterns and kinematic diffraction theory. Random phasor sums and statistical description of speckle patterns, first-order statistics. Rigorous Kirchhoff and Sommerfeld diffraction theory, wave propagation and angular spectrum representation, generalizations to vector fields and applications to beam propagation and imaging systems. First-order theory of optical speckles. Diffraction of partially coherent waves, Shell’s theorems and quasi-homogeneous sources. Planar sources. Introduction to phase-space optics and the imaging space, optical transfer (OTF) and modulation functions (MTF), point-spread functions in imaging systems, diffraction-based photonic devices. The concepts and methods will be applied to the engineering analysis and design of photonic gratings, optical biosensors, spatial light modulators and holographic optics, wavefront modulation, microscopy and imaging through random media. Imaging theory and microscopy with coherent, partially-coherent and incoherent light will also be discussed. Numerical examples and implementations in Matlab.

Topics for projects assignmentsWave diffraction and inverse problems, scattering by arbitrary point patterns, diffraction theorems, applications to optical gratings, Fresnel optical elements, phase-space optics and linear transformations for optical engineers, correlation optics, optical speckle patterns. Microscopy, optical and infrared imaging cameras, diffraction-based optical biosening, holographic optics, optical super-resolution, optical information coding, wavefront modulation, imaging through random media. Lensless imaging systems, intro to computational optics methods. Engineering partially-coherent waves.

TextbookIntroduction to Fourier optics, by J.W. Goodman, 4th edition (W. H. Freeman, NY)

Other referencesEngineering Optics, by K. Iizuka (Springer-Verlag, 3rd edition, 2007)

Speckle phenomena in optics, by J.W. Goodman (Roberts and Company, 2007)

Computational Fourier optics, by D. Voelz (SPIE Press, 2011)

Numerical simulation of optical wave propagation, by J. D. Schmidt (SPIE Press 2010)

## ENG SC 560: Introduction to Photonics

Prereq: CAS PY 313. Introduction to ray optics, wave optics, Fourier optics and ho-lography, absorption, dispersion. Polarization, anisotropic media, and crystal optics. Guided-wave and fiber optics. Elements of photon optics. Laboratory experiments: interference; diffraction and spatial filtering; polarizers, retarders, and liquid-crystal displays; fiber-optic communication links. 4 cr.

## ENG EK 131/2: Exploring the Science of Light

Prereq:simple programming using Matlab. No textbook is needed. Study material will be provided in class.The intelligent use of light in science and technology is at the core of an impressive number of high-performance optical devices ranging from laser chips, optical sensors, to all-optical communication systems for high-speed computing and data transfer.

The aim of this short course is to introduce the students to the basic elements of light-wave technology thorough a series of classroom lectures, hands-on computer simulations of optical problems and Lab experiments. In particular, we will discuss the application of geometric, wave and polarization optics to the fabrication of simple optical devices and systems which the students will design and build using simple optical components, readily available in optical laboratories, or even in everyday life. Practical demonstrations and Lab experiments in optical diffraction, Fourier optics, holography and light scattering will be designed in the class, using simple Matlab programs, and subsequently carried on in the optical Lab to the joy of exploring the science of light. 2 cr.## ENG EC 410: Electronics

Prereq:EK307 (Circuits)Principles of diode, BJT, and MOSFET circuits. Graphical and analytical means of analysis. Piecewise linear modeling; amplifiers; digital inverters and logic gates. Biasing and small-signal analysis, microelectronic design techniques. Time-domain and frequency domain analysis and design. Includes lab. 4 cr, either sem.

EC400: Optics and Waves for Engineers

Course description:This course introduces undergraduate students to the fundamental physical concepts as well as the main engineering applications of wave phenomena in optical technology. The course will provide in-depth discussions of ray and wave propagation in homogeneous and non-homogeneous media, teach how to represent and manipulate scalar and vector waves and demonstrate engineering applications to imaging systems, optical components, interferometers, optical sensors, and diffractive elements. A distinctive feature of this course is to present a cohesive formulation of wave engineering in linear media in strong partnership with “hands-on” computer simulations and demonstrations that will practically illustrate numerous wave phenomena as well as the working principles of optical components. Programming examples and notes prepared by the instructor will be provided per course topic.

Syllabus (see detailed Syllabus online):

- Elements of vector calculus for optical engineers
- Fermat’s principle and ray paths in non-homogeneous media
- Complex numbers and wave representations
- The wave equation and its solutions
- Adding waves: engineering interference phenomena
- Optical components: lenses, stops, mirrors, prisms, focal imaging and pinhole cameras
- Fundamental imaging considerations: field of view, resolution, depth of focus
- Introduction to optical diffraction with engineering applications
- Introduction to interferometry
- From scalar to vector waves: manipulating Maxwell’s equations
- The description of polarized wavefields

Instructor:Prof. Luca Dal Negro(dalnegro@bu.edu)

Prerequisites:Calculus I/II, Multivariate Calculus, Physics II, Linear Algebra, Matlab programming.

Textbook:Optics, 4th edition Eugene Hecht, (Addison-Wesley, 2002). In addition, notes prepared by the instructor will be provided per course topic.

Additional readings:Optics. Learning by Computing, with Examples Using Mathcad, Matlab, Mathematica, and Maple, by K. D. Möller (Springer, 2nd Ed. 2007).## Short Courses & Tutorials

## Nanoplasmonics: Science and Technology of Metal Nanostructures

Course description:Nanoplasmonics lies at the heart of the current Nanotechnology revolution as an interdisciplinary and fascinating research field that studies the unique convergence of optical and electronic properties of advanced materials at the nanoscale. This course will provide a comprehensive overview of the physical concepts that are necessary to understand the operation of a variety of advanced optical devices that rely on the behavior of optical fields and materials systems confined in nanoscale environments. In particular, fundamental aspects of light-matter interactions at the nano scale and the physics of advanced quantum and photonic structures will be discussed in relation to novel device applications. The study of the physical principles, design and device applications of Nanophotonics materials structures is of interest to a multidisciplinary audience, ranging from physics, electronics and photonics engineers to researchers in industry and academia.

Syllabus:

- Electromagnetics of metals, Review of Mie Theory
- Surface Plasmon Polaritons (SPPs) at metal/insulator interfaces, Localized SPPs in nanostructures.
- Excitation, propagation and imaging of SPP waves, plasmonic resonance in complex structures.
- Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), enhancement of light-matter interactions in confined systems: near-field enhancement, fluorescence enhancement, metal nanoparticle fluorescence, enhancement of nonlinearities, SPPs localization and nanostructure coupling.
- Applications to optical devices: plasmon waveguides, plasmon-based sensors, plasmon-coupled LEDs, applications to metamaterials, perfect lenses and plasmon-assisted nanolithography, emerging applications.