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Who Was Howard Thurman?

Remembering Marsh Chapel’s path-breaking black dean


Howard Thurman led Marsh Chapel as dean from 1953 to 1965. (Below) Thurman and School of Theology Dean Emeritus Walter Muelder (STH’30, GRS’33, Hon.’73) at the 1978 dedication of BU’s Thurman Room in Marsh Chapel.

A century ago, an African American seventh grader from segregated Daytona, Fla., prepared to board a train for Jacksonville and high school. His family dropped him at the train station with the fare, but neglected to give him enough money to ship his luggage. A boy like other boys, without an adult’s self-sufficiency, he did what any stranded child might do—he sat down and cried. Then a black man, a stranger, covered the bill for him. Years later, when the boy became a man and wrote his life story, With Head and Heart: The Autobiography of Howard Thurman, he dedicated it to the stranger who “restored my broken dream.”

Howard who?

With the 30th anniversary of his death this Sunday, Thurman (1899–1981) remains unknown to many students, say administrators and student ambassadors, or volunteers, at the BU center that bears his name. His life bridged eras: born the grandson of a former slave in horse-and-buggy days, he died the year the IBM personal computer debuted. Death took Thurman (Hon.’67) long enough ago to fog the history he made. He preached a philosophy of Common Ground, which taught that humans need to seek an inner spiritual happiness that would lead them to share their experience in community with others. In 1944, Thurman cofounded San Francisco’s Church for the Fellowship of All Peoples, the first integrated, interfaith religious congregation in the United States. In 1953, he became the dean of Marsh Chapel, the first black dean at a mostly white American university, mentoring, among many others, Martin Luther King, Jr. (GRS’55, Hon.’59) as he developed his philosophy of nonviolence.

Yet Thurman didn’t live the dramatic public activism of King or suffer a similar martyrdom. In fact, critics called him a backbencher in the civil rights movement, more preoccupied with mystical meanderings than front-line protesting. Thurman countered that the first order of social change was changing one’s individual, internal spirit. “He rather gently and powerfully moved through the world in a spirit of grace, dignity, and humility,” says Walter Fluker (GRS’88), Martin Luther King, Jr., Professor of Ethical Leadership at the School of Theology, who published Thurman’s papers, taught a seminar on the man last semester, and wrote his dissertation on Thurman and King.

This year marks the 25th birthday of BU’s Thurman Center, founded to carry on its namesake’s philosophy. That makes for an occasion to ask: who was Howard Thurman?

In an interview shortly before his death, Thurman said he caught the “contagion” of religion from his grandmother, who cared for him after his father died when Thurman was seven and his mother became the family breadwinner. His grandmother recited for Howard the mantra of the black preacher she’d heard as a child on her owner’s plantation: “You are not slaves. You are not niggers. You’re God’s children!” His grandmother’s charismatic rendition, Thurman told the interviewer, inspired in him the belief that “the creator of existence also created me.”

That belief took him to Morehouse College in Atlanta, then to seminary and a series of jobs as pastor and professor. His first pastorate after his 1925 ordination as a Baptist minister, in Ohio in the 1920s, led to study with Quaker pacifist Rufus Jones, which Thurman said changed his life. His thinking was honed by a 1935 trip to India with other African Americans to meet Mohandas Gandhi, who completed Thurman’s conversion to nonviolent social activism.

Thurman’s association with Martin Luther King, Jr., predated BU. Thurman and King’s father, an Atlanta minister, were friends when the young King was growing up. “Thurman was at the King home many times,” says Vita Paladino (MET’79, SSW’93), director of the Howard Gotlieb Archival Research Center, which houses King’s donated papers. Their BU time overlapped for only a year, and King considered his father and Thurman a different, older generation, Paladino says. Nonetheless, King carried Jesus and the Disinherited, Thurman’s most important book, while leading the 1955–56 Montgomery bus boycott.

Published in 1949, the book argues that Jesus taught the oppressed a faith-based, unconditional love that would enable them to endure their oppression. Thurman’s message moved not only King, but Jesse Jackson, who in 1982 penned an essay for a postmortem tribute to Thurman by BU. Jackson the activist wrote that he’d been drawn to Thurman the academic by his insistence that “if you ever developed a cultivated will with spiritual discipline, the flame of freedom would never perish.”

In 1958, after King survived a near-fatal stabbing by a deranged woman in Harlem, Thurman visited him in the hospital. The Gotlieb Center King collection includes a letter that King later sent Thurman, recalling that he’d asked the older man, “Where do I go from here?”

“I am following your advice on the question,” King writes. He doesn’t spell out the advice, but Thurman’s reply expresses joy “that plans are afoot in your own thinking for structuring your life in a way that will deepen its channel.” He also says he hoped to discuss with King “the fulfillment of the tasks to which our hands are set.”

Influencing King and the civil rights movement is “reason alone to justify Thurman to a new generation,” says Fluker. Yet dead for 30 years, gone from BU for almost a half century, Thurman is a ghost to a Thurman Center staff that must make him relevant for 21st-century students. Who knows, for example, how he would have felt about gay rights, only an embryonic issue in his day? Both Fluker and Thurman Center director Katherine Kennedy are unaware of any Thurman commentary on the question, although he counted gay people among his friends.

While recognizing the limits of our Thurman knowledge, Raul Fernandez (COM’00), assistant director of the center, says it’s liberating to pursue the spirit of the man’s words without being shackled by their letter.

“We try not to bind ourselves to that,” he says, “because we understand the different circumstances that we live in today.”

Part two, “The Thurman Center: Evolving with Students,” appears tomorrow.

Rich Barlow can be reached at barlowr@bu.edu.


9 Comments on Who Was Howard Thurman?

  • Joseph mitchell on 04.10.2012 at 11:53 am

    Could you tell me the date of Thurman’s first sermon adter he was named Dean of the Marsh Chapel? I was in a ministry of industry program at the Boston School of Theology in the summer of 1953 and have a vague memory of hearing the sermon. Could you send me a copy of the Worship Bulletin for that day. Joseph Mitchell, 7 Vandora Place, Durham, NC. 919 402 0984

  • Monica Tetzlaff on 07.20.2012 at 10:50 pm

    Thank you for publishing this information about Howard Thurman. He is an theologian whose writings still resonate powerfully with me on the importance of integrating one’s inner spiritual life with the outer life of compassion and social justice with one’s brothers and sisters.

  • Glennie Manuel on 02.06.2015 at 12:38 am

    I was elated when I came across this great information on Howard Thurman. Unknown to me to this point in my life. In 1953 I was just 1 year old. He was a phenomenal person. I enjoyed learning about him in your article. Thanks for sharing as He is one in a million.

  • Joyce Miller on 02.26.2015 at 6:12 pm

    When I was a student at Boston University, Howard Thurman was the Dean of Marsh Chapel — His sermons were incredible and he was very easy to talk with. Everyone learned a lot from him.

  • Joyce Miller on 02.26.2015 at 6:15 pm

    Thurman was dean while I was a student and his sermons were awesome.

  • Joyce Miller on 02.26.2015 at 9:21 pm

    Howard Thurman was an amazing person when I was an under grad at Boston University.
    He taught us much about life, about joy, about working together. And what he taught, stayed with many of us for the rest of our lives. And so it was and and so it is.

  • Elizabeth Chapman on 02.06.2016 at 6:40 am

    So many good and wise people that young people, politicians and leaders should know about! Lafayette and Mayme Noda ,now deceased, sent a Christmas card with a quote i want to share, so I looked up the name and see this wonderful l person who should never be forgotten! What do we get on the net, in many modern books today is distressing because it takes up too much room. What can we do to save all the important wisdom of the past for our striving to grow, be better individuals? If for nothing else, for our own good?

  • velma marshburn on 10.27.2016 at 12:18 am

    Dr.Thurman taught my parents at Morehouse, andSpelman in the 1930’s.I met and was fascinated by his words at Hampton Institute in the 1950’s.His voice was mesmerizing,his eyes danced with passion as he spoke ,in a compelling fashion,during Religious Emphasis Week.I attended all his services and seminars,he really was a student of Gandhi,and shared his beliefs in non-violence.He made me want to be a better me,to use the privileges’,I had been given to help others

  • Brenda on 03.07.2018 at 10:35 am

    I was a 5 year old white girl living in Memphis, Tennessee during the post depression and post WWII hardship era. I was raised by strict parents who taught their six children to never be prejudiced against anyone because of skin color, socio-economics, or culture. Almost three-quarters of a century later I read, “Jesus and The Disinherited”. I wish I’d read it sooner and I wish everyone who hasn’t, would read it now.

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