Clinical Training

The Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE)

The following is an excerpt from the Boston University Alzheimer’s Disease Center Publication titled, Mini Mental State Examination and Logical Memory scores for entry into Alzheimer’s disease trials

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Alzheimer’s disease (AD) clinical trials and diagnostic studies are responsible for the testing and development of therapeutics and diagnostic methods for AD. These large-scale, multi center studies must have strict inclusion criteria to accurately identify and discriminate normal cognition, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and AD dementia and recruit the population of interest to facilitate internal and external validity. This, however, is no straightforward task. Although there have been great gains in the development of biomarkers for the accurate in vivo diagnosis and early detection of AD (e.g., lumbar puncture, positron emission tomography) [1–3], these are invasive procedures typically conducted following initial screening methods. Instead, investigators in AD clinical trials and diagnostic studies often initially rely on brief cognitive screening tests to detect cognitive impairment and classify patients, using a variety of research derived cut scores, as having normal cognition, MCI, or dementia. The Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) [4] and the Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS) Logical Memory (LM) test [5] are two screening measures commonly used to determine inclusion in these studies.

Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) Scale

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The following is an excerpt from the Washington University in St. Louis Alzheimer’s Disease Research Center’s website:

The CDR is a 5-point scale used to characterize six domains of cognitive and functional performance applicable to Alzheimer disease and related dementias: Memory, Orientation, Judgment & Problem Solving, Community Affairs, Home & Hobbies, and Personal Care. The necessary information to make each rating is obtained through a semi-structured interview of the patient and a reliable informant or collateral source (e.g., family member).

Legal Advisor: Advance Directives

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