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Proceedings of the Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy

Editorial Board: Jaakko Hintikka, Robert Cummings Neville, Alan M. Olson, and Ernest Sosa
Executive Editor:
Alan Olson
Managing Editor:
Stephen Dawson
Associate Editors:
Mark D. Gedney, Kevin L. Stoehr
Assistant Editors:
Tomoko Iwasawa, Mark H. Gear Mann, Brian McDonald, Angela Turek


Individual volumes can be purchased for $30 (individuals) and $45 (institutions)

The entire 12-volume set (ISBN 1-889680-18-4) can be purchased for $288 (individuals) and $432 (institutions) . a 20% discount.

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Titles in the series:

Read the Series Introduction

Volume I: Ethics

Editor: Klaus Brinkmann, Boston University
ISBN 0-889680-05-2
Published April 1999

Read the Introduction

  1. Felicia Ackerman. "Death, Dying, and Dignity"
  2. Robin Attfield. "Depth, Trusteeship and Redistribution"
  3. Dan Brock. "Ethical Issues in the Construction of Cost-Effectiveness Analyses for the Priorization and Rationing of Health Care"
  4. Jonathan Dancy. "Can a Particularist Learn the Difference Between Right and Wrong?"
  5. Stephen Darwell. "Why Ethics is Part of Philosophy: A Plea for Philosophical Ethics"
  6. John Martin Fischer. "The Value of Moral Responsibility"
  7. Jorge L.A. Garcia. "Beyond Biophobic Medical Ethics"
  8. Bernard Gert. "Morality and Health Care Policy"
  9. Russell Hardin. "Ethics of Big Science"
  10. Gilbert Harman. "Moral Knowledge and Linguistics"
  11. Matti Hayry and Tuija Takala. "Biotechnology and the Environment: From Moral Objections to Ethical Analyses"
  12. Virginia Held. "Feminist Ethical Theory"
  13. Alasdair MacIntyre. "Moral Pluralism without Moral Relativism"
  14. Ricardo Maliandi. "Principios de equidad discursiva"
  15. John Passmore. "Philosophy and Ecology"
  16. Holmes Rolston III. "Nature and Culture in Environmental Ethics"
  17. Stuart Rosenbaum. "Moral Theory and the Reflective Life"
  18. Walter P. Sinnott-Armstrong. "Explanation and Justification in Moral Epistemology"
  19. Gunnar Skirbekk. " Discourse-Ethical Gradualism: Beyond Antropocentrism and Biocentrism?"
  20. Michael Slote. "Moral Theories and Virtue Ethics"
  21. So Hung-yul. "Pluralism and the Moral Mind"
  22. Margarita M. Valdes. "Practical Ethics and Moral Objectivism"

Volume II: Metaphysics

Editor: Tom Rockmore, Duquesne University
ISBN 1-889680-06-0
Published July 1999

Read the Introduction

  1. Debi Prasad Chattopadhyaya. "On the Ways of Knowing What is There: Being and Knowing"
  2. Arda Denkel. "Transcience and Identity"
  3. Fred Dretske. "Mental Causation"
  4. Robert Greenberg. "The Ontology of Kant's Theory of Knowledge"
  5. Ludger Honnenfelder. "Reconsidering the Tradition of Metaphysics . The Medieval Example (Thomas Aquinas, John Duns Scotus, William Ockham)"
  6. Robert Kane. "New Directions on Free Will"
  7. Sharon Kaye. "Russell, Strawson, and William of Ockham"
  8. Brian Leftow. "Aquinas on the Infinite"
  9. Brian Loar. "Should the Explanatory Gap Perplex Us?"
  10. E. Jonathan Lowe. "Abstraction, Properties, and Immanent Realism"
  11. Robert Cummings Neville. "Eternity and the Time of Education"
  12. Philip Percival. "Chance Events: Some Contasting Explanations"
  13. Herman Philipse. "The Problem of Reinterpreting the "Esistentiala": Heidegger's Grand (Pascalian) Strategy"
  14. Jay Rosenberg. "How Not to Be Systematic: Three Case Studies"
  15. David-Hillel Rubin. "Actions and Their Parts"
  16. Peter M. Simons. "Does the Sun Exist? The Problem of Vague Objects"
  17. Beth J. Singer. " Philosophic Systems and Systematic Philosophy"
  18. Saul Smilansky. "Free Will: The Positive Role of Illusion"
  19. Loretta Torrago. "Vagueness and Identity"
  20. Robert van Gulick. "Taking a Step Back from the Gap"
  21. Peter Van Inwagen. "Meta-ontology: A Brief Introduction"
  22. Roger Wertheimer. "Identity Syntax"
  23. John F. Wippel. "Thomas Aquinas, Siger of Brabant, and Their Use of Avicenna in Clarifying the Subject of Metaphysics"

Volume III: Philosophy of Education

Editor: David Steiner, Boston University
ISBN 1-889680-07-9
Published August, 1999

Read the Introduction

  1. Margaret Chatterjee. "Global Agenda for Teaching Philosophy"
  2. Catherine Z. Elgin. "Education and Understanding"
  3. David Evans. "Global Agenda for Teaching Philosophy"
  4. Richard Feldman. "Epistemology, Argumentation and Citizenship"
  5. James Garrison. "Philosophy as the General Theory of Critical Education"
  6. Mark D. Gedney. "Rousseau's 'Émile': Home-Schooling or Education Behind Closed Doors"
  7. Katalin G. Havas. "Learning to Think: Logic for Children"
  8. Matthew Lipman. "What's Happening with P4C?"
  9. Gareth B. Matthews. "On Valuing Perplexity in Education"
  10. Adrian Miroiu. "Changing Patters of Teaching Philosophy"
  11. J. C. Nyìri. "Philosophy, Education and the History of Communication"
  12. Léon Olivé. "Philosophy and the Future of Education: Can Philosophy and Education Still Emancipate Humanity?"
  13. Lucius Outlaw. "Philosophical Education and Cultural Diversity"
  14. Israel Scheffler. "Some Contributions of Philosophy to Education"
  15. John R. Silber. "Philosophy and the Future of Education"
  16. Tu Wei-ming. "Self-Cultivation as Education Embodying Humanity"
  17. Paul Woodruff. "Paideia and Good Judgment"
  18. Wu Kung-ming. "World Inter-Learning: The Global Project of Teaching Philosophy"

Volume IV: Philosophy of Religion, Art, and Creativity

Editor: Kevin L. Stoehr, Boston University
ISBN 1-889680-08-7
Published November, 1999

Read the Introduction

  1. George Allan. "Forms, Transforms, and the Creative Process"
  2. William Alston. "What Is Distinctive About the Epistemology of Religious Belief?"
  3. Robert Audi. "Ethics and Religion: Philosophical, Psychological, and Political Connections"
  4. Guy Axtell. "Courage, Caution, and Heaven's Gate: James's Pragmatic Defence of Religious Belief"
  5. Stephen F. Barker. "James's Will to Believe"
  6. Peg Zeglin Brand. "Glaring Omissions in Traditional Theories of Art"
  7. Andrew Chignell. "The Problem of Particularity in Kant's Aesthetic Theory"
  8. Mark DeBellis. "The Paradox of Music Analysis"
  9. Gary Gutting. "An Historical Perspective on Religious Epistemology"
  10. Barry Hallen. "'Handsome Is as Handsome Does': Interrelations of the Epistemic, the Moral, and the Aesthetic in an African Culture"
  11. Gary Iseminger. "The Aesthetic Function of Art"
  12. Michael Levine. "The Problem of Evil: Strange Mutations, Strange Solutions"
  13. William E. Mann. "Believing Where We Cannot Prove: Duns Scotus on the Necessity of Supernatural Belief"
  14. Kai Nielson. "On Being a Secularist All the Way Down"
  15. Phillip L. Quinn. "Epistemological Problems of Religious Pluralism"
  16. Matti Sintonen. "Creativity and Discovery"
  17. Charles Taliaferro. "The Ideal Observer's Philosophy of Religion"
  18. Merold Westphal. "The Politics of Religious Pluralism"
  19. Howard Wettstein. "Transforming the Problem of Evil"
  20. Edith Wyschogrod. " The Death of the Sign, the Rise of the Image in Merce Cunningham's Choreography"
  21. Keith Yandell. "God, Freedom, and Creation in Cross-Cultural Perspective"

Volume V: Epistemology

Editor: Richard Cobb-Stevens, Boston College
ISBN 1-889680-09-5
Projected Publication Date: April 2000

Read the Introduction

  1. George Bealer. "A Priori Knowledge"
  2. Laurence Bon Jour. "Four Theses Concerning A Priori Justification"
  3. Bill Brewer. "Self-Knowledge and Externalism"
  4. Fernando Broncano. "Reliable Rationality"
  5. Albert Casullo. "Is Empiricism Coherent?"
  6. Murray Clarke. "Reliabilism and the Meliorative Project"
  7. Keith DeRose. "Now You Know It, Now You Don't"
  8. Richard Foley. "Epistemically Rational Belief and Responsible Belief"
  9. Richard Fumerton. "Relational, Non-Relational, and Mixed Theories of Experience"
  10. Alvin Goldman. "Veritistic Social Epistemology"
  11. John Greco. "Skepticism, Reliabilism and Virtue Epistemology"
  12. Eli Hirsch. "Objectivity Without Objects"
  13. Christopher Hookway. "Virtues, Sentiments, and Epistemic Rationality"
  14. Peter D. Klein. "Why Not Infinitism?"
  15. Brian P. McLaughlin. "Sensory Qualities and Perception"
  16. Paul K. Moser. "Skepticism, Question Begging, and Burden Shifting"
  17. Ilka Niiniluoto. "Is It Rational to Be Rational?"
  18. Michael John Pendlebury. "Perception and Objective Knowledge"
  19. Tom Rockmore. "Knowledge as Historical"
  20. Kevin L. Stoehr. "The Virtues of Circular Reasoning"
  21. V. Stepin. "Knowledge as Cultural and Historical Systems"
  22. Linda Zagzebski. "From Reliabilism to Virtue Epistemology"

Volume VI: Analytic Philosophy and Logic

Editor: Akihiro Kanamori, Boston University
ISBN 1-889680-10-9
Projected Publication Date: June 2000

Read the Introduction

  1. Daniel Andler. "The Undefinability of Analytic Philosophy"
  2. Donald Baxter. "A Humean Temporal Logic"
  3. Joao Branquinho. "On the Individuation of Fregean Propositions"
  4. Oswaldo Chateaubriand. "Logical Forms"
  5. Luciano Floridi. "Mathematical Skepticism: The Cartesian Approach"
  6. Manuel Garcia-Carpintero. "Token-Reflexivity and Indirect Discourse"
  7. D. Goldstick. "Correspondence"
  8. Bob Hale. "Reals By Abstraction"
  9. Jaakko Hintikka. "What is True and What is False About So-called Theories of Truth"
  10. Terry Horgan. "Facing Up to the Sorites Paradox"
  11. Phillip L. Peterson. "Fact/Proposition/Event Individuation"
  12. Lorenz B. Puntel. "What Does ' True' ('It is True...') Express?"
  13. W. V. Quine. "The Pre-Established Harmony of Subjective Perceptual Similarity"
  14. Mark Sainsbury. "Empty Names"
  15. Gabriel Sandu. "Partiality and Truth"
  16. Stephen Schiffer. "Pleonastic Fregeanism"
  17. Stewart Shapiro. "Set-Theoretic Foundations"
  18. Roger Wertheimer. "The Synonymy Antinomy"
  19. Tim Williamson. "Semantic Paradox and Semantic Change"
  20. George Wilson. "Satisfaction Through the Ages"

Volume VII: Modern Philosophy

Editor: Mark Gedney, Gordan College
ISBN 1-889680-11-7
Projected Publication Date: June 2000

Read the Introduction

  1. Robert Merrihew Adams. "Leibniz's Conception of Religion"
  2. Henry Allison. "Kant's Conception of Enlightenment"
  3. Sidney Axinn. "Kant on Possible Hope: The Critique of Pure Hope."
  4. Michael Ayers. "Can There be a New Empiricism?"
  5. Klaus Brinkmann. "System and History in Hegel"
  6. Harold I. Brown. "Berkeley on the Conceivability of Qualities and Material Objects"
  7. Edwin Curley. "Castellio vs. Spinoza on Religious Toleration"
  8. Georges Dicker. "Regularity, Conditionality, and Asymmetry in Causation"
  9. Manfred Gawlina. "Transcendental Philosophy and the Specific Demands of Paideia."
  10. Simone Goyard-Fabre. "Les Lumières et leur héritage"
  11. Marcia L. Homiak. "Does Hume Have an Ethics of Virtue? Some Observations on Character and Reasoning in Hume and Aristotle."
  12. Zeljko Loparic. "Is the Enlightenment an Outdated Program?"
  13. Douglas Moggach. "The Construction of Juridical Space: Kant's Analogy of Relation in the Metaphysics of Morals"
  14. Jose Paulo Monteiro. "Hume's Empiricism and the Rationality of Induction"
  15. Hans Poser. "Leibniz's Proposals for Language Societies as a Means of Enlightenment"
  16. R.C. Sleigh. "Faith and Reason in the Philosophy of Leibniz"
  17. David Woodruff Smith. "Ontological Phenomenology"
  18. Robert Sokolowski. "Transcendental Phenomenology"
  19. William Sweet. "Bosanquet, Culture, and the Influence of Idealist Logic."
  20. Morton White. "The Ideas of the Enlightenment and Their Legacy: The Psychologism of Hume and Quine Compared"
  21. John Woods. "Hasty Generalization"

Volume VIII: Contemporary Philosophy

Editor: Daniel Dahlstrom, Boston University
ISBN 1-889680-12-5
Projected Publication Date: Summer 2000

  1. Louise Antony. "Situating Feminist Epistemology"
  2. James Campbell. "Dewey's Foundations"
  3. Peter Caws. "Temporary Necessities and Permanent Possibilities: Structuralism and Poststructuralism"
  4. Daniel Dennett. "Postmodernism and Truth"
  5. Steven Fuller. "The Truth About Science in the Postmodern Condition: An Answer to Dennett's 'Postmodernism and Truth'"
  6. Rodolphe Gasche. "Specters of Nietzsche"
  7. Majorie Grene. "What Have We Learned From Philosophy in the Twentieth Century?"
  8. Cheryl Hall. "Feminism's Essential Eros"
  9. Sally Haslanger. "Defining Knowledge: Feminist Values and Normative Epistemology"
  10. Larry A. Hickman. "What Was Dewey's "Magic Number"?"
  11. Dale Jacquette. "The Deconstruction Debacle in Theory and Practice"
  12. Hans Lenk. "Outline of a Systematic Schema of Interpretation"
  13. Raymond Martin. "Narration, Objectivity, and Methodological Truth"
  14. C. Behan McCullagh. "The Structure and Objectivity of Historical Narratives"
  15. Marilyn Myerson. "Feminist Approaches to Sexology"
  16. Alan M. Olson. "Epochal Consciousness and the Philosophy of History"
  17. Helmut Pape. "The Unity of Classical Pragmatism: Its Scope and its Limits"
  18. Tom Rockmore. "Recent Analytic Philosophy and Idealism"
  19. Sandra B. Rosenthal. "Pragmatism: What's in a Name"
  20. John R. Silber. "Paideia: Philosophy Educating Humanity"
  21. Natalie Stoljar. "The Politics of Identity and the Metaphysics of Diversity: Conceptions of Essentialism in Feminist Philosophy"
  22. P. F. Strawson. "What Have We Learned From Philosophy in the Twentieth Century?"
  23. Georg Henrik von Wright. "Philosophy. A guide for the Perplexed?"
  24. Stephen Watson. "'Post-Structuralism' and the Despensation of the Good: A Reinterpretation of Levinas"
  25. Paul Weiss. "Philosophy as an Adventure: Reflections on the Twentieth Century"

Volume IX: Philosophy of Mind and Philosophy of Psychology

Editor: Bernard Elevitch, Boston University
ISBN 1-889680-13-3
Projected Publication Date: Summer 2000

Read the Introduction

  1. Lynn Rudder Baker. "What Am I?"
  2. Josep E. Corbi and Josep L. Prades. "Mental Contents, Tracking Counterfactuals, and Implementing Mechanisms"
  3. Michael DePaul. "Character Traits, Virtues and Vices: Are There None?"
  4. Jesus Ezquerro and Agustín Vicente. "Explanatory Exclusion, Over-Determination, and the Mind-Body Problem."
  5. James H. Fetzer. "Computing is at Best a Special Kind of Thinking"
  6. Adolf Grünbaum. "Does Freudian Theory Resolve "The Paradoxes of Irrationality"?"
  7. Olbeth Hansberg. "The Role of Emotions in Moral Psychology"
  8. Ted Honderich. "Consciousness as Existence Again"
  9. Henry Jackman. "Belief, Rationality, and Psychophysical Laws."
  10. Pierre Jacob. "Can Selection Explain Content?"
  11. Mark Leon. "Believing Autonomously"
  12. Diana Tietjens Meyers. "Authenticity for Real People"
  13. Ruth Millikan. "Naturalizing Intentionality"
  14. James Moor. "Why Thinking Must Be Computation of the Right Kind"
  15. Carlos J. Moya. "A Proposal About Intentional Action"
  16. John L. Pollock. "Rationality in Philosophy and Artificial Intelligence"
  17. Sydney Shoemaker. "Realization and Mental Causation"
  18. Mary Tjiattas. "Functional Irrationality."
  19. Stephen Yablo. "The Seven Habits of Highly Effective Thinkers"

Volume X: Philosophy of Science

Editor: Tian Yu Cao, Boston University
ISBN 1-889680-14-1
Projected Publication Date: Summer 2000

Read the Introduction

  1. Evandro Agazzi. "Science and Humanities in the New Paideia"
  2. Daniel Bonevac. "Defeasibly Sufficient Reason"
  3. Tian Yu Cao. "Representation or Construction? An Interpretation of Quantum Field Theory"
  4. Manuel Comesaña. "Should Philosophy of Science Exist?"
  5. Alberto Cordero. "Physics and the Underdetermination Thesis: Some Lessons from Quantum Theory"
  6. Marcelo Dascal. "Controversies and Epistemology"
  7. Eduardo H. Flischman. "Newton's Dynamics, Kuhn, and Incommensurability"
  8. Bruce Glymour and Marcelo Sabates. " Micro-Level Indeterminism and Macro-Level Determinism"
  9. David Gruenberg. "Bootstrappig and the Problem of Testing Quantitative Theoretical Hypotheses."
  10. David Gruender. "On Explanation: Aristotelian and Hemplean."
  11. Theo A. F. Kuipers. "Epistemological Positions in the Light of Truth Approximations."
  12. Vladislav A. Lektorsky. "Scientific Knowledge as Historical and Cultural Phenomenon"
  13. Manuel Liz. "New Physical Properties."
  14. Jesus Mosterin. "Self-Consciousness and the Cosmic Consciousness"
  15. Carlos Ulises Moulines. "Ontology, Reduction, and the Unity of Science"
  16. Gary S. Rosenkrantz. "What is Life?"
  17. Michael Ruse. "Reduction in Biology"
  18. Lawrence Sklar. "What is an Isolated System?"
  19. Elliot R. Sober. "Instrumentalism Revisited"
  20. Miriam Solomon. "Consensus in Science"
  21. Ryszard Wojcicki. "What Do We Know?"

Volume XI: Social and Political Philosophy

Editor: David Rasmussen, Boston College
ISBN 1-889680-15-X
Projected Publication Date: Summer 2000

  1. Karl-Otto Apel. "May a Political Conception of Overlapping Consensus be an Adequate Basis for Global Justice?"
  2. Pierre Aubenque. "Paideia et Physis dans la conception grecque antique"
  3. Wolfgang Balzer. "Freedom and Equity in the Comparison of Political Systems"
  4. Danial O. Dahlstrom. "Love, Honor, and Resentment"
  5. Peter A. French. "The Meaning of Democracy: A Western Perspective"
  6. Newton Garver. "Politics and Anti-Politics"
  7. Margaret Gilbert. "Sociality, Unity, Objectivity"
  8. Jonathan L. Gorman. "Justice and Toleration: A Western Perspective"
  9. Jorge J. E. Gracia. "Philosophy in American Public Life: De facto and De jure"
  10. Michael Halberstam. "Aestheticism or Aesthetic Approach in Arendt and Heidegger on Politics"
  11. Sirkku Kristiina Hellsten. "Communitarianism and Western Thought"
  12. Robert L. Holmes. "A Western Perspective on the Problem of Violence"
  13. Ionna Kuçuradi. " Paideia as the Subjective Condition for a Sagacious Implementation of Human Rights"
  14. Gabriel Vargas Lozano. "Liberal Democracy and Radical Democracy: The Two Faces of Janus"
  15. Neil MacCormick. "Rhetoric and the Rule of Law"
  16. Thomas Magnell. "Educating for Practical Reasoning."
  17. Rex Martin. "Rawls on Constitutional Consensus and the Problem of Stability"
  18. William McBride. "Consumerist Cultural Hegemony Within a Cosmopolitan Order. Why Not?"
  19. Antonio Perez-Estevez. "Intercultural Dialogue and Human Rights: A Latinamerican Reading of Rawls' 'The Law of Peoples'"
  20. Eduardo Robossi. "Paideia, Social Justice, Human Rights"
  21. James P. Sterba. "Reconciling Public Reason and Religious Values"
  22. Olufemi Taiwo. "On the Limits of Law at Century's End"
  23. Raimo Tuomela. "Collective Acceptance and Social Reality"

Volume XII: Intercultural Philosophy

Editors: Stephen Dawson and Tomoko Iwasawa, Boston University
ISBN 1-889680-16-8
Projected Publication Date: Summer 2000

Read the Introduction

  1. Natalia Avtonomova. "On the (Re)creation of Russian Philosophical Language"
  2. Carl Becker. "Philosophy Educating Humanity: From Western to Asian Environmental Ethics"
  3. Arindam Chakrabarti. "Truth, Recognition of Truth, and Thoughtless Realism: Nyaya Without Fregean Fetters"
  4. Debi Prasad Chattopadhyaya. "Communitarianism From An Eastern Perspective"
  5. Cheng Chung-ying. "Classical Chinese Philosophy in a Global Context"
  6. Cheng Chung-ying. "The Philosophy of Violence from an Eastern Perspective"
  7. Mikhail Epstein. "Main Trends of Contemporary Russian Thought"
  8. Emmanuel Eze. "Democracy in Today's Africa: A Philosopher's Point of View"
  9. Jay Garfield. "Buddhism and Democracy"
  10. Hamlet A. Gevorkian. "The Encounter of Cultures and the Philosophy of History: Problems and Solutions"
  11. Chad Hansen. "How Chinese Thought 'Shapes' Western Thought"
  12. Andrzej Kaniowski. "The Impact of Globalization Procedures on Debates about Democracy in Poland and Eastern Europe"
  13. Safro Kwame. "Philosophy and Social Justice: African Perspective"
  14. Lee Kwang-sae. "Justice from an Eastern Perspective: Field and Focus"
  15. Dismas A. Masolo. "Communitarianism: An African Perspective"
  16. Robert Cummings Neville. "Humanity and the Natural World: Reconceiving Knowing, Learning, Living"
  17. Guy Newland. "Tibetan Buddhist Philosophy"
  18. James P. Scanlan. "Main Currents of Post-Soviet Philosophy in Russia"
  19. Barry Smith. "On Forms of Communication"
  20. Edward M. Swiderski. "Stopping Short of or Going Beyong Philosophizing?"
  21. Evert van der Zweerde. "The Normalization of the History of Philosophy in Post-Soviet Russian Philosophical Culture"

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