HTML uses several keyboard characters to interpret the markup language. These include the ampersand (&), double quotes (“), and open and close angle brackets (<>). To display these characters (and others) on a page without the web browser software interpreting them as HTML code, use the following keystroke combinations.

&amp; (AMPERSAND)

This code is used for entering an ampersand. Note that this is not a tag. The opening and closing carats are not required. Strict HTML forbids the use of the shift-7 (keyboard) ampersand alone in HTML, because the ampersand character by itself indicates the beginning of HTML code.

&amp; – singular code

&quot; (DOUBLE QUOTE MARKS)

This code is used for entering quote marks. Note that this is not a tag. The opening and closing carats are not required. Strict HTML requires you to not use the shift-apostrophe (keyboard) quotes in HTML, because they are reserved for variables inside HTML code tags.

&quot; – singular code

&nbsp; (NOBREAK SPACE)

This code is used for entering a no-break space. Note that this is not a tag. The opening and closing carats are not required. This is used to space text manually, where required.

&nbsp; – singular code

More special characters

Many more special characters are available in HTML by using the ampersand/semi-colon code combination. Some of these include:

&lt; – an open angle bracket <
&gt; – a close angle bracket >
&copy; – a copyright symbol ©
&reg; – a registered symbol ®
&trade; – a trademark symbol ™
&frac14; – the fraction ¼
&frac12; – the fraction ½
&frac34; – the fraction ¾

In addition to these special characters, there is a complete set of uppercase and lowercase letters with accents, tildes, cedillas, umlauts, dipthongs, circumflexes, etc. Some of these are:

&aacute; – a with acute accent á
&eacute; – e with acute accent é
&ccedil; – c with cedilla ç
&ouml; – o with umlaut ö
&ntilde; – n with tilde ñ
&egrave; – e with grave accent è
&Aacute; – A with acute accent Á
&Eacute; – E with acute accent É
&Ccedil; – C with cedilla Ç
&Ouml; – O with umlaut Ö
&Ntilde; – N with tilde Ñ
&Egrave; – E with grave accent È

A complete list of all special and extended characters is maintained on the TeamWeb site at the University of Texas at Austin.