Schwartz, Christian Friedrich (1726-1798)

Lutheran missionary evangelist in South India


Born at Sonnenburg, Prussia, Schwartz was trained in Halle like his predecessor Benjamin Schultze, was ordained in Copenhagen in 1749, and arrived in India in 1750. He served for 11 years at Tranquebar, where he mastered Tamil, Portuguese, and English. In 1762 he followed some Indian converts to Tiruchirapalli, an important fort-town ruled by the nawab (prince) of Arcot, where he ministered not only to Indian Christians of the Tranquebar mission but also to Hindus and soldiers of the English garrison. He learned Urdu in order to converse with Muslims, in particular, the representatives of the ruling prince. Visitors reported that he did the work of several missionaries.

Along with his untiring zeal as an evangelist and his deep understanding of Indian character, Schwartz displayed a saintly disposition and integrity that go far to account for his extraordinary influence. It has been rightly said that “he retrieved the character of Europeans from imputations of general depravity.” His ecumenical spirit, which led him to accept an appointment as chaplain to the British community in Tiruchirapalli, was another important factor. But he never neglected his duties as a missionary to non-Christians or abandoned his loyalty as a Lutheran.

Another remarkable aspect of Schwartz’s ministry was his involvement in politics. After he had moved to the town of Tanjore, he quickly gained the confidence of the Hindu rajah, who on his deathbed appointed Schwartz guardian and trustee of his young heir. Although Schwartz declined, he later assisted the young prince. He also tried to be of use to the British, who on one occasion sent him as a special envoy of peace to Haider Ali, the despot of Mysore. Schwartz returned with respect for the Muslim ruler but complained of the insincerity and avarice of the British.

Finally, Schwartz contributed significantly to the strengthening of an indigenous church in India. He made every effort to find and train young Indians for the ministry, often supporting them from his own pocket. He also encouraged the spontaneous expansion of small groups of Christians, such as those discovered during a visit to Palamcottah in 1778, the nucleus of what later became the large and vigorous Tinnevelly church. He was also responsible for the education of Vedanayagam, son of a catechist who trained under Schwartz; Vedanayagam was to become one of the greatest Tamil poets and hymn composers. Schwartz died in Tanjore.

Hans-Werner Gensichen, “Schwartz, Christian Friedrich,” in Biographical Dictionary of Christian Missions, ed. Gerald H. Anderson (New York: Macmillan Reference USA, 1998), 606-607.

This article is reprinted from Biographical Dictionary of Christian Missions, Macmillan Reference USA, copyright © 1998 Gerald H. Anderson, by permission of Macmillan Reference USA, New York, NY. All rights reserved.


Digital Text

Holcomb, Helen H. Men of Might in India Missions; the Leaders and their Epochs, 1706-1899. New York, Chicago: Fleming H. Revell, 1901.


Germann, W. Missionar Christian Friederich Schwartz: sein Leben und Wirken aus Briefen des Halleschen Missionarsarchivs. Erlangen: n.p., 1870.

Lamb, G. H. Memoir of Christian Frederick Schwartz. Madras: The Christian Literature Society for India (The United Society for Christian Literature), 1948.

Pearson, H. Memoirs of the Life and Correspondence of the Rev. Christian Friedrick Schwartz, 3ed., 2 vols. New York: D. Appleton, 1835.

A biographical sketch of Schwartz’s life and work in south India as a Lutheran missionary, including an extract of his “1787 Supporting Essay on Christian Missions to the Heathen,” which originally appeared in “Report of the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, for the Year 1787”.


Christian Friedrich Schwartz Image,” Courtesy, Center for Study of the Life and Work of William Carey, D.D. (1761-1834), William Carey University, Hattiesburg, Mississippi, 39401, USA. All rights reserved.