Philosophy and the Language of Dialectics Leonid G. Kreidik

Dialectics is a moving soul of every scientific evolution of thought. It represents a principle, which introduces in contents of science an immanent bond and necessity...  Hegel I. Introduction Natural science is, in point of fact, a dialectical science. It is a subjective image of a definite class of objects and a class of relations and processes related to the objects. The class of processes and relations should be treated as an ideal class with respect to which the class of objects is a material class. Both these classes form a materialideal class of objects, which represents an original of the definite science. We term the original an objective science or an objective pattern of natural (subjective) science. The subjective science, as the pattern of the objective science, is built first of all on the basis of a dialectical triad: languagelogicphilosophy, which in the broad sense of the word are the language of dialectics. II. The Dialectical Triad 2.1. Grammar of the Language The first level of the language of dialectics and logical thinking is its grammar. A basis of the grammar constitutes wordslexemes (nameswords) and wordslexas (relationswords) which are not separated by a clearcut boundary. All variety of lexas in languages of the high level is disintegrated into a series of parts of speech or grammatical factor sets. Words equal on the definite functional criterion are elements of these factor sets. It is impossible precisely to demarcate such sets because they are always rather fuzzy. The grammatical factor sets reflect definite sides of nature, which should consider as objective factor sets of nature itself. Thus, they are images of factor sets of originals. Characteristic sets reflecting definite relations of the real World are a part of the grammatical factor sets as well. Relying on Latin language, we will consider the sets of originals and images. Nature, as a complex of objective basissuperstructure (baseadbase or basesuperstructura), induces in human consciousness a triad of basis: form (forma), contents (continens), process (processus); and a triad of superstructure: a common name of an object of thought (commune nomen),
Fig. 1. A graph of basissuperstructure. At a morphological level, objective basis and superstructure form a morphological subjective structure of the basissuperstructure (Fig. 2). Fig. 2. A morphological graph of basissuperstructure of the grammatical level. At the level of superstructure, common names form a factor set of pronomen (pronoun), the abstract quantity forms a numerale (numeral) factor set, the quality forms an adverbium (adverb) factor set. At the level of basis, material form is expressed by a factor set of nomen adjectivum (adjective) and ideal form is presented by a participium (participle) characteristic set. Contents symbolizes a factor set of nomen substantivum (noun). Action process is expressed by a verbum (verb) factor set and decomposed into two subsets of action (actio) and state (statio) verbs. A verb of a activum verbum subset (a subset of action) is transitium verbum (transition verb), whereas a verb of a stativum verbum subset (a subset of state) is intransitivum verbum (intransitive verb). State process is described by characteristic sets: gerundio (verbal adverb, gerundio), gerundium (verbal noun, gerund), and gerundivum (verbal adjective, gerundive). Verbs of motion and state express definite selfrelations of a subject, object, environment (ambitus) and relations between them. The main peculiarity of these relations and selfrelations is a definite directedness. We call tendencia (tendency) a set of verbal forms of the directedness of a process. In more or less extent, the tendencia set is presented in contemporary languages by different forms of voice. Verbs of zeroth directedness should be referred to the tendencia set, because the set will not be complete without them. Basis and superstructure, as the morphological level of a language, have the proper superstructure — the syntactical level (Fig. 1.3). Fig. 3. A syntactical graph of the grammatical level. The syntactical level, as the complex superstructure, has own basis: a set of subjective contents, subjectum (subject); a set of objective contents, objectum (object); a set of form, attributum (attribute); a set of motion and state, praedicatum (predicate). Circumstantia (adverbial modifier) represents the superstructure of the syntactical level, which decomposes into a series of subsets with own functions similar to adverb. 2.2 Logical Grammar Dialectical logic and logical grammar (the last includes a logical morphology and syntax) are related to the second level of the language of dialectics whose basis constitute dialectical logical factor sets or logical "parts of speech". The logical factor sets are represented by dialectical forms of thinking reflecting contradictory nature of reality. Let us consider the main of them. Cognition of the World proceeds first of all on the basis of comparison. In the first approximation, any face of a state or a phenomenon of nature has at least two sides of comparison. If sides of such faces coincide in some features, it is fixed by lexemestautologies such as directdirect, curvedcurved, etc. If there are some differences, lexemessynonyms are used. Opposite sides are expressed by lexemesantonyms: directcurved, simplecomplex, etc. Polaropposite notions are expressed by lexemesantilogies such as materialideal, restmotion, etc. We join tautologies, synonyms, antonyms, and antilogies by the common name oppositi (sg. oppositus) (from the Latin, oppositus=opposite). Oppositi are lagical parts of speech. Apart from these groups of words, there are many wordshomonyms, which being identical in form express different notions. Words contained in an oppositus, we term elements of the oppositus or semioppositi (in particular, semitautologies, semiantilogies, etc.). Definite relations take place between semiopposoti and oppositi. We denote the common name of the relations by the symbol " ° ", which is a symbolpronoun of any relations. Oppositi of similaritydifference, analysissynthesis, deductioninduction, generalparticular, contentsform, qualityquantity, truthlie, etc.,
and their combinations are the most important elementary oppositijudgements of dialectical logic. A set of sentences, describing an object of thought without sufficient clearing up of its essence, constitutes a description of the object of thought. The description is the first logical cyntactical factor set. The description is followed by determination of its essence based on the statements. A statement is meant as a set of sentences that characterizes, to a certain extent, the essence of the object of thought on the basis of ideas and concepts. Of course, there is no distinctive boundary between a description and a statement. The statement is the second logical cyntactical factor set. Generalized statements, or pronoun statements form complex judgements constituting the third factor set. A dialectical complex judgement is a form of thinking, in which the object of thought of the objectivesubjective reality is described through the whole spectrum of contradictions and noncontradictions by affirmation (Yes), negation (No), affirmationaffirmation (YesYes), negationnegation (NoNo), affirmationnegation (YesNo), negationaffirmation (NoYes), and more complicated combinations of Yes and No. Statements and judgements are usually combined into an unified statementjudgement set that is called an reasoning. Descriptions, statements, judgements and reasonings could be united by one common name as reflections. Reflections are concerned with the level of knowledge, below of which there is a level of ignorance. On the interface between these levels, the intuitive processes of consciousness and thinking occur. They are induced by experience, experience and Cosmos, and only by Cosmos. Logic induced by experience, experience and Cosmos are humancontrollable to some extent. Intuition induced by Cosmos alone occurs on the subconscious level. Intuition is not humancontrolled and deep understanding of the World is impossible without it. Intuition generates its own ideas, concepts, statements, judgements and reasonings. A set of logical means of thinking realizing transition from one level of knowledgepremise to another new level of knowledgeconclusion is a deduction. The deduction forms a logical functional bond between a premise and conclusion. In dialectics, an estimation of an extent of truth and falsity of oppositi and deductions, describing objects of thought, is realized by oppositijudgements whose components of affirmation and negation express measures of truth and falsity, respectively. We term these logical judgements about judgements as oppositiopinions or simpler, opinions (from the Latin, opinio=view). Evidently, opinions themselves can be analyzed from point of view their truthfalsity. Therefore, it makes sense to consider also logical judgements about the judgementsopinions. Such judgements we call oppositignomes (from the Greek, gnomh=opinion) or simpler gnomes. Opinions and gnomes are peculiar the first and second logical derivatives of oppositijudgements, describing objects of thought. In real life, the judgements about fairness of any affirmations, opinions, and theories are not restricted solely by the logical derivatives of the second orders. 2.3. Dialectical Philosophy The third generalized level of the language of dialectics is dialectical philosophy. The main qualitative postulates of the dialectical philosophy constitute two postulates: 1. The Postulate of Existence. It exists () the materialideal, objectivesubjective, finiteinfinite, continuousdiscontinuous, quantitativequalitative the dialectical Universe () whose sides () are linked by the systemset of dialectical relations and with the relations of materialideal exchange : , where kN, sk and fk are contradictory sides of facetsoppositi of the Universe, is the symbol of the infinite universal bond, is the unionconjunction "and". 2. The Postulate of Evolution. Any object or process A in the Universe is equal and not equal to itself: III. Quantities and Measures of Dialectical Judgements We will consider the simplest meanings of judgementssemioppositi. If Z is an elementary dialectical affirmative (or negative) judgement, its possible meanings are: Si (No), a neutral affirmation (neutral negation) or briefly, an affirmation (negation); +Si (+No), a positive affirmation (positive negation); and Si ( No), a negative affirmation (negative negation). Affirmations +Si,  Si (negations +No,  No) are related to affirmation Si (negation No) as particular and general. Below are some examples of the elementary judgements:
Natural objects and phenomena of nature induce in dialectics additive and multiplicative oppositijudgements of the following kinds: Si+Yes and Si•Yes, Si+No and Si•No, No+Si and No•Si, No+Not and No•Not. We denote measures of judgements Si and No by sumbols M(Si) and M(No) or briefly by the symbol M. Oppositijudgements Si and Yes (No and Not) are synonyms. A measure of a judgement represents a composite complex of basis and superstructure: , where q is basis, a core of the measure, quantitative value; the sign "" is superstructure, an envelope of the measure, which is expressed by a set of various signs that refer to the basis. Elementary judgements of affirmation with an unit measure of affirmation will be termed unit affirmations and denoted by 1. The number a of the units will be assumed to be a measure of the affirmative judgement: M(Si) = a•1 or briefly M(Si) = a, aR. The affirmation is positively if a > 0, otherwise it is negative. Elementary judgements of a polar negation with a unit measure of the polar negation will be named unit polar negations and denoted by i. The number b of the units will be assumed to be a measure of the polar negation judgement: M(No) = b•i or briefly M(No) = ib, bR. The negation is positively if b > 0, otherwise it is negative. Judgements with measures a and ib are polaropposite judgementsantilogies, whereas judgements with opposite by sign measures a and b (correspondingly ia and ib) are simply opposite judgements, as judgementsantonyms. According to the above designations, additive and multiplicative contradictory judgements with polaropposite semioppositi have the following form, correspondingly: Z= a+ib and Z= aib, at that the multiplicative judgement is a particular case of the additive judgements. Let us agree an asemioppositus to term the material component of an oppositus, meaning the word "material" as a general name of asemioppositi. The adjective "material" can take the definite meaning in every specific case. Correspondingly, a polaropposite ibsemioppositus will be termed the ideal component of the oppositus, assuming the word "ideal" as a general name of ibsemioppositi. Here, the word "ideal" can take the definite sense also in every concrete case. For example, if "material" = quantitative then "ideal" = qualitative. Oppositi Z= a+ib form a field of materialideal measuresnumbers, syntax of which is described by the following algebras (1, 2) of affirmation (Yes): (Si_{1}) • (Si_{2}) = +Si_{3 }, and negation (No): (No_{1}) • (No_{2}) =  Si (Si_{1}) • (Si_{2}) =  Si_{3} ; (No_{1}) • (No_{2}) =  Si The algebras of affirmation and negation are models of objective algebras of physical fields of exchange. If an electric field is a field Yes then a magnetic field, as a negation field of the electrical field, is a field No. Therefore, interactions of electric charges are described by the algebra of affirmation, but electric currents  by the algebra of negation: two charges of the same sign repel each other, i.e. (Si_{1}) • (Si_{2}) = +Si_{3} , and currents of the same sign mutually attract, i.e. (No_{1}) • (No_{2}) =  Si , etc. The algebra of dialectical judgements shows one’s worth in social processes as well. It formally coincides with the algebra of complex numbers but in contents the dialectical algebra of judgements does not equal to the algebra of complex numbers. A simplest materialideal numberoppositus has the following form
where iy is an argument of the number, is an index of expansion of the basis b in the base of the natural logarithm e. (2) The semioppositus a expresses generally a nonrecurring facet of the process at the quantitative side and the semioppositus b^{iy} describes a periodical aspect of the process with the ideal period
at its qualitative side. If b = 10, we arrive at Y_{b} = _{p}. A graph of such dialectical judgement of affirmationnegation of the wave character is shown in Fig. 4. Fig. 4. The ideal period _{p} and its rational parts lie at the base of ancient measures, at the mass spectrum of elementary particles and at the series of fundamental constants of physics. (2) For example, an ancient Roman ounce is equal to 2.7288 decagram. The bond of the materialideal dialectical field of measuresjudgements with the materialideal World is exhibited here. IV. Conclusion The threelevel representation of the language of dialectics and its mathematical principles, whose basis constitute oppositijudgements of the threedimensional structure, more complete reflect objective oppositijudgements. The numerical field of dialectics and its logical apparatus significantly simpler and naturally describe and solve problems of a scientifictechnical character, many of which are not solving within the classical analysis. It is impossible without dialectical analysis an essential theoretical and practical advance deep into an atom and elementary particles, which are adequately described only on the basis of variable wave oppositijudgements (2). References (1) L.G. Kreidik, G.P. Shpenkov, The MaterialIdeal Numerical Field, Proceedings of the Conference "CONTACT’95", Sofia, 1995, pp. 3439. (2) L.G. Kreidik, G.P. Shpenkov, Alternative Picture of the World, Bydgoszcz, 1996.
