Translations

The VR-36© and VR-12© have been translated to Spanish, Chinese and German. The Japanese translation is currently being validated and will be available in the near future. Translations to Polish and Russian are also in progress. The rigorous translation method used accounts for cultural differences and assesses the psychometric properties of the translated instrument. Translations methods are based on Back and Forward Translation and the Translation Appraisal System (TAS-10).