ECE PhD Dissertation Defense: Shuto Osawa

Title: Photonic Quantum Information Processing Based On Directionally-Unbiased Linear-Optical Multiports

Presenter: Shuto Osawa

Chair: Professor Anna Swan (ECE, Physics, MSE)

Advisor: Professor Alexander Sergienko (ECE)

Committee: Professor Luca Dal Negro (ECE, MSE, Physics); Professor Roberto Paiella (ECE, MSE); Professor Milos Popovic (ECE)

Abstract: The progress in modern quantum information processing (QIP) strongly depends on new algorithms and on the development of novel quantum entanglement processing elements enabling to perform quantum computation and quantum simulation effectively. Several examples of quantum information processing applications based on freshly designed linear-optics devices are presented. A beam splitter is a central device in linear-optical quantum information processing because it can split the incoming photon amplitudes into spatially distinct modes to establish conditions for quantum superposition. The BS naturally possesses directional-bias in a sense that incoming photons can only propagate in a forward manner. When the execution of certain quantum information tasks would require multiple operations, this directionality condition becomes a serious obstacle by creating significant overhead in the number of needed elements and other supporting devices. We introduce a family of amplitude-controllable fully-reversible linear-optical quantum information processors, called directionally-unbiased linear-optical multiports, in order to achieve significant reduction in the number of required hardware. The theoretical analysis of the device design as well as the experimental realization of three-port unit using bulk linear optics is demonstrated. These devices offer several fresh approaches in quantum-walk-based applications such as quantum simulation of solid-state Hamiltonians, topological protection of polarization qubits against errors, and quantum communication. Topological photonics is an emerging and actively developing field because of its capability to stabilize and protect some quantum states from perturbation errors by ensuring the environment carries a distinct topological signature. Topology-dependent quantum information processing is globally stable due to the entire system being engaged in the information manipulation. We demonstrate suppression of quantum amplitude transfer between two distinct bulk regions of a system. This results in error avoidance for a two-photon polarization-entangled state under specific conditions. The goal of modern quantum communication is a reliable distribution of quantum entanglement between multiple nodes performing quantum operations such as quantum memories and quantum computers. We demonstrated that local quantum information processing using new fully-reversible four-port linear-optical structures could find an immediate application in quantum communication. A quantum information routing device is introduced based on the use of four-dimensional Grover matrices and beam splitters. Several multiport-based units are developed to demonstrate new higher-dimensional Hong-Ou-Mandel (HOM) effect and directionally-controllable entangled state distribution while changing only phases in a waveguided unit. Several such operational elements could be linked to form a reconfigurable network of quantum users without losing control of quantum amplitudes. This allows controllable routing of entangled photons and sharing entanglement between any designated users in the future quantum computational networks.

When 3:30 pm to 5:30 pm on Friday, March 19, 2021