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Sunny Dispositions

Vitamin D deficiency may be the most common medical problem in the world


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In the video above, Barbara Gilchrest, a MED professor and former chair of dermatology, and Michael Holick, a School of Medicine professor of medicine, physiology, and biophysics, discuss the risks and benefits of the sun.

Researchers have known for decades that vitamin D is crucial for healthy bones, but recent studies have shown that the vitamin plays an important role in myriad functions in the body.

It regulates insulin production in the pancreas as well as in genes that control cell growth, according to Michael F. Holick, a School of Medicine professor of medicine, physiology, and biophysics. It has a marked effect on vascular smooth muscle, important in regulating blood pressure and preventing type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and stroke. It also impacts the immune system, helping it to fight infectious diseases like tuberculosis and influenza and reducing the risk of autoimmune diseases, including Crohn’s disease, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and type 1 diabetes.

“Every tissue and cell has a vitamin D receptor,” says Holick, who has been studying how skin makes vitamin D for more than 30 years. “We estimate that as many as 2,000 genes — up to one-sixth of the total human genome — are directly or indirectly regulated by vitamin D.”

And yet, says Holick, half of all people in the United States don’t get enough of the vitamin. “It’s estimated that about a billion and a half to two billion people worldwide are vitamin D–deficient,” he says. “It’s certainly the most common nutritional deficiency and likely the most common medical problem in the world.”

We get vitamin D from our diet and from supplements, but the principal source is the sun. When sunlight penetrates the skin, says Holick, it converts the prohormone 7-dehydrocholesterol to vitamin D-3, which enters the bloodstream. When it reaches the liver, it becomes 25-hydroxyvitamin D — the circulating form — which is what doctors measure to determine whether a patient is deficient. Next, it goes to the kidneys, where it is converted to the biologically active form, called 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. From there, it moves into the small intestine, interacts with a vitamin D receptor, and stimulates the absorption of calcium. “If you’re vitamin D–deficient, you absorb only 10 to 15 percent of the calcium in your diet,” he says. “If you’re vitamin D–sufficient, 30 to 40 percent.”

Vitamin D also goes to your bones, where it stimulates cells to remove calcium if you are not getting enough from your diet. “It does that,” says Holick, “because the ultimate function of vitamin D throughout evolution is to maintain blood calcium in a normal range. Only when you have enough calcium and phosphorus will you mineralize the skeleton. That’s why vitamin D has always been thought of as important for bone health.”

He says low levels of vitamin D can exacerbate osteoporosis and cause osteomalacia, a painful softening of the bones (called rickets in children). It can also put us at risk for a host of other problems, including multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis, high blood pressure, diabetes, and colon, prostate, breast, and other cancers.

Adults, he says, need 2,000 IUs (international units) of vitamin D a day, a level we can’t get from food. A glass of milk or vitamin D–fortified orange juice, for example, has 100 IUs. A common multivitamin might have 400 IUs. “We did a study last year in a healthy adult population,” he says. “We gave them 1,000 units of vitamin D-2 or vitamin D-3 through the wintertime. Not one person became vitamin D–sufficient.”

Holick argues that another reason we are deficient is that we don’t get enough sun; we spend too much time indoors or slathered with sunblock. It’s especially a problem for residents of northern latitudes.

“We showed that in Boston you can’t make any vitamin D in your skin from November through March, no matter how long you stay outside,” he says. “In the summertime, you can’t make any vitamin D at eight in the morning or at five in the afternoon.”

He recommends that adults take a supplement with 2,000 units of vitamin D every day and that teenagers and children take 1,000 units per day. He also advises spending some time in the sun, which puts him at odds with dermatologists. The American Academy of Dermatology recommends getting vitamin D through a healthy diet, which may include vitamin supplements, rather than spending unprotected time in the sun.

“I don’t advocate tanning,” Holick says. “But I do advocate sensible sun exposure. I tell people to wear some protection on your face. Arms and legs — 10 to 15 minutes of sun a couple of times a week between 10 and3, depending on the season, latitude, and skin pigmentation — is usually adequate.”

Holick, whose book The Vitamin D Solution will be published in April, says he’s begun doing studies on varying amounts of vitamin D in the body and its impact on health outcomes. “We’re asking the question, how does your body know it’s getting enough vitamin D?” he says.

The bottom line, he believes, is that there is no downside to increasing our intake of vitamin D: “If you think of it evolutionarily, it’s the oldest hormone on this Earth. I don’t think that this is going to be a flash in the pan.”

Cynthia K. Buccini can be reached at cbuccini@bu.edu.


6 Comments on Sunny Dispositions

  • Rob Anthony on 03.08.2010 at 2:42 pm

    This dermatologist is like the doctor from a tobacco company who insists cigarette smoking is not linked to cancer.

    In her world, everyone would be D3 deficient..

    Disgusted at how she tried to turn the perspective away from how D3 really is implicated in so many diseases..

  • Anonymous on 03.08.2010 at 3:55 pm

    Good job Dr Holick

    Dr Gilchrist’s arguments were weak at best. It’s disappointing that the majority of the medical community doesn’t endorse anything that isn’t supported by Big Pharma.

  • hoosierville on 03.08.2010 at 7:22 pm

    Dr. Gilchrist never shuts up...

    Gilchrist is a joke. Same old same old. I hope the dermatological community gets their pants sued off of them when people finally realize that the medical professionals who’ve been telling us to live like vampires are basically nuts. And where was the science regarding sunscreens…whoops…maybe on the floor of all the manufaturers of a product that basically makes your skin not work properly.

    I’d like to know what she has to say about the Copenhagen study that came out this week which claims that Vitamin D tirggers and arms the immune system.


    I hope Dr. Gilchrist’s malpractice insurance is up to date.

    I know you’ll delete this but it felt good to type it.

  • Anonymous on 03.10.2010 at 9:23 am

    Thank you Dr. Holick. Why is this so hard to understand? The evidence is a proven fact. I am from the generation of iodine and baby oil, maybe it really was the iodine and not the sun that caused increases in skin aliments. Although, I am 59 and have no visible signs of skin cancer. Why does it really feel so wonderful to sit in the sun? When it gets too hot, if we follow our instincts, we know it is time to get out of the SUN. We really need to think of ourselves as part of this planets completeness. We have existed on this planet but really need to exist with this planet. And if that includes a 15 minute sun bath daily, aren’t we lucky. I have heard that you can’t argue with an idiot, and anyone who sits in the sun long enough to get a sun burn is an idiot. Survival of the fittest is important because it decreases the world of idiots. So sunburns do have a purpose.

  • Anonymous on 03.10.2010 at 9:52 am

    This string of comments is absolutely absurd. Anyone who has spent any time in a dermatologist’s office watching people become disfigured because they need a large area of their skin excised due to skin cancers brought on by overexposure to the sun would be wary of unprotected sun exposure.

    Secondly, how you could you possibly relate someone who spends their life trying to protect their patients and the general public from cancer to the doctor’s advocating cigarette smoke, is beyond logical reasoning.

    I’d also like to point out that advising people to stay out of the sun, protect themselves from it, and take over-the-counter vitamin D supplements are not in any way advantageous to “Big Pharma.” These are actually preventative measures to inhibit the use of prescription drugs and medical devices later on that would make pharmaceutical companies a lot more money.

    Also, if you’re going to slander someone, at least attempt to spell her name correctly: Dr. Gilchrest. And, honestly, she’s a joke? She’s the most well-respected woman in dermatology in the world and you would be lucky to have a career or a brain with a quarter of the potential.

  • Hoosierville on 03.12.2010 at 2:15 pm

    Total hypothesization here but could part of the reason that people might be getting more skin cancers be because they are so vitamin d deficient that their skin has never worked properly? There is new research about this every day and that is what the GOOGLE is for so get to typing people.

    Why would one assume that just because Dr. Gilchrist is well known in her field she is the ultimate authority? Please read the history of what she tried to do to shut Dr. Holick up. It was conduct most unbecom9ing. Do some research. Just because something has been accepted science for years and years doesn’t always mean is the correct science.

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