Research Publications and Reports

American Hospital Association (AHA) Fact Sheet – Emerging Strategies to Ensure Access to Health Care Service: Indian Health Services Strategy

The AHA Task Force on Ensuring Access in Vulnerable Communities examined ways in which the access to and delivery of care could be improved. For American Indian and Alaska Native Tribes that receive health care services from the Indian Health Service (IHS), an agency within the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the AHA recommends a multi-step strategy to promote care coordination between IHS facilities and other health care providers. Doing so would increase access to, and the quality of, care provided for this population.

Center on Budget and Policy Priorities Fact Sheet Series – Medicaid Works: How Cuts Would Harm States

This series provides fact sheets specific to several states that outline the impact of funding cuts on state Medicaid programs.

National Research Center on Hispanic Children & Families Report – Developing Culturally Responsive Approaches to Serving Diverse Populations: A Resource Guide for Community-Based Organizations

As communities become more culturally and linguistically diverse, community-based service organizations (CBOs) are called to do more to reduce disparities in access and use of important social services. An important strategy is developing cultural competency-behaviors, attitudes, and policies that enable CBOs to work effectively in cross-cultural situations. This resource guide identifies easily accessible resources on cultural competency that CBOs can use to become more responsive to the needs of their targeted populations, and to help attract funds to support their important work.

The Commonwealth Fund Report – ACA Repeal Debate


Read research and analysis on Affordable Care Act (ACA) enrollment and people’s experiences with their new health plan options, as well as evidence on the estimated impact of repeal and select replacement ideas.

Demos Report – The Asset Value of Whiteness: Understanding the Racial Wealth Gap

No metric more powerfully captures the persistence and growth of economic inequality along racial and ethnic lines than the racial wealth gap. This report analyzes data on white, black, and Latino households to explore a number of popular explanations for the racial wealth gap, looking at individual differences in education, family structure, full- or part-time employment, and consumption habits.

Institute for Research on Poverty Focus

The five articles in this issue together support the contention that there are social determinants of health that are at least as influential as access to health care and individual behaviors. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention identifies these social determinants as “the conditions in the places where people live, learn, work, and play.”


Rural Health Information Hub Toolkit – Access to Care for Rural People with Disabilities

The intent of this toolkit is to provide rural communities with the information, strategies, resources, and other important materials that could be helpful in implementing a program to improve access to care for people with disabilities.

Race Forward: The Center for Racial Justice Innovation Report – Confronting Racial Bias at Work: Challenges and Solutions for 21st Century Employment Discrimination

This report reviews the systemic barriers impacting workers of color drawing upon academic research, interviews with discrimination lawyers and EEOC officials, and surveys of worker advocates. The report argues that we must not only reinforce the largely reactive anti-discrimination structure established by law so that it reaches more workers and protects them more effectively, we must also promote proactive systemic solutions to increase the pressures, incentives, and mandates for racially equitable outcomes in employment.

Surgeon General’s Report – Facing Addiction in America

The first-ever Surgeon General’s Report on Alcohol, Drugs, and Health reviews what we know about substance misuse and how you can use that knowledge to address substance misuse and related consequences.


ChildTrends Report – Intimate Inaccuracies: Young Couples Don’t Always Agree About Contraceptive Use

In this brief, we use data from a sample of young adults in romantic relationships to assess the “accuracy” of men’s reports of: 1) using any contraception, 2) using hormonal or long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) specifically, and 3) using condoms specifically. We measure this by comparing young men’s reports of contraceptive use the last time they had sex with the reports of their sexual partners. In some cases, men reported using a method when their partner did not, while in others the opposite was found.

Brookings Institution Report – Time for justice: Tackling Race Inequalities in Health and Housing

In terms of housing and health, the two areas we focus on here, the race gap faced by black Americans remains wide and stubborn. It is perhaps no surprise that black and white Americans have starkly different views on progress toward racial justice. Nine in ten blacks say African-Americans have not achieved equality in this country. Four in ten are skeptical that they ever will. Yet thirty-eight percent of white Americans think “our country has made the changes needed to give blacks equal rights with whites.” Among the half of whites that think there is more to do to achieve equality, almost all think that it will be achieved. The two groups are, as the Pew Research Center puts it, “worlds apart.”

Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Report – Veterans and Their Family Members Gain Coverage Under the ACA, but Opportunities for More Progress Remain

Uninsurance rates for veterans and their family members sharply declined between 2013 and 2015, but coverage gaps remain. If Medicaid expansion decisions do not change between now and 2017, it is projected that approximately 604,000 veterans will be uninsured in 2017.


Office of Minority Health Profile: American Indian/Alaska Native

This online resource contains information about American Indian/Alaska Native health and health disparities both generally and across a variety of specific conditions and provides regional resources.

OPRE Welfare Rules Databook: State TANF Policies as of July 2015

This annual publication, using information from the Welfare Rules Database, provides tables containing key Temporary Assistance for Needy Families policies for each state as of July 2015, as well as longitudinal tables describing various state policies for selected years between 1996 and 2015.

ChildTrends Report – Building Bridges: How to Share Research about Children and Youth with Policymakers

Policymakers play an important role in supporting children, youth, and family well-being through policy legislation and funding of programs. Healthy discussion and debate often center on what evidence proves the effectiveness of these supports, how much they should cost, who should administer them, and whether they are the best use of limited public resources.

Institute for Research on Poverty Fact Sheet – Which Families Are Poor and Why?

This fact sheet explores how to improve opportunity and reduce poverty among struggling families.

ChildTrends Report – A National Portrait of the Health and Education of Hispanic Boys and Young Men 

This report provides a national portrait of the well-being of Hispanic boys and young men, with a
focus on health and education, which are strongly linked to children’s well-being across the life span.

Center for the Study of Social Policy Report – Aligning Resources and Results: Increasing Equity Through the Budget

To ensure equitable outcomes for children and families, it is critical to consider the relationship between the impact of public policy and race, ethnicity and culture. Even when policies do not seem to explicitly address equity issues, they are likely to have a differential impact on the lives of families. Being explicit about equity consequences is an important consideration in assessing public policy and budget decisions and thus in ensuring that the needs of all children, youth and families are equitably met.

OPRE Brief – Using Administrative Data in Social Policy Research

Administrative data have the potential to help us answer pressing social policy questions. Government stakeholders and researchers are exploring the promises of using administrative data for research purposes. This brief summarizes an Innovative Methods Meeting that was organized by OPRE in the fall of 2015 that considered the potential benefits and pitfalls of using administrative data for research purposes.

ChildTrends Report – Moving Beyond Trauma: Child Migrants and Refugees in the United States

This report gives an estimate of the number of immigrant and refugee children who will enter the United States in 2016, where they come from, and the traumas they face. It includes recommendations for policy and practice.

Commonwealth Fund Issue Brief – Health System Performance for the High-Need Patient: A Look at Access to Care and Patient Care Experiences

This brief compares the health care experiences of adults with high needs-those with three or more chronic diseases and a functional limitation in the ability to care for themselves or perform routine daily tasks-to all adults and to those with multiple chronic diseases but no functional limitations.

Commonwealth Fund Report – Latinos and Blacks Have Made Major Gains Under the Affordable Care Act, But Inequalities Remain

According to the most recent Commonwealth Fund Affordable Care Act tracking survey, the uninsured rates for blacks and Latinos dropped from 2013-2016.Still, Latinos are significantly more likely than any other racial and ethnic group to be uninsured.


Institute for Research on Poverty (IRP) Brief – Incarceration and CPS involvement 

Despite a decline in the U.S. prison population in recent years, the incarceration rate remains exceptionally high, especially among socioeconomically disadvantaged groups. This is well-known. Less well-known is that the incidence of child protective services (CPS) involvement in the United States is also quite high and, again, particularly so among disadvantaged groups. Incarceration
and CPS involvement may have a range of independent and interactive influences on parents, children, and families; involvement in one system may also be associated with subsequent involvement in the other. This brief describes our work using a unique longitudinal data system of linked administrative data from Wisconsin to describe overlap between parental incarceration and
child CPS involvement, and between adolescent CPS involvement and subsequent incarceration in young adulthood.

Commonwealth Fund Issue Brief – Women’s Health Coverage Since the ACA: Improvements for Most, But Insurer Exclusions Put Many at Risk

Since enactment of the Affordable Care Act (ACA), many more women have health insurance than before the law, in part because it prohibits insurer practices that discriminate against women. However, gaps in women’s health coverage persist. Insurers often exclude health services that women are likely to need, leaving women vulnerable to higher costs and denied claims that threaten their economic security and physical health.

Special Issue of the Journal of Men’s Studies – Intersections of Race, Gender, and Class in the Wake of a Crisis: The State of Boys and Men of Color Post-Ferguson

Faces of the Newly Insured Multimedia Article

This article features 12 individuals who have gained insurance coverage under the Affordable Care Act.

The Commonwealth Fund Rising to the Challenge Scorecard

The Commonwealth Fund Scorecard on Local Health System Performance, 2016 Edition.

Health and Medicine Division Report – Advancing Health Equity for Native American Youth: Workshop Summary

Many of the serious behavioral, emotional, and physical health concerns facing young people today are especially prevalent with Native youth (e.g., depression, violence, and substance abuse). Arrayed against these health problems are vital cultural strengths on which Native Americans can draw. At a workshop held in 2012 by the Roundtable on the Promotion of Health Equity and the Elimination of Health Disparities of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, presenters described many of these strengths, including community traditions and beliefs, social support networks, close-knit families, and individual resilience. This publication includes discussions from the workshop.

National Institute on Aging Report – Aging Well in the 21st Century: Strategic Directions for Research on Aging

To reduce the burden of illness, enhance quality of life, and maintain health among older adults, we must first understand the aging contexts for illness and health. To that end, we are exploring “aging” not as a single process, but rather as an intricate web of interdependent genetic, biochemical, physiological, economic, social, and psychological factors.

ASPE Issue Brief – Impact of the Affordable Care Act Coverage Expansion on Rural and Urban

Provisions of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) have increased health insurance coverage rates in
the U.S; These gains have been experienced across demographic and geographic groups. This brief
examines health insurance coverage gains, Marketplace coverage and premium tax credits, and access to health care, with a special focus on individuals living in rural areas.

Commonwealth Fund Report – Evaluating the CARE Act: Implications of a Proposal to Repeal and Replace the Affordable Care Act

In this report, we analyze the effects of the Patient Choice, Affordability, Responsibility, and Empowerment (CARE) Act, a comprehensive proposal to repeal and replace the ACA.

The Promises and Perils of Digital Strategies in Achieving Health Equity: Workshop Summary

The Roundtable on the Promotion of Health Equity and the Elimination of Health Disparities held a workshop focusing on the use of digital health technologies to improve health outcomes for racial and ethnic minority populations, how community engagement can improve access to high-quality health information for members of these groups, and  on models of successful technology-based strategies to reduce health disparities. This is a summary of the discussions from the workshop.

Safety of Transgender Youth in Foster Care

Child welfare agencies provide services for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning (LGBTQ) youth in foster care, but more needs to be done to ensure the safety of these youth. A recent article in the New York University Law Review examines the particular risks and challenges faced by transgender youth in foster care.


AHRQ Report – Improving Cultural Competence to Reduce Health Disparities

An AHRQ review of studies of interventions to improve culturally appropriate health care for people with disabilities; lesbian, bisexual, gay and transgender populations; and racial/ethnic minority populations found that none examined cultural competence’s impact on disparities. Although many of the interventions studies were innovative, poor study quality prevented conclusions on whether they worked.

ASPE Issue Brief – Benefits of Medicaid Expansion for Behavioral Health

Across the country, state and local officials are increasingly focused on improving health outcomes
for people living with mental illness or substance use disorders. This brief analyzes national data on behavioral health and reviews published research focused on how Medicaid expansion under the Affordable Care Act advances the goal of improving treatment for people with behavioral health needs.

Children’s Rights Report – Children Unseen: Personal Accounts of Life in Foster Care 

This report compiles a collection of blogs from Children’s Rights’ 2014 Fostering the Future campaign.

ONC Data Brief – Disparities in Individuals’ Access and Use of Health Information Technology in 2014 

Findings from nationally representative surveys show that individuals’ use of information
technology (IT) for health needs increased significantly between 2013 and 2014. The percentage of individuals offered online access to their medical record also grew by over one-third to nearly 4 in 10 individuals in 2014. Prior analysis revealed that disparities in online access of medical records and use of IT for health-related needs existed by certain socio-demographic characteristics and geographic settings in 2013. This data brief examines 2014 data to identify disparities in online access to medical records and use of IT for health needs.

Commonwealth Fund Issue Brief – Developing a Framework for Evaluating the Patient Engagement, Quality, and Safety of Mobile Health Applications

Rising ownership of smartphones and tablets across social and demographic groups has made mobile applications, or apps, a potentially promising tool for engaging patients in their health care, particularly those with high health care needs. Through a systematic search of iOS (Apple) and Android app stores and an analysis of apps targeting individuals with chronic illnesses, we assessed the degree to which apps are likely to be useful in patient engagement efforts.

ChildTrends – Black History Month 2016: It’s Time to Treat Racism as a Target for Intervention

Race and ethnicity have important implications for culture, identity, and well-being. Children of different races show large differences in well-being, including health, mortality, school performance and attainment, and access to family and community resources. Neither entirely de jure (by law) or de facto (a matter of fact), this is a more systematic form of racial discrimination.

Kaiser Family Foundation Report – Health and Health Coverage in the South: A Data Update

Within the South, which has high rates of chronic disease and poor health outcomes, the majority of states still have not adopted the Medicaid expansion. The ACA and its Medicaid expansion offer important opportunities to expand access to health coverage, particularly in the South, where Medicaid and CHIP eligibility levels across groups have lagged behind other regions for many years.

New Dataset Available – General Social Survey, 1972-2014

The GSS aims to gather data on contemporary American society in order to monitor and explain trends and constants in attitudes, behaviors, and attributes; to examine the structure and functioning of society in general as well as the role played by relevant subgroups; to compare the United States to other societies in order to place American society in comparative perspective and develop cross-national models of human society; and to make high-quality data easily accessible to scholars, students, policy makers, and others, with minimal cost and waiting.

Institute for Research on Poverty (IRP) Policy Brief – Living on the Periphery: Poor Urban Men

This policy brief addresses questions such as: How do poor urban men make a living? What proportion of them have children? How many have been incarcerated? Does having a criminal record affect their employment opportunities? Do low-educated black and Hispanic men pay a “penalty” for their race or ethnicity after controlling for other factors? How many poor men experienced abuse or parental incarceration or witnessed domestic violence in childhood and do these traumatic experiences have lasting effects? Is it possible to prevent high school dropout, increase soft skills, prevent recidivism, and improve poor men’s job prospects? If so, how?

The Commonwealth Fund Report – The Affordable Care Act and the U.S. Economy

This report provides a five-year perspective on the impact the Affordable Care Act (ACA) has had on the U.S. economy since the law’s enactment. It discusses trends in economic growth, employment, and health care costs since 2010, as well as the national experience prior to that time, and compares the recovery in the United States with that in other high-income countries.

RAND Health Report – Current and Projected Characteristics and Unique Health Care Needs of Patient Population Served by the Department of Veterans Affairs 

The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) provides health care to eligible veterans. In this
report, we describe the current and projected characteristics and health care needs of the U.S.
veteran population as whole, as well as the population of veterans who receive health care from VA.

2015 White House Conference on Aging Final Report

In a year that marked the 50th anniversary of Medicare, Medicaid, and the Older Americans Act, as well as the 80th anniversary of Social Security, the White House Conference on Aging provided an opportunity to reflect on the importance of these programs, highlight new actions to support Americans as we age, and focus on the powerful role that technology can play in lives of seniors in the decade ahead.

IOM Report – Achieving Health Equity via the Affordable Care Act: Promises, Provisions, and Making Reform a Reality for Diverse Patients: Workshop Summary

Sponsored and hosted by the Connecticut Health Foundation, this workshop addressed many issues surrounding the ACA, including expansion of coverage, delivery systems, and access points; service delivery and payment reform, including the patient-centered medical home model; public-private partnerships; and challenges to the safety net.

Department of Justice Brief – Second Chance Act Adult Offender Reentry Demonstration Programs: Implementation Challenges and Lessons Learned

Designed to meet the multiple challenges facing former inmates upon their return to the community, the Adult Offender Reentry Demonstration Programs (AORDP) programs provide an array of pre- and post-release services, including education and literacy programs, job placement, housing services, and mental health and substance abuse treatment. Risk and needs assessments, transition case planning, and casemanagement are key elements of grantees’ SCA projects.


Supporting Change in Child Welfare: An Evaluation of Training and Technical Assistance


A recently released report, Supporting Change in Child Welfare: An Evaluation of Training and Technical Assistance, presents findings from an evaluation funded by the Children’s Bureau that examined Training and Technical Assistance (T/TA) delivered by 10 National Child Welfare Resource Centers (NRCs) and 5 Child Welfare Implementation Centers (ICs). Conducted by James Bell Associates and ICF International, this cross-site evaluation advances what is known about the delivery of T/TA to child welfare agencies and courts. A series of evaluation briefs, tip sheets and a topical paper are also available that summarize the implications and lessons learned about measuring, delivering, and participating in T/TA.

Commonwealth Fund Report – Aiming Higher: Results from a Scorecard on State Health System Performance 

Echoing the past three State Scorecards, the 2015 edition finds extensive variation among states in people’s ability to access care when they need it, the quality of care they receive, and their likelihood of living a long and healthy life. However, this Scorecard-the first to measure the effects of the Affordable Care Act’s 2014 coverage expansions-also finds broad-based improvements. On most of the 42 indicators, more states improved than worsened.

OPRE Brief – The Permanency Innovations Initiative (PII) Approach to Evaluation

The PII Approach to Evaluation is part of the overall PII Approach, which integrates implementation science and program evaluation in a coordinated framework. Because the PII Approach to evaluation incorporates ongoing collaboration between the evaluation and implementation teams, grantees benefit from the cooperative support throughout the stages of
implementation and phase-based evaluation.

Institute for Research on Poverty (IRP) Policy Briefs – Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP)

The IRP has released four new policy briefs on SNAP, which draw from a comprehensive new book, SNAP Matters: How Food Stamps Affect Health and Well-Being, edited by the authors of these briefs:

AHRQ Report – 2014 National Healthcare Quality and Disparities Report: Chartbook on Health Care for Hispanics

This chartbook highlights progress for Hispanics on pririoties of the Heckler Report and summarizes trends in health care disparities by Hispanic ethnicity related to access to health care and priorities of the National Quality Strategy (NQS).

Commonwealth Fund Issue Brief – How High Is America’s Health Care Cost Burden? Findings from the Commonwealth Fund Health Care Affordability Tracking Survey, July-August 2015

One-quarter of privately insured working-age adults have high health care cost burdens relative to their incomes in 2015, according to the Commonwealth Fund Health Care Affordability Index, a comprehensive measure of consumer health care costs. When looking specifically at adults with low incomes, more than half have high cost burdens. In addition, when privately insured adults were asked how they rated their affordability, greater shares reported their premiums and deductible costs were difficult or impossible to afford than the Index would suggest. Health plan deductibles and copayments had negative effects on many people’s willingness to get needed health care or fill prescriptions. In addition, many consumers are confused about which services are free to them and which count toward their deductible.

Commonwealth Fund Issue Brief – How High Is America’s Health Care Cost Burden? Findings from the Commonwealth Fund Health Care Affordability Tracking Survey, July-August 2015

One-quarter of privately insured working-age adults have high health care cost burdens relative to their incomes in 2015, according to the Commonwealth Fund Health Care Affordability Index, a comprehensive measure of consumer health care costs. This figure, which is based on a nationally representative sample of people with private insurance who are mainly covered by employer plans, is statistically unchanged from 2014. When looking specifically at adults with low incomes, more than half have high cost burdens. In addition, when privately insured adults were asked how they rated their affordability, greater shares reported their premiums and deductible costs were difficult or impossible to afford than the Index would suggest. Health plan deductibles and copayments had negative effects on many people’s willingness to get needed health care or fill prescriptions. In addition, many consumers are confused about which services are free to them and which count toward their deductible.

HHS Action Plan to Reduce Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities: Implementation Progress Report 2011 – 2014

The HHS Disparities Action Plan represents an ongoing commitment by HHS to coordinate

efforts and assess the nation’s progress toward addressing racial and ethnic disparities in health and
health care. This report outlines the HHS Disparities Action Plan’s goals and strategies, describes a
sample of the specific actions being taken across HHS agencies to reduce these disparities, and
highlights major accomplishments to date.

Institute for Research on Poverty Brief – Reducing Health Disparities by Poverty Status

This policy brief examines the latest figures on disparities in health insurance coverage, access to care, and health and describes the major health care programs that serve poor Americans and suggests cost-effective, evidence-based policy options to reduce and prevent these disparities that could be funded by shifting some current public health expenditures on efforts that have not proved successful.

Institute for Research on Poverty Brief – The Basics of SNAP Food Assistance 

This policy brief examines the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), how it works, participation and expenditure trends, and discussion of what research says about some of the recent policy change recommendations.

Commonwealth Fund Brief – Models of Care for High-Need, High-Cost Patients: An Evidence Synthesis

This brief analyzes experts’ reviews of evidence about care models designed to improve outcomes and reduce costs for patients with complex needs. It finds that successful models have several common attributes: targeting patients likely to benefit from the intervention; comprehensively assessing patients’ risks and needs; relying on evidence-based care planning and patient monitoring; promoting patient and family engagement in self-care; coordinating care and communication among patients and providers; facilitating transitions from the hospital and referrals to community resources; and providing appropriate care in accordance with patients’ preferences.
 

ChildTrends Report – Parents Behind Bars: What Happens to Their Children?

Children do not often figure in discussions of incarceration, but new research finds more than five million U.S. children have had at least one parent in prison at one time or another-about three times higher than earlier estimates that included only children with a parent currently incarcerated. This report uses the National Survey of Children’s Health to examine both the prevalence of parental incarceration and child outcomes associated with it.

Latino Commission on AIDS Report – The State of HIV/AIDS among Hispanics/Latinos in the US and Puerto Rico. En Español.

Despite current HIV screening and prevention efforts in the US, the HIV epidemic disproportionately impacts Hispanics/ Latinos. Hispanics/Latinos represent about 17% of the US population, yet accounted for approximately 23% of HIV infections among adults and adolescents in 2013 (Census, 2014; CDC, 2015a). Given that Hispanics/Latinos are the largest and fastest growing minority group in the US with an estimated population of 55 million, addressing HIV/AIDS in their community is important to the nation’s health.

ChildTrends Research Brief – What Works for Bullying Programs: Lessons from Experimental Evaluations of Programs and Interventions 

The most commonly accepted definition of bullying is that it is a form of unprovoked, aggressive behavior that involves a real or perceived power imbalance and is either repeated or has the potential to be repeated over time.1 This brief synthesizes findings from experimental evaluations of 17 bullying programs for children and/or youth to determine how frequently these programs work to improve the outcomes of physical and verbal bullying, social and relational bullying, bullying victimization, attitudes toward bullying, and being a bystander of bullying. Most of these programs served school-aged children; only two focused on children age five or younger.

Institute for Research on Poverty Focus on Poverty – Reducing Health Disparities by Poverty Status

Poor health and poverty are closely linked. It is well known that those with moderate and high incomes are healthier on average than those with low incomes. For every age group and on most health indicators, the poor are less healthy than the near poor and non-poor. Many factors influence health, including access to medical care. The first page of this brief summarizes survey data concerning disparities in health care access and health in the United States. The second page proposes my evidence-based solution that could be funded by shifting existing public funds from less-effective programs to those proven to improve the health of the poor.

Institute of Medicine (IOM) Report – Opportunities to Promote Children’s Behavioral Health: Health Care Reform and Beyond

The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) has several provisions that could greatly improve the behavioral health of children and adolescents in the United States. To explore how the ACA and other aspects of health care reform can support innovations to improve children’s behavioral health and sustain those innovations over time, the Forum on Promoting Children’s Cognitive, Affective, and Behavioral Health held a workshop titled “Opportunities to Promote Children’s Behavioral Health: Health Care Reform and Beyond.” The workshop explicitly addressed the behavioral health needs of all children, including those with special health needs. It also looked at evidence-based prevention and interventions programs and services that support children as well as their parents and families.

National Institute of Justice (NIJ) Publication – Violence and Victimization Research Division’s Compendium of Research on Violence Against Women, 1993-2014

For over forty years, NIJ has invested in research on violence against women. This research touches on a wide variety of public safety concerns, including intimate partner violence, teen dating violence, sexual assault, and human trafficking, as well as criminal justice challenges, including the availability of legal and victim support services, the effectiveness of prevention programs, and the impact of such crimes over time. To give researchers and support providers easier centralized access to recent evidence-based findings, NIJ annually updates a compendium that includes an abstract of each grant research study with details on how to find further publications. This latest update includes NIJ-supported research on violence against women from 1993 to 2014.
 

University of New Hampshire Carsey School of Social Policy Issue Brief – Although Child Poverty Declined in 2014, Persistent Racial and Ethnic Disadvantages Remain

Poverty data from the American Community Survey were released on September 17, 2015, allowing a detailed examination of poverty in 2014 across the United States. These data reveal that levels of child poverty vary enormously along racial and ethnic lines though all groups have seen a recent drop.

Economic Foundations for Creative Ageing Policy, Volume I 

Ageing populations are a major consideration for socio-economic development in the early twenty-first century. This demographic change is mainly seen as a threat rather than as an opportunity to improve the quality of human life, especially in Europe, where ageing has resulted in a reduction in economic competitiveness. Economic Foundations for Creative Ageing Policy constructs positive solutions for an ageing population and covers theoretical analyses and case study descriptions of good practices to suggest strategies that could be internationally popularized.

NIJ Report – Community-Based Responses to Justice-Involved Young Adults

This bulletin proposes a new criminal justice paradigm for young men and women ages 18 to 24. Noting that the human brain has been clinically shown to not fully mature prior to the mid-20s, the authors suggest new institutional methods and processes for young adult justice that can meet the realities of life for today’s disadvantaged youth involved in crime and the criminal justice system. The authors envision a system that extends the reach of the juvenile court to reflect a modern understanding of the transition into adulthood. Their primary recommendation is that the age of juvenile court jurisdiction be raised to 21, with additional, gradually diminishing protections for young adults up to age 24 or 25.

IOM Report – Mental Disorders and Disabilities Among Low-Income Children

This report provides evidence-based findings and conclusions concerning trends in the prevalence of mental disorders in children and also the diagnosis and treatment of these children. This report includes a novel review of previously unreleased data on the rates of mental disorders and disabilities among low-income children from the SSI program and from Medicaid. 

Institute for Research on Poverty New Issue of Focus

The five articles in this issue all touch on place-based poverty topics; whether and how location matters. 

The Commonwealth Fund Issue Brief – How Strong Is the Primary Care Safety Net? Assessing the Ability of Federally Qualified Health Centers to Serve as Patient-Centered Medical Homes

By expanding access to affordable insurance coverage for millions of Americans, the Affordable Care Act will likely increase demand for the services provided by federally qualified health centers (FQHCs), which provide an important source of care in low-income communities. A pair of Commonwealth Fund surveys asked health center leaders about their ability to function as medical homes. Survey findings show that between 2009 and 2013, the percentage of centers exhibiting medium or high levels of medical home capability almost doubled, from 32 percent to 62 percent. 

Institute for Research on Poverty Discussion Paper – Income Volatility in U.S. Households with Children: Another Growing Disparity between the Rich and the Poor?

In this paper, we sought to document household income volatility as experienced by children over time, as one understudied aspect of household economic circumstances that might contribute to observed socioeconomic differences in children’s achievement. Our analysis of six panels of the nationally representative Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) across a 25-year period reveal that income volatility may be an additional factor contributing to the gap between the achievement of rich and poor children: We find that households with children at the 10th percentile of income have experienced increasing volatility across the last 25 years while their affluent peers at the 90th percentile have experienced declining income volatility. Our sensitivity analyses show that these findings are robust to a number of differing analytic approaches and are not due to the changing racial/ethnic composition of low-income households over this same time period.

National Research Center on Hispanic Children & Families Brief – Integrated Data Systems: An Emerging Tool to Support Services for Low-Income Hispanic Families with Young Children 

This brief explores how integrated data systems (IDS) data may be an important and cost-efficient resource for better understanding public service use among low-income Hispanics in the United States. 

Rural and Remote Health Report – Grandparent Caregiving Among Rural African Americans in a Community in the American South: Challenges to Health and Wellbeing

An increasing number of grandparents in rural USA are serving as primary caregivers for their grandchildren because of parental incarceration, addiction, joblessness, or illness. Low-income, African American women from the South are overrepresented in this growing population. There is a paucity of research exploring the challenges faced by rural grandparent caregivers, and past studies have not explicitly addressed the potential consequences of rural grandparent caregiving for health. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore grandparent caregiving among rural, low-income, African American grandmothers in a community in the American South, and to identify challenges to health that arose in that context. McLeroy’s social ecological model (SEM) was used to examine these challenges at multiple levels of influence.

Center for Poverty Research Policy Brief – Reducing the Effects of Incarceration on Children and Families

In 2010, an estimated 2.7 million children and one in nine African-American children had an incarcerated parent.1 Incarceration creates challenges for inmates’ families. Resources that inmates had contributed are removed, while incarceration introduces new expenses. Children with incarcerated fathers have worse educational outcomes2 and poorer mental health3 than otherwise comparable children. Employment assistance and less restrictive visitation rules may mitigate the economic and emotional effects incarceration has on families.

Department of Veterans Affairs Report – American Indian and Alaska Native Veterans: 2013 American Community Survey

American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) Veterans have played a vital role in the United States military for over two hundred years. This report provides comprehensive statistics on AIAN Veterans through an examination of the demographic, socioeconomic, and health status statistics. The report uses the 2013 American Community Survey (ACS) Public Use Microdata Sample (PUMS) data.

NIJ Report – Research Designs in the Real World: Testing the Effectiveness of an IPV Intervention

Many factors can influence study design, particularly when evaluating an intervention in the field. Although randomized controlled trials are considered the gold standard of evaluations, there are practical and ethical considerations that may exclude their use. This case study looks at those factors and their impact on an evaluation of an intimate partner violence intervention.

ChildTrends Blog – How are Students with Disabilities Performing in School? 

As this year marks the 25th anniversary of the Americans with Disabilities Act (July 26) and the 40th anniversary of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, IDEA, (formerly the Education for All Handicapped Children Act), it is time to reflect and report on the progress students with disabilities are making in school.

DOJ Report – Tackling Urban Inequalities: A Process Evaluation of the Boston Defending Childhood Initiative

Led by the Boston Public Health Commission, the Boston Defending Childhood Initiative (Boston DCI) implemented a variety of strategies that targeted the highest risk neighborhoods in the city. Working predominantly with communities of color, Boston DCI developed a model for centralizing the importance of racial/social justice and health equity during both planning and implementation in nearly every approach for addressing children’s exposure to violence.

IOM Report – Psychosocial Interventions for Mental and Substance Use Disorders: A Framework for Establishing Evidence-Based Standards

Mental health and substance use disorders are a serious public health problem, affecting approximately 20 percent of Americans. The two often occur together and result in significant morbidity and mortality. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA), passed in 2010, and the Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act, passed in 2008, aim to improve the delivery of and access to treatments for mental health and substance use disorders. In this context, the Institute of Medicine (IOM) convened an expert committee to identify key steps to ensure that evidence-based, high-quality care is provided to individuals receiving mental health and substance use services. The resulting report, Psychosocial Interventions for Mental and Substance Use Disorders, details the reasons for the gap between what is known to be effective and what is currently practiced, and it offers recommendations for how best to address this gap by proposing a framework that can be used to establish standards for psychosocial interventions. 

Center for the Study of Social Policy Report – Strategies to Reduce Racially Disparate Outcomes in Child Welfare

Growing numbers of advocates, child welfare administrators and elected officials have become concerned with the gap between the desired experiences and outcomes they’d like to see for all children and families who come to the attention of child welfare systems, and the far worse actual experiences and outcomes documented for children and families of color. Although the pattern of disparate outcomes is most stark for African American and Native American children and families, it also holds true for Latino children and families, as well as specific groups of Asian and Pacific Islander children and families.

OPRE Report – In Their Own Voices: The Hopes and Struggles of Responsible Fatherhood Program Participants in the Parents and Children Together Evaluation

Using information from in-depth interviews conducted as part of the Parents and Children Together Evaluation, this report describes themes and findings related to fathers’ perceptions of their roles as parents, partners, and providers. Findings specifically relate to fathers’ perceptions of their own childhoods, their personal challenges, employment and child support experiences, their relationships with their children and the mothers of their children, their views on fathering, and their participation in the fatherhood programs.

Indian Health Service Report – Trends in Indian Health, 2014

“Trends in Indian Health” provides narrative, tables, and charts that describe IHS programs and the health status of American Indians and Alaska Natives. The Report presents a structural overview of the Agency, along with demographic data on American Indians and Alaska Natives and patient care delivery services. Current and trend information are detailed and comparisons made to the U.S. population at large, where appropriate.

Office of Minority Health Data Brief – Demographic Characteristics and Health Behaviors of among a Diverse Group of Adult Hispanic/Latino Males (Ages 18-64 Years) in the United States

Reducing health disparities in the nation is a goal for the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), and the Affordable Care Act is making important strides toward meeting that goal. This data brief focuses on a key provision of this landmark legislation that strengthens data collection standards that will help improve public health strategies and practices to address health disparities. New data collection standards issued in 2011 by HHS under Section 4302 of the Affordable Care Act, allow for additional levels of detail for race and Hispanic/Latino ethnicity, sex, primary language, and disability status collected in population health surveys conducted by the Department.

Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Report – Understanding the Uninsured Now

The nation’s uninsurance rate has dropped significantly since the Affordable Care Act was enacted. But millions of Americans remain uninsured. In order to get a full picture of the lives of the uninsured and explore their feelings around enrolling in health insurance, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation commissioned a national survey with uninsured adults at the conclusion of the second open enrollment period for the health insurance marketplace. 

National Institute of Justice Report – Police and Public Discourse on “Black on Black” Violence

The authors examine the term “black-on-black” violence, which while statistically correct, is a simplistic and emotionally charged definition of urban violence that can be problematic when used by political commentators, politicians and police executives. Inappropriate framing of urban criminal violence problems, and the policies and practices that result, constitute substantial obstacles for police departments and for minority communities struggling to solve these critical issues. 

AHRQ – National Healthcare Quality and Disparities Report Chartbook on Care Coordination

This Care Coordination chartbook is part of a family of documents and tools that support the National Healthcare Quality and Disparities Report (QDR). The QDR includes annual reports to Congress mandated in the Healthcare Research and Quality Act of 1999 (P.L. 106-129). This chartbook includes a summary of trends across measures of care coordination from the QDR and figures illustrating select measures of care coordination. 

OPRE Report – An Integrated Stage-Based Framework for Implementation of Early Childhood Programs and Systems

This research brief is the first in a series which seeks to provide early childhood researchers, program developers, and funders with an introduction to implementation frameworks and promising practices in implementation science with the aim of facilitating their use in early care and education. This brief introduces key elements of effective implementation within an integrated, stage-based framework.

IRP Fact Sheet – No Place to Call Home: Child & Youth Homelessness in the United States

There are about 1.2 million homeless children in the United States according to recent estimates. Often indiscernible from their peers in outward appearance, homeless children and youth face unique challenges associated with residential instability that compound many other difficulties associated with living in poverty.

The Commonwealth Fund Brief – The Problem of Underinsurance and How Rising Deductibles Will Make It Worse

New estimates from the Commonwealth Fund Biennial Health Insurance Survey, 2014, indicate that 23 percent of 19-to-64-year-old adults who were insured all year-or 31 million people-had such high out-of-pocket costs or deductibles relative to their incomes that they were underinsured. These estimates are statistically unchanged from 2010 and 2012, but nearly double those found in 2003 when the measure was first introduced in the survey. 

2015 Health Equity Research Snapshot – Focus on Mental Health Research

Health and health care inequities affect various populations across a wide range of diseases and health outcomes, including mental health and psychiatric illnesses. Various influences including genetic, familial, cultural and environmental factors contribute to group differences in the prevalence of mental illness and the outcomes of treatment. The 2015 health equity research snapshot spotlights seven new federally funded research projects underway at AAMC-member institutions. We solicited these videos from researchers and their teams to demonstrate the diverse research efforts that aim to understand and eliminate mental health inequities. 

Society for Research in Child Development Brief – Evidence-Based Social Policy: Recommendations for Programs that Fit Communities’ Needs

Since 2010, the federal government has dramatically increased investment in evidence-based policy by prioritizing funding for intervention or prevention programs that demonstrate evidence of effectiveness. For these investments to pay off, and to improve outcomes for children and families, evidence-based programs must be supported for high-quality implementation nested in a unique local context. Few evidence-based programs have been scaled to diverse populations and places, and it’s not always clear how to translate, adapt, and optimize evidence-based programs to fit such contexts. 

SAMHSA Report – Racial/Ethnic Differences in Mental Health Service Use among Adults

This chartbook uses combined 2008 to 2012 data from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) to present nationally representative estimates of mental health service utilization among adults aged 18 or older within different racial/ethnic groups in the United States. 

Department of Education Report – State and District Implementation of the Education for Homeless Children and Youth Program

To address the challenges and barriers to school success for homeless children and youth, Congress created the Education for Homeless Children and Youth (EHCY) program, which provides funding to states and certain other jurisdictions and agencies with the goal of ensuring that homeless children and youth have access to the same free, appropriate public education as do other children and youth. This report examines state and school district implementation of the EHCY program based on surveys of state EHCY coordinators and district homeless liaisons and analysis of extant data.

Commonwealth Fund Brief – Affordable Care Act at Five

Just over five years ago, the Affordable Care Act was signed into law. While it is too soon to fully assess the law’s effects, a Health Policy Report in the New England Journal of Medicine by The Commonwealth Fund’s David Blumenthal, M.D., Melinda Abrams, and Rachel Nuzum reflects on the ACA’s initial impact on Americans and the nation’s health system. The article focuses on the law’s two main sets of provisions: the expansion of health insurance and other coverage reforms, and changes to the delivery system, with particular emphasis on the latter. 

Be The Evidence International Report – An Analysis of United States Compassionate and Geriatric Release Laws: Towards a Rights-Based Response for Diverse Elders, Their Families and Communities

As the prison population in the US grows, and the cost to incarcerate is impacted by medical care, it is important to understand if and how various systems address the likelihood of treating incarcerated people who are older and/or who have a serious or terminal illness. The purpose of this report was to analyze other laws and regulations pertaining to the early release or furlough of incarcerated people within the United States in connection to advanced age and/or illness. 
 

OPRE Report – Understanding Data Use for Continuous Quality Improvement in Head Start: Preliminary Findings

This brief provides preliminary evidence that Head Start programs experience similar challenges and facilitators to data use for continuous quality improvement as those experienced in other fields including leadership, analytic capacity, commitment of resources, professional development, a culture of collaborative inquiry, a continuous cycle of data use, organizational characteristics, and environmental characteristics. 
 
Center for American Progress Fact Sheets – Economic Benefits of Reducing Racial and Ethnic Inequality
A few decades from now, the nation’s racial and ethnic makeup will be increasingly different than it is today. The U.S. Census Bureau projects that the majority of the U.S. population will be people of color by 2043. This change is already happening at the state-level throughout our nation, and with it comes an important opportunity to reduce racial and ethnic inequalities. Closing these gaps by enacting progressive policies will improve the economic prospects and increase income for people of color, ultimately leading to a stronger economy that benefits all. But it’s not just people of color who would benefit, the economy as a whole would too. These fact sheets provide snapshots of state statistics about demographic changes and the statewide economic gains of eliminating racial and ethnic disparities by enacting sensible policies that would unleash the potential of growing communities of color. Click here for more information.

Center for Poverty Research Policy Brief – Unaccompanied Migrant Children: A Humanitarian Crisis at the U.S. Border and Beyond

Intensified violence and poverty in the Northern Triangle countries of Central America have spurred migration among youth who seek to either reunite with family or to support families who remain abroad. Policies to protect these youth would promote their holistic integration into U.S. society, enforce safety and well-being along the U.S. southern border and help strengthen the youths’ countries of origin socially, economically and politically.

White Paper – Social Work & the Affordable Care Act: Maximizing the Profession’s Role in Health Reform

The Affordable Care Act (ACA) is generating sweeping changes in the financing, organization, and accessibility of health and social services in the United States. The expansion of Medicaid and the establishment of state health insurance exchanges have vastly expanded insurance access in the United States, with an estimated 15 million Americans gaining coverage (Kaiser Commission on Medicaid and the Uninsured, 2014; United States Department of Health and Human Services, 2014). Emphasis on integrated models of care and payment reform, including health homes and accountable care organizations, introduces new opportunities to improve care coordination, reduce unnecessary service use, and make care more cost-effective. An increased focus on health promotion seeks to redefine the aims of health care towards promoting wellbeing rather than treating illness. Realization of these changes will rely on the work of many health care professions, including social work. 

Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Brief – States Expanding Medicaid See Significant Budget Savings and Revenue Gains

States that expanded the number of people eligible for Medicaid are seeing big budgetary savings without reducing services. Data from eight states show $1.8 billion in budget savings and revenue gains by the end of 2015 as a result of Medicaid expansion. 

Commonwealth Fund Issue Brief – Health Care Coverage and Access in the Nation’s Four Largest States

A new Commonwealth Fund study suggests that some of the differences in insurance coverage rates and affordability of care among the nation’s four largest states may be attributable to health insurance policies in these states before and after the Affordable Care Act took effect. 

The State of Black America

The State of Black America is the National Urban League’s seminal annual publication now in its 39th edition. It is one of the most highly anticipated benchmarks and sources for thought leadership around racial equality in America across economics (including employment, income and housing), education, health, social justice and civic engagement. 

ChildTrend Report – Late or No Prenatal Care

Although there were substantial declines on this measure in the 1990s for all races, black, Hispanic, and Native American mothers are more than twice as likely as white mothers to receive either late or no prenatal care.

Robert Wood Johnson Foundation County Health Rankings and Roadmaps

This interactive map provides data on the health of nearly every county in the nation-high school graduation rates, obesity rates, smoking rates, unemployment, air quality, and access to healthy foods. The Rankings provide a revealing snapshot of how health is influenced by where we live, learn, work and play. 

National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) Strategic Plan for Research

In this new Strategic Plan for Research, with the goals of helping individuals living with mental illnesses and promoting both prevention and cure, NIMH has four, high-level Strategic Objectives: define the mechanisms of complex behaviors; chart mental illness trajectories to determine when, where, and how to intervene; strive for prevention and cures; strengthen the public health impact of NIMH-supported research. 

Institute for Research on Poverty Fast Focus Brief – Unaffordable America: Poverty, Housing, and Eviction

This brief explores the crisis faced by poor families in finding and maintaining affordable housing. It outlines the trends that led to the current situation: rising housing costs, stagnant or falling incomes among the poor, and a shortfall of federal housing assistance. As a result of these trends, most poor renting families now devote over half of their income to housing costs, and eviction has become commonplace in low-income communities. Poor single mothers with young children, particularly African Americans, are at especially high risk of eviction. 

ChildTrends Brief – Preventing Violence: Understanding and Addressing Determinants of Youth Violence in the United States

Rates of all types of violence have dropped in the U.S., but are high compared with other developed countries-and the numbers of children and youth affected are high. In this brief, and the report it’s based on, we review risk and protective factors for violence, and suggest opportunities for reducing it. 

OPRE Briefs – LGBT Populations: A Snapshot of the Knowledge Base and Research Needs

These chapter briefs were developed as part of a larger Needs Based Assessment that sought to discover what is known about low-income and at-risk lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people and their interactions with human services, especially services funded by ACF, and identifies important areas for further research. 

Children’s Bureau Report – Child Maltreatment 2013

This report presents national data about child abuse and neglect known to child protective services agencies in the United States during federal fiscal year 2013. 

Commonwealth Fund Brief – Closing the Gap: Past Performance of Health Insurance in Reducing Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Access to Care Could Be an Indication of Future Results

This historical analysis shows that in the years just prior to the Affordable Care Act’s expansion of health insurance coverage, black and Hispanic working-age adults were far more likely than whites to be uninsured, to lack a usual care provider, and to go without needed care because of cost. Among insured adults across all racial and ethnic groups, however, rates of access to a usual provider were much higher, and the proportion of adults going without needed care because of cost was much lower. Disparities between groups were narrower among the insured than the uninsured, even after adjusting for income, age, sex, and health status. With surveys pointing to a decline in uninsured rates among black and Hispanic adults in the past year, particularly in states extending Medicaid eligibility, the ACA’s coverage expansions have the potential to reduce, though not eliminate, racial and ethnic disparities in access to care. 

Institute for Research on Poverty Fall/Winter 2014-2015 Issue of Focus

This issue includes five articles on children/school-based interventions and poverty: Early childhood interventions for low-income children; Educational opportunity for homeless students; Reducing inequality: Neighborhood and school interventions; How school quality affects the success of a conditional cash transfer program; A path to college completion for disadvantaged students.

Brookings Institution Report – Sex, Contraception, or Abortion? Explaining Class Gaps in Unintended Childbearing

There are wide class gaps in unintended childbearing among single women in the United States, resulting from different contraceptive and abortion choices across income groups. In this paper, we use data from the National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG 2011-2013) to estimate how sexual activity, contraceptive use, and abortion use vary across income lines. 

U.S. Department of Agriculture Report – Characteristics of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Households: Fiscal Year 2013 

The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) serves as the foundation of America’s national nutrition safety net. It is the nation’s first line of defense against food insecurity and offers a powerful tool to improve nutrition among low-income individuals. SNAP is the largest of the 15 domestic food and nutrition assistance programs administered by the Food and Nutrition Service (FNS) of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). This report describes the characteristics of SNAP households and participants nationwide in fiscal year 2013 (October 2012 through September 2013). It also presents an overview of SNAP eligibility requirements and benefit levels in fiscal year 2013. The appendices provide detailed tabulations of household and participant characteristics for the nation and by State, as well as a brief description of the sample design and the sampling error associated with the estimates presented in the report.

NIH Office of Research on Women’s Health National Institutes of Health Women of Color Health Data Book

This report provides information about factors affecting the health of women of color, as well as health outcomes and access to health care services among women of color.

Society for Research in Child Development Report – Opportunities and Challenges in Evidence-based Social Policy

Since 2010 the federal government has invested in evidence-based social policy by supporting a number of new evidence-based programs and grant initiatives. These initiatives prioritize federal funding for intervention or prevention programs that have evidence of effectiveness in impact research. The increased attention to evidence in funding decision making is promising; however, to maximize the potential for positive outcomes for children and families, communities need to select programs that fit their needs and resources, the programs need to be implemented with quality, and communities need ongoing support. Drawing on experiences scaling evidence-based programs nationally, the authors raise a number of challenges faced by the field to ensure high-quality implementation and discuss specific proposals, particularly for the research and university communities, for moving the field forward.

ChildTrends Research Brief Summary – Early Care and Education Choices, Quality, and Continuity for Low-Income Families: New Findings from the Maryland-Minnesota Child Care Research Partnership

The purpose of the Maryland-Minnesota Child Care Research Partnership is to collect information about low-income families’ experiences with early care and education for their young children that can be used to improve state policies and practices. Child care subsidies that provide financial assistance to eligible low-income families are a focal topic of the research conducted by the Partnership and a subject of four new research briefs, summarized here.

The Commonwealth Fund Issue Brief – State Trends in the Cost of Employer Health Insurance Coverage, 2003-2013

From 2010 to 2013-the years following the implementation of the Affordable Care Act-there has been a marked slowdown in premium growth in 31 states and the District of Columbia. Yet, the costs employees and their families pay out-of-pocket for deductibles and their share of premiums continued to rise, consuming a greater share of incomes across the country.

Institute of Medicine (IOM) Report – Applying a Health Lens to Decision Making in Non-Health Sectors

Health is influenced by a variety of factors, many of which fall outside the health care delivery sector.  These determinants of health include the characteristics of where people live, work, learn, and play. Decision and policy making in areas such as transportation, housing, and education at different levels of government, as well as in the private sector, can have far-reaching impacts on health. On September 9, 2013, the IOM Roundtable on Population Health Improvement held a workshop to foster cross-sectoral dialogue and to consider the opportunities for and barriers to improving the conditions for health in the course of achieving other sectors’ objectives, such as economic development and efficient public transit. This document summarizes the workshop.

Department of Justice Fact Sheet – Highlights of the 2012 National Youth Gang Survey

This fact sheet provides an overview of the nation’s gang problem. In 2012, there were an estimated 30,700 gangs (an increase from 29,900 in 2011) and 850,000 gang members (an increase from 782,500 in 2011) throughout 3,100 jurisdictions with gang problems (down from 3,300 in 2011). The number of reported gang-related homicides increased 20 percent from 1,824 in 2011 to 2,363 in 2012.

Kaiser Family Foundation Report – Medicaid Home and Community-Based Services Programs: 2011 Data Update

As states continue to implement various aspects of the Affordable Care Act (ACA), developing and expanding home and community-based alternatives to institutional care remains a priority for many state Medicaid programs. This report summarizes the key national trends to emerge from the latest (2011) participant and expenditure data for the three main Medicaid HCBS programs: (1) the mandatory home health services state plan benefit, (2) the optional personal care services state plan benefit, and (3) optional § 1915(c) HCBS waivers. It also briefly discusses the provision of Medicaid HCBS through § 1115 demonstration waivers and highlights findings from a 2013 survey of Medicaid HCBS participant eligibility, enrollment, and provider reimbursement policies.

Urban Institute Research Report – Racial/Ethnic Differences in Uninsurance Rates under the ACA

This report is the first state-level projection of ACA coverage gains for racial/ethnic groups. Absent ACA coverage provisions, Latinos, blacks, and American Indian/Alaska Natives are overrepresented among the uninsured. With the ACA and current state Medicaid expansion decisions, uninsurance rates are projected to fall for each racial/ethnic group, narrowing coverage differences between whites and each minority group, except for blacks. If all states were to expand their Medicaid programs, we project that uninsurance rates would fall further for all racial/ethnic groups, with blacks experiencing a marked reduction. Effective outreach can further reduce uninsurance rates for all racial/ethnic groups.

NC Rural Health Research Program Brief – Rural-Urban Differences in Continuity of Care among Medicare Beneficiaries

In response to the Affordable Care Act and other reforms in the health care market, new models of care are being tested and implemented across the country. Care and payment models such as patient-centered medical homes, Accountable Care Organizations (ACOs), and bundled payments depend on linkages between different types of health care providers to ensure continuity of care. To address concerns that health care in rural areas may be more fractured and thus a difficult place for these models to succeed, we measured continuity of care using detailed data on a sample of Medicare beneficiaries from 2000-2009.

ChildTrends Research Brief – What Works for Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health: Lessons from Experimental Evaluations of Programs and Interventions 

The United States continues to have one of the highest teen birth rates in the developed world and adolescent rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are also high. These factors highlight the need to identify effective evidence-based programs to improve adolescent reproductive health. This brief synthesizes findings from 118 experimental evaluations of 100 program models. These were evaluations measuring reproductive health of youth and adolescents to determine how frequently these programs work to improve behavioral sexual outcomes such as sexual initiation and activity, number of sexual partners, anal/oral sex, sex under the influence of drugs/alcohol, condom and contraceptive use, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and pregnancies or births. These programs used a range of program approaches and served a variety of populations in many different settings.

The Commonwealth Fund Issue Brief – Realizing Health Reform’s Potential: Why a National High-Risk Insurance Pool Is Not a Workable Alternative to the Marketplace

The Pre-Existing Condition Insurance Plan (PCIP) was a national high-risk pool established under the Affordable Care Act (ACA) to provide coverage for individuals with preexisting conditions who had been uninsured for at least six months. It was intended to be a temporary program: PCIPs opened in 2010 and closed in April 2014. At that point, those with preexisting conditions could shop for health insurance in the marketplaces, where plans are prevented from using applicants’ health status to deny coverage or charge more. This issue brief draws on the PCIP experience to outline why national high-risk pools, which continue to be proposed as policy alternatives to ACA coverage expansions, are expensive to enrollees as well as their administrators and ultimately unsustainable. The key lesson-and the principle on which the ACA is built-is that insurance works best when risk is evenly spread across a broad population.

USDA Report – Measuring Access to Healthful, Affordable Food in American Indian and Alaska Native Tribal Areas

American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) populations have about twice the rate of
nutrition-related health conditions, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and obesity, as non-Hispanic White Americans. The authors found likely sources of healthful, affordable food to be limited in many tribal areas, a factor that may influence diet and food choices.

Center for Advancing Health Research Brief – Depression and Dementia in Older Adults Increase Risk of Preventable Hospitalizations

New research in the Journal of General Internal Medicine finds that mental health conditions in older adults such as depression, cognitive impairment and dementia are risk factors for hospitalization for ambulatory care-sensitive conditions (ACSCs) – conditions that can often be managed effectively on an outpatient basis.

ChildTrends Hispanic Institute Fact Sheet – State of Young Hispanic Children

The fact sheet includes information about demographics, education, the family, and the health of Hispanic children.

ChildTrends Research Brief – The Family Environment and Adolescent Well-Being

In this brief, the findings from the 2006 publication, “The Family Environment and Adolescent Well-being: Exposure to Positive and Negative Family Influences,” are updated and several key areas of interaction between the family environment and adolescent well-being are highlighted, using national data sources.

Healthy People 2020 Social Determinants of Health

Our health is determined in part by access to social and economic opportunities; the resources and supports available in our homes, neighborhoods, and communities; the quality of our schooling; the safety of our workplaces; the cleanliness of our water, food, and air; and the nature of our social interactions and relationships. The conditions in which we live explain in part why some Americans are healthier than others and why Americans more generally are not as healthy as they could be.

Commonwealth Fund Issue Brief – Too High a Price: Out-of-Pocket Health Care Costs in the United States

Whether they have health insurance through an employer or buy it on their own, Americans are paying more out-of-pocket for health care now than they did in the past decade. A Commonwealth Fund survey fielded in the fall of 2014 asked consumers about these costs.

OPRE Report – Disconnected Youth Involved in Child Welfare

This is the 21st in a series of National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (NSCAW) briefs focused on children who have come in contact with the child welfare system. This brief looks specifically at a subgroup of youth who have been identified as disconnected youth, defined here as 16- to 24-year-olds who are not in school and not employed three years after being reported as a victim of child maltreatment.  The brief reviews characteristics of youth identified as disconnected, along with risk factors for being disconnected.

The Commonwealth Fund Issue Brief – Implementing the Affordable Care Act: Revisiting the ACA’s Essential Health Benefits Requirements

The Affordable Care Act broadens and strengthens the health insurance benefits available to consumers by requiring insurers to provide coverage of a minimum set of medical services known as “essential health benefits.” Federal officials implemented this reform using transitional policies that left many important decisions to the states, while pledging to reassess that approach in time for the 2016 coverage year. This issue brief examines how states have exercised their options under the initial federal essential health benefits framework.

Child Trends Report – Culture Counts: Engaging Black and Latino Parents of Young Children in Family Support Programs 

This report provides an overview of family support programs and aims to identify the features and strategies that may be most effective for reaching and engaging black and Latino families, with the ultimate goal of supporting young children’s development.

AHRQ Statistical Brief – Comparing Health Insurance Coverage and Costs for Employees in Lower-Wage versus Higher-Wage Establishments, Private Sector, 2012

This Statistical Brief compares 2012 employer-sponsored health insurance offers, enrollments, and costs for those employees working at private-sector establishments where 50 percent or more of employees were low-wage (referred to as “lower-wage establishments”) versus those working where less than 50 percent of employees were low-wage (referred to as “higher-wage establishments”).

Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Issue Brief – In States That Don’t Expand Medicaid, Who Gets New Coverage Assistance Under the ACA and Who Doesn’t?

Millions of women, minorities, young adults and those with low incomes are ineligible for any health insurance assistance because their state opted not to expand Medicaid.

Home Visiting Evidence of Effectiveness (HomVEE) Review Results

The HomVEE review has just released the results of the 2014 review, as well as other content.

ChildTrends Research Brief – Profiles of Adolescents Who Are Not in Good Health

This brief uses data from the 2011/2012 National Survey of Children’s Health (NSCH) to describe adolescents who are in poor health and compare their personal, family, and neighborhood characteristics to those of healthier adolescents.

Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Report – Health Care: Necessary But Not Sufficient

Will improved access to health care remove the health disadvantages faced by people with less education? Will health care reform make high school dropouts as healthy as college graduates? Not necessarily.

Commonwealth Fund Issue Brief – Catching Up: Latino Health Coverage Gains and Challenges Under the Affordable Care Act

For decades, Latinos have had the highest uninsured rates of any racial or ethnic group in the United States. Less than one year after the Affordable Care Act’s health insurance marketplaces opened for enrollment, the overall Latino uninsured rate dropped from 36 percent to 23 percent, according to the Commonwealth Fund Affordable Care Act Tracking Survey.

US Census Bureau Report – Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2013

This report presents statistics on health insurance coverage in the United States based on information collected in the 2014 Current Population Survey Annual Social and Economic Supplement (CPS ASEC) and the 2013 American Community Survey (ACS).

US Census Bureau Report – Income and Poverty in the United States: 2013

This report presents data on income and poverty in the United States based on information collected in the 2014 and earlier Current Population Survey Annual Social and Economic Supplements (CPS ASEC) conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau.

Community Catalyst Fact Sheet – Making the Case for CHIP: Why CHIP Is Still Crucial in a Post-ACA Environment

The Children’s Health Insurance Program (CHIP) is a partnership between the federal government and states to provide health insurance for children of low- and moderate-income families who are not eligible for Medicaid. The Affordable Care Act (ACA) ensured funding for the federal share of CHIP costs would be in place through 2015; it also extended the authorization for the program until 2019. The ACA was designed assuming CHIP would continue, so reforms-such as the essential health benefits package-that make comprehensive private coverage more accessible to millions of Americans were conceived with adults, not children, in mind.

UC Davis Center for Poverty Research Policy Brief – Family Planning Programs Lift Children out of Poverty

Arguments for family planning often appeal to their potential benefits for women’s reproductive health, but its benefits for children may be among their most important.

Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) Statistical Brief – Trends and Projections in U.S. Hospital Costs by Patient Age, 2003-2013

Timely information on trends in costs for various types of hospitalizations provides health care payers and policymakers with baseline information that can be used to help evaluate the impact of health care improvement efforts. A novel initiative from
the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) is used in this Statistical Brief to produce timely, current inpatient statistics on the cost and utilization of hospital care by patient age for specific types of conditions (e.g., medical, surgical).

Youth Advocate Programs Policy and Advocacy Center Report – Safely Home

This report highlights cost-effective, community-based alternatives to incarceration for high-needs youth.

The Commonwealth Fund Quality Matters Report – Behavioral Health Integration: Approaches from the Field

Even without a direct source of reimbursement, several health systems, hospitals, and community health centers are working to integrate behavioral health services into primary and specialty care practices, emergency departments, and hospital units in an attempt to improve outcomes and reduce costs. This report provides a snapshot of these efforts.

Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Issue Brief – Early Childhood Experiences Shape Health and Well-Being Throughout Life

During the last 15 to 20 years, accumulated knowledge has revealed that family income and education, neighborhood resources, and other social and economic factors affect health at every stage of life, but the effects on young children are particularly dramatic.

The Commonwealth Fund Issue Brief – Arkansas: A Leading Laboratory for Health Care Payment and Delivery System Reform

As states’ Medicaid programs continue to evolve from traditional fee-for-service to value-based health care delivery, there is growing recognition that systemwide multipayer approaches provide the market power needed to address the triple aim of improved patient care, improved health of populations, and reduced costs. Federal initiatives, such as the State Innovation Model grant program, make significant funds available for states seeking to transform their health care systems. In crafting their reform strategies, states can learn from early innovators. This issue brief focuses on one such state: Arkansas. Insights and lessons from the Arkansas Health Care Payment Improvement Initiative (AHCPII) suggest that progress is best gained through an inclusive, deliberative process facilitated by committed leadership, a shared agreement on root problems and opportunities for improvement, and a strategy grounded in the state’s particular health care landscape.

Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Report – Are the Children Well? A Model and Recommendations for Promoting the Mental Wellness of the Nation’s Young People

The mental health challenges our country’s young people face call for shifting the focus of policy and practice from illness, to promotion of wellness and flourishing. This requires using evidence-based strategies with both children and parents, and improving the quality of the environments where children and youth live, learn, play, and grow.

Commonwealth Fund Report – Two Courts, Two Strategies: A Guide to the Recent Decisions on the ACA

Much hangs in the balance in the four cases brought by opponents of the Affordable Care Act (ACA). In each, the plaintiffs have challenged the power of the IRS to issue a rule that extends premium tax subsidies to all who are eligible, regardless of where they live.

AHRQ Guide – Engaging Stakeholders to Improve the Quality of Children’s Health Care

This Implementation Guide includes suggested steps and tips for implementing initiatives for improving child health care quality from the CMS-funded national evaluation of the Children’s Health Insurance Program Reauthorization Act of 2009 (CHIPRA) Quality Demonstration Grant Program.

Rural Policy Research Institute (RUPRI) Data Brief – Persistent Poverty Dynamics: Understanding Poverty Trends over 50 Years

This paper provides an update of 2003 RUPRI analysis of persistent poverty dynamics across U.S. counties.

Institute for Research on Poverty (IRP) Discussion Paper – Is WIC Reaching Those in Need? Children’s Participation in Nutritional Policy during the Great Recession

Though it is established that more mothers and children enrolled in the nutritional safety net during the Great Recession, it is unclear whether this increase was experienced equally by all racial/ethnic and socioeconomic groups. Using longitudinal data from the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP), this paper examines whether exposure to the early childhood nutritional safety net has remained steady or
increased as economic need increased during the Great Recession.

OPRE Report – Head Start CARES for Migrant and Seasonal Families: Adapting a Preschool Social-Emotional Curriculum

The Migrant and Seasonal Head Start (MSHS) CARES case study was designed as a companion study to the overall Head Start CARES (“Classroom-based Approaches and Resources for Emotion and Social skill promotion”) demonstration. MSHS CARES studied the adaptation and implementation of an existing evidence-based, social-emotional curriculum. MSHS CARES selected Preschool PATHS (Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies) curriculum to meet the needs of children and families of migrant and seasonal workers and the inherent features of MSHS programs.

Action for Health Justice Report – Improving the Road to Coverage: Policy Recommendations for Enrollment Success

This brief highlights some of the major barriers Asian American, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander (AA and NHPI) communities faced during the Affordable Care Act’s (ACA) first Open Enrollment Period, followed by recommendations to build upon and improve outreach, education, and enrollment efforts in the future.

National Partnership for Action Data Brief – Using Data to Advance Health Equity for Men of Color

Using data from the 2012 American Community Survey (ACS), an annual ongoing survey conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau, the data brief highlights several factors that impact health and access to health care for minority men.

US Census Bureau Report – Changes in Areas With Concentrated Poverty: 2000 to 2010

This report largely compares Census 2000 poverty estimates with those based on the 2008-2012 5-year American Community Survey (ACS).

Institute for Research on Poverty (IRP) Conference Volume – Family Complexity, Poverty, and Public Policy

Of all the ways in which family life in the United States has changed over the past 50 years, an increase in family complexity is one of the most important demographic shifts. High rates of cohabitation, nonmarital childbearing, divorce, and repartnering present challenges for policymakers as well as for families, especially children. Particularly notable is an increase in multi-partner fertility, or the proportion of adults who have biological children by more than one partner. These changes and trends in family life are important for understanding both the causes and consequences of poverty. As the reach and effects of many antipoverty policies vary with family structure, changes in family life pose challenges to the effective design of antipoverty programs and policies.

Office of Minority Health Data Brief – Characteristics of Uninsured Adult Males by Race and Ethnicity (Ages 19 to 64 Years)

Racial and ethnic minorities have lower estimates of health insurance coverage than the national average. Sex differences in health insurance coverage have also been documented.Lack of health insurance coverage (uninsurance) limits access to the health care system, which reduces preventive service utilization and potentially increases the risk for adverse health outcomes. Despite the extensive literature on the consequences of not having health insurance coverage (4), only a few reports have documented the uninsured population by race/ethnicity and sex. To gain further insight into the various factors that may influence health insurance coverage and outcomes, this report examines demographic, socioeconomic, and health characteristics by race and ethnicity among uninsured adult males (ages 19 to 64 years).

West Coast Poverty Center Research Flash – Self-Affirmation Among the Poor: Cognitive and Behavioral Implications

In addition to material deprivation, researchers have been exploring various ways in which poverty can exert a psychological toll. Evidence is growing that poverty-related stigma may cause psychological stress and consume cognitive resources. WCPC Affiliate Crystal Hall and colleagues show how a self-affirmation intervention might help interrupt these processes and improve participation in anti-poverty programs.

National Rural Health Association Policy Brief – HIV/AIDS in Rural America: Disproportionate Impact on minority and Multicultural Populations

HIV is of particular concern to rural America because lack of resources can lead to gaps in detection of the infection and in treatment maintenance. Further, traditional norms and conservative values in rural areas often translate into high prevalence of HIV-related stigma and low rates of disclosure resulting in reluctance to come forward for HIV screening and treatment among rural individuals.

AHRQ National Healthcare Quality & Disparities Reports

For the 11th year in a row, the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) has produced the National Healthcare Quality Report (NHQR) and the National Healthcare Disparities Report (NHDR). These reports measure trends in effectiveness of care, patient safety, timeliness of care, patient centeredness, and efficiency of care. The reports present, in chart form, the latest available findings on quality of and access to health care.

The Commonwealth Fund Report – Mitigating the Effects of Churning Under the Affordable Care Act: Lessons from Medicaid

Through a combination of three needs-based public programs-Medicaid, the Children’s Health Insurance Program, and tax credits for purchasing private plans in the new marketplaces-the Affordable Care Act can potentially ensure continuous coverage for many low- and moderate-income Americans. At the same time, half of individuals with incomes at less than twice the poverty level will experience a form of “churning” in their coverage; as changes occur in their life or work circumstances, they will need to switch among these three coverage sources. For many, churning will entail not only changes in covered benefits and cost-sharing, but also in care, owing to differences in provider networks. Strategies for mitigating churning’s effects are complex and require time to implement. For the short term, however, the experiences of 17 states with policies aimed at smoothing transitions between health plans offer lessons for ensuring care continuity.

AHRQ Medical Office Survey on Patient Safety Culture 2014 User Comparative Database Report

Comparative results are provided for the items and patient safety culture dimensions on the AHRQ Medical Office Survey on Patient Safety Culture to allow medical offices to compare their survey results against the results from 935 medical offices and 27,103 staff respondents.

OPRE Report – Family Strengthening Research: FY 2013

This report provides detailed summaries of major research investments by OPRE’s Division of Family Strengthening (DFS) along with brief overviews of past projects. The featured projects cover topics that include strengthening relationships within families, supporting fatherhood, nurturing children through their families, reducing teen pregnancy, and supporting youth in their transition to adulthood. The report also describes DFS’s investments in activities to disseminate rigorous research on family strengthening topics to a diverse range of stakeholders including federal and state policy-makers, program administrators, researchers, and intermediary organizations.

Special Issue of Studies in Family Planning – Unmet Need for Family Planning

Studies in Family Planning, a leading journal published by the Population Council, released “Unmet Need for Family Planning”-a special issue featuring ten articles from some of the leading researchers in the field of family planning, including a comprehensive introduction to the topic of unmet need. The issue explores trends and proposes solutions to ensure that sexual and reproductive health programs and policies are structured to meet the changing needs of women and men over the course of their reproductive lives. All articles in Unmet Need for Family Planning are available online, free of charge.

The Commonwealth Fund Report – Mirror, Mirror on the Wall, 2014 Update: How the U.S. Health Care System Compares Internationally

The United States health care system is the most expensive in the world, but this report and prior editions consistently show the U.S. underperforms relative to other countries on most dimensions of performance. Among the 11 nations studied in this report-Australia, Canada, France, Germany, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and the United States-the U.S. ranks last, as it did in the 2010, 2007, 2006, and 2004 editions of Mirror, Mirror. Most troubling, the U.S. fails to achieve better health outcomes than the other countries, and as shown in the earlier editions, the U.S. is last or near last on dimensions of access, efficiency, and equity.

Office for Victims of Crime Guide – Responding to Transgender Victims of Sexual Assault 

This guide helps practitioners deliver culturally sensitive, respectful care when working with transgender victims and their loved ones.

UC Davis Center for Poverty Research Policy Brief – Low-wage Work Uncertainty often Traps Low-wage Workers

A new study interviewing 25 low wage immigrant workers by Center for Poverty Research Affiliates Vicki Smith and Brian Halpin finds that while many of these low-wage workers recognize the need to enhance their skills and educational credentials, the conditions of their employment trap them, making it nearly impossible to escape.

OPRE Report – Understanding the Dynamics of Disconnection From Employment and Assistance

The study, Understanding the Dynamics of Disconnection from Employment and Assistance, used interview data from a sample of 51 unmarried mothers from Southeast Michigan and Los Angeles, California, to learn more about their experiences related to work, benefit receipt, and material hardship, their overall well-being, and the economic coping strategies and sources of support they use to manage. This report is based on these qualitative interviews. Analysis of the interview data showed some differences between the samples due to age, location, and immigration status of the respondents, but also striking similarities.

Commonwealth Fund Report – The Patient-Centered Medical Home, Electronic Health Records, and Quality of Care

Physician practices that adopt the patient-centered medical home model can achieve modest improvement on quality-of-care measures compared with more traditional practices. Although electronic health records play a central role in the medical home, the new roles and relationships of providers and staff may be even more important in driving quality improvement.

Community Catalyst Report – The ACA and Former Foster Youth: Opportunities and Challenges for States

Foster youth face many callings throughout their lives, with on particularly difficult period being the transition to independent living after reaching the maximum age for foster care, which varies by state. During this time, one of the biggest challenges is maintaining good health. Former foster youth face significantly higher rates of mental and physical illness than their non-foster youth peers. They are also much more likely to be uninsured. Consequently, many former foster youth go without the health care they need. To address this issue, the Affordable Care Act (ACA) extended Medicaid eligibility for former foster youth up to age 26.

New Issue of Advances in Social Work – Special Issue: Eyewitnesses to History: First-Hand Accounts of Sages of the Profession

This newly published issue brings together 17 original, invited articles written by individuals who are generally recognized as “sages of the profession,” intellectual and professional pioneers in the field of social work. The intent of this special issue is to capture the rich heritage of the social work profession and its educational initiatives as seen through the eyes of those who have actually lived and contributed to that heritage.

The Commonwealth Fund Report – Addressing Patients’ Social Needs: An Emerging Business Case for Provider Investment

Extensive research documents the impact of social factors such as income, educational attainment, access to food and housing, and employment status on the health and longevity of Americans, particularly lower-income populations. These findings attribute as much as 40 percent of health outcomes to social and economic factors.

Understanding Urban Indians’ Interactions With ACF Programs and Services: Final Report

This report presents the results of an exploratory study to better understand Urban Indians’ interactions with the Administration for Children and Families (ACF) programs and services.

HealthHIV Report – Third Annual State of HIV Primary Care National Survey

This report identifies significant training needs and barriers to quality HIV care.

Administration on Children, Youth & Families (ACYF) Report – Promoting Protective Factors for In-Risk Families and Youth: A Brief for Researchers

This report explores the factors that make children and young people more able to cope with the trauma they face.

Building A Beloved Community: Strengthening the Field of Black Male Achievement

Based on interviews with fifty leaders in the social, academic, government, and business sectors, this report maps the landscape of work in the area of black male achievement and offers recommendations for strengthening the field going forward.

The Commonwealth Fund Updated Data on WhyNotTheBest.org

Compare the health of residents in counties across the United States with newly updated information now available on WhyNotTheBest.org. Users can compare rates of preventable hospitalizations, percentages of adults reporting fair or poor health, and many other health measures. The data, drawn from the County Health Rankings set, also provide information on the health care supports available to residents, such as the supply of dentists and primary care physicians.

Behavioral Health Coaching for Rural Veterans with Diabetes and Depression: A Patient Randomized Effectiveness Implementation Trial

This randomized controlled trial evaluated the Healthy Outcomes through Patient Empowerment (HOPE) intervention, which seeks to simultaneously address diabetes and depression for rural veterans in Southeast Texas.

Institute for Research on Poverty (IRP) Discussion Paper – Housing Voucher Receipt and the Quality of Schools Available to Recipient Children

Using data on housing voucher recipients with school-aged children residing across the state of Wisconsin, this paper analyzes the relationship between voucher receipt and the educational opportunities of children in recipient households.

West Coast Poverty Center Research FLASH – Refugees and Public Housing Redevelopment

This brief explores how immigrants and refugees are faring with public housing redevelopment.

US Department of Education Office for Civil Rights Issue Brief – Data Snapshot: School Discipline

This brief includes information on disparities in school Discipline, restraint, and seclusion.

Office of Planning, Research, and Evaluation (OPRE) Brief – Survey Data Elements to Unpack Diversity of Hispanic Populations

The grouping “Hispanic” often makes it challenging to observe important social experiences that relate strongly to the needs, service experiences, and outcomes of interest to ACF for various Hispanic subgroups. Existing federal surveys do not consistently collect data to sufficiently examine how Hispanic ethnicity interacts with other socio-cultural experiences or how it relates to specific outcomes. Because current measurement is inadequate to differentiate characteristics within the Hispanic population, this brief presents ten additional data elements that will improve understanding of the diversity within low-income, Hispanic populations in the U.S., if included alongside demographic items that are typically collected in federal research surveys.

National Partnership for Women and Families Updated Wage Gap Map

This interactive map shows the wage gap in all 50 states plus DC and links to fact sheets on the wage gap in each state.

Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Report – Two Decades of Investment in Substance-Use Prevention and Treatment

RWJF’s 20-year investment to reduce harm from alcohol and other drugs in the U.S. is examined in this latest retrospective.

National Institute of Justice (NIJ) Report: Healthy Communities May Make Safe Communities: Public Health Approaches to Violence Prevention

Police chiefs, public health directors and researchers are establishing innovative public health/public safety collaborations to fight crime.

Double Discrimination Impacts Physical and Mental Health

Adults who are members of two or more disadvantaged groups – a cultural or racial minority; a woman; gay, lesbian or transgender; or obese – report experiencing more forms of discrimination than singly disadvantaged or privileged adults. Multi-disadvantaged adults are at greater risk for mental distress and poor physical health.

Institute for Research on Poverty (IRP) Fast Focus Issue: Less-Educated Workers’ Unstable Employment: Can the Safety Net Help?

Since the 1980s, U.S. workers with less than a college education have faced increasing job instability at the same time that the safety net has become increasingly contingent on employment. This issue of Fast Focus reviews the evidence on employment instability and explores the challenges and opportunities of promoting employment stability in the current economic and political climate.

Office of Planning, Research, and Evaluation (OPRE) Report – Child Care Subsidy Literature Review

This literature review summarizes recent research on topics related to child care subsidies with the intent to provide a foundation of empirical knowledge for state administrators, program developers, and policymakers as they choose among and implement subsidy policies.

NIJ Report – The Impact of Victimization on Residential Mobility: Explaining Racial and Ethnic Patterns Using the National Crime Victimization Survey

Criminal victimization is known to influence decisions to move, but theories suggest that
the processes leading to a moving decision may vary across racial and ethnic groups depending on household socioeconomic characteristics as well as housing market conditions. This study used a longitudinal sample of 34,134 housing units compiled from the National Crime Victimization Survey for the forty largest metropolitan areas in the United States (1995-2003) to study racial/ethnic differences in household moving behavior after victimization.

The Discipline Disparities Research to Practice Collaborative Discipline Disparities Briefing Papers

The Discipline Disparities Research to Practice Collaborative, within a national context of troubling disparities and promising solutions, has used information from stakeholder groups, as well as knowledge of the current status of research in the field, to craft this series of informational briefs and supplementary research papers with targeted recommendations customized for different audiences.

ChildTrends Research Brief – A Fifteen Year (1997-2012) Profile of Children’s Overall Health: National and State Estimates, by Family Income Level

Here we estimate the proportion of children reported by parents to be in “very good” or
“excellent” health, between 1997 and 2012. We examine trends in health status for children ages birth through 17, nationally and across states, and across family income-levels.

University of Michigan Study: Women’s Rights are Good for Men’s Health

A new study from researchers from the University of Michigan School of Public Health and colleagues shows that, in societies where women are equal to men, males stand a better chance of living longer.

The University of Montana Rural Institute Fact Sheet: Disability in Rural America

Newly released data on disability in America show that the prevalence of impairments leading to disability is significantly higher in non-metropolitan counties than in metropolitan counties. This fact sheet provides preliminary analyses of these new US census data.

Cost Analysis in Program Evaluation: A Guide for Child Welfare Researchers and Service Providers 

Motivated by a growing need for accurate and comparable information about the costs of child welfare programs and services and by the lack of a standard methodology for calculating costs across its grant-funded demonstration and evaluation projects, the Children’s Bureau brought together experts to address this need. The result is a guide for conducting cost analysis that can be integrated into and informed by a program evaluation. The guide and companion video shorts demonstrate how cost analyses, when integrated within a program evaluation, can promote better understanding of a program from initial implementation through full-scale roll out by requiring and defining key service components. In this way, cost analyses become an important piece of the conceptual framework for program planning and implementation and are viewed as another set of key evaluation measures.

Guttmacher Institute Study: Abortion Incidence and Service Availability in the United States, 2011

A new study from the Guttmacher Institute shows the US abortion rate at its lowest level since 1973. This decline is partly due to increasing use of long-acting, reversible contraceptives like the Population Council-developed IUD, from 2% of contraceptive users in 2002 to 9% in 2009.

Institute for Research on Poverty (IRP) Poverty Fact Sheet – Young Dads and Disadvantage

Fathers can play an important role in children’s lives. Involved fathers contribute economically, engage in child rearing, act as role models, and provide indirectly through supporting the mother. Young, disadvantage dads face challenges in all these areas.

The Stanford Center on Poverty and Inequality National Report Card on Poverty and Inequality

This report covers seven domains: labor markets, poverty, the safety net, income inequality, wealth inequality, health inequality and education. Authored by the country’s top experts, the report provides key data at both the state and national levels on efforts to reduce inequality and equalize opportunity.

Alcohol Research: Current Reviews – Measuring the Burden: Alcohol’s Evolving Impact on Individuals, Families, and Society 

 

Office of Planning, Research, and Evaluation (OPRE) Portfolio of Research in Welfare and Family Self Sufficiency: Fiscal Year 2013

This portfolio of research provides detailed summaries of OPRE’s ongoing welfare and family self-sufficiency research efforts along with brief overviews of past projects. The featured projects cover topics that include TANF, the safety net, employment, education and training. The report also describes OPRE’s efforts to disseminate rigorous research on welfare and family self-sufficiency.  This year’s portfolio covers OPRE-funded projects for Fiscal Year 2013.

Institute for Research on Poverty Focus on Poverty Brief – Family Change: It’s Complicated

This policy brief is the first in a new series released by The Institute for Research on Poverty and focuses on family complexity and how family structure has changed in the past 50 years.

American Journal of Preventative Medicine Article: Widening Rural-Urban Disparities in Life Expectancy, U.S., 1969-2009 

This study examined trends in rural-urban disparities in life expectancy at birth in the U.S. between 1969 and 2009.

The Commonwealth Fund Interactive Data Tool – Affordable Care Act Tracking Survey

The Commonwealth Fund’s Affordable Care Act Tracking Surveys measure public awareness of the new marketplaces and what Americans are experiencing as they shop for health plans.

Inaugural Issue of New NIH Newsletter – The Health Disparities Pulse

The Health Disparities Pulse is a quarterly newsletter on minority health and health disparities produced by the National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities (NIMHD).

Institute of Medicine (IOM) Workshop Summary – Leveraging Culture to Address Health Inequalities: Examples from Native Communities

On November 14, 2012, the IOM Roundtable on the Promotion of Health Equity and the Elimination of Health Disparities held a workshop in Seattle, WA, to explore the ideas at the heart of the medicine wheel. The workshop brought together stakeholders to discuss the sizable health inequalities affecting Native American, Alaska Native, First Nation, Native Hawaiians, and Pacific Islander populations and the potential role of culture to help reduce those inequalities. This document summarizes the workshop.

Children’s Bureau Report: Child Maltreatment 2012

This report presents national data about child abuse and neglect known to child protective services agencies in the United States during federal fiscal year 2012.

The Commonwealth Fund 2013 Annual Report

The Fund’s 2013 interactive Annual Report provides highlights of the past year from the Fund’s programs and points to new directions for the future.

The Journal of the Society for Social Work and Research (JSSWR) Special Issue: The Science and Practice of Research Synthesis

This special issue was dedicated to enhancing the accumulation and dissemination of scholarly knowledge by presenting papers that explore innovative research synthesis methodologies and reports examining the results of systematic reviews. This special issue presents an overview of the principles and methods of research synthesis, four reports on systematic reviews, and two papers on novel research synthesis methodologies.

Kaiser Family Foundation Interactive: A State-by-State Look at How the Uninsured Fare Under the ACA

The Affordable Care Act (ACA) includes coverage options for people across the income spectrum, but there are big differences in eligibility for coverage depending on whether a state expands Medicaid or not. This interactive tool shows how many currently uninsured people are estimated to be eligible for Medicaid or tax credits, or in the coverage gap in each state.

Health Services Research Study: More Funding for Community Health Centers Improves Access to Care

Increased federal funding for community health centers since 2000 has helped low-income adults get access to primary care and dental care.

Using Data to Understand Your Community

This brief compiles a list of resources that community stakeholders can explore to use data to understand the community and population.

Center for Poverty Research Policy Brief – Immigrant Mothers, Community 
Organizations and Poverty

Community-based organizations (CBOs) serve low-income immigrants who face significant barriers to public aid. An increasing proportion of these populations includes families with children who live in poverty. In ongoing research, Faculty Affiliate Dina Okamoto, Valerie Feldman and Melanie Jones Gast find that Latin American immigrant mothers in high-poverty areas rely on CBOs to meet their diverse needs.

AHRQ Statistical Brief – The Long-Term Uninsured in America, 2008-2011 (Selected Intervals): Estimates for the U.S. Civilian Noninstitutionalized Population under Age 65

Using information from the Household Component of the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS-HC) for 2010 and 2011, this Statistical Brief provides detailed estimates for the U.S. civilian noninstitutionalized non-elderly (under age 65) population that was uninsured for the entire 2008-2011 period and identifies groups most at risk of lacking any coverage during that four-year period.

Justice Center Policy Brief: Medicaid and Financing Health Care for Individuals Involved with the Criminal Justice System

People in prisons and jails often have complex and costly health care needs, and states and local governments currently pay almost the entirety of these individuals’ health care costs. This failure to link individuals involved with the criminal justice system to health coverage and services upon release from incarceration is especially costly to state and local governments. The appropriate use of federal Medicaid dollars to help pay for health care provided to this population can save states and localities money, in addition to minimizing health and public safety concerns associated with reentry following incarceration.

Report to the U.S. Department of Justice: Highlights and Lowlights of Researcher-Practitioner Collaborations in the Criminal Justice System

Toward the aim of learning through the lessons and experiences of others, researchers and practitioners from the United States and Canada were asked to share their personal “highlights” and “lowlights” of collaborating. The information shared can be useful to researchers and practitioners new to collaborating as well as those who have substantial experience collaborating. The purpose of this brief is to communicate those high- and lowlights so that they can inform the development of future research collaborations and contribute to their likelihood of their success.

Office of Planning, Research, and Evaluation (OPRE) Data Brief – Say What You Mean and Mean What You Say: Terminology Agnosticism in Child Care Questionnaires

Child care survey data and analyses can be improved by stepping away from terminology which may have unclear or multiple meanings to different audiences. This brief, which draws from the Design Study of the National Survey of Early Care and Education, reviews the importance of child care data, as well as some of the pitfalls of misinterpretation of survey items.

Center on Adherence and Self Determination (CASD) Research and Practice Brief

CASD conducts research aimed at promoting choice and full engagement in services that help people with serious mental illness achieve their recovery goals. This Research & Practice Brief describes various economic evaluations into mental health services research.

New Issue of Advances in Social Work:  A “Seasonal Stew” – Food for Thought; Fuel for Action

This newly published issue brings together 21 original articles covering a wide range of topics, including general conceptual articles, papers focusing on special populations, results of original empirical research, and articles related to social work education.

SAMHSA Report: Customizing Health Homes for Children with Serious Behavioral Health Challenges

This resource paper provides a rationale as to why health homes under the ACA should be customized for children and youth with serious behavioral health challenges. Click here to read the full report.

Bipartisan Policy Center Report: Immigration Reform: Implications for Growth, Budgets and Housing

At the heart of the ongoing immigration reform debate is the question of the anticipated costs and benefits of reform. Assessing the impact of various reform proposals on economic growth, wages, and federal and state budgets is critical to making an informed judgment as to whether enactment of reform is in the best interests of the country.

Data Quality Campaign (DQC) Annual Report – Data for Action 2013: Right Questions, Right Data, Right Answers

States have more capacity than ever to use secure education data, but they need to place a greater focus on using the right data to answer the right questions to improve student success. In DQC’s annual report, find out more about: Data for Action 2013 key findings; the national landscape of education data and policy; examples from leading states; and information on how states are serving the data needs of teachers, parents, school and district administrators, policy makers, and the public.

Study of Asian Americans identifies subsets of socially disadvantaged workers at risk of poor mental health

A well-documented finding is that individuals of the highest socioeconomic status (SES) have better health, particularly mental health, than those at the bottom and all intermediary levels. Yet, there is increasing evidence from studies of racial/ethnic minorities and immigrants in the United States showing more complex links between SES and health. In an effort to understand whether such a phenomenon exists in the fast-growing, heterogeneous Asian American population, researchers investigated the associations of nativity and occupational class with subjective health and 12-month mental disorders. They found that occupational class was not strongly associated with subjective health and mental disorder for Asian Americans, including immigrants.

Commonwealth Fund Report: International Profiles of Health Care Systems, 2013: Australia, Canada, Denmark, England, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United States

This publication presents overviews of the health care systems of Australia, Canada, Denmark, England, France, Germany, Japan, Italy, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United States. Each overview covers health insurance, public and private financing, health system organization and governance, health care quality and coordination, disparities, efficiency and integration, use of information technology and evidence-based practice, cost containment, and recent reforms and innovations.

University of Arizona Study: Community Health Workers Can Serve Vital Advocacy Role

Community health workers perform a vital role in advocating for underserved populations, and with advocacy and leadership training they can effectively combat health inequality across demographic lines, according to a new paper from University of Arizona public health researchers.

ChildTrends Report – The Youngest Americans: A Statistical Portrait of Infants and Toddlers in the United States

America’s youngest children are more diverse with respect to race/ethnicity, country of origin, language, and family type than at any time in our recent history. Most of our youngest Americans, according to their parents, have at least some of the important characteristics associated with optimal development. At the same time, they are a generation characterized by marked inequalities, with disturbing proportions facing sever disadvantage that imposes both immediate and lasting threats to well-being.

Rural Health Research and Policy Centers Policy Brief – Perinatal Health in the Rural United States: Low Birth Weight Rates Among Racial and Ethnic Groups in the Rural United States, 2005

This report is one in a series of briefs, which cover the issue of perinatal outcomes in rural areas across the United States in 2005. Low birth weight, a key indicator of the health of the U.S. population, and adequacy of prenatal care, a critical indicator of access and quality of health care, are explored to discover how they are related to rural or urban location, race, and ethnicity.

SAMHSA Report – Behavioral Health United States 2012

This report is the latest in a series of publications issued by SAMHSA biannually since 1980, provides in-depth information regarding the current status of the mental health and substance abuse field. It includes behavioral health statistics at the national and State levels from 40 different data sources.

NCHS Data Brief – Prevalence of Obesity Among Adults: United States, 2011-2012

This brief provides key findings from analyses of data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2011-2012.

The Alliance for Early Success Publication: The Research Base for a Birth through Age Eight State Policy Framework

This report outlines a framework that emphasizes three important messages: 1. There is an evidence base for the policy areas and policy foundations identified in the Birth through Age Eight State Policy Framework; 2. The years starting at birth and continuing through age eight are a critical time for achieving good health, strong families, and better learning outcomes in early childhood and later in life; and 3. The supports and experiences that children receive have a cumulative effect-each experience influences the next and sustains previous growth and development.

University of Alabama Studies How Stigma Affects Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV

This study reviewed the literature from low-income settings to examine how HIV-related stigma affects utilization of the series of steps that women must complete for successful prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT).

GW Study Found Health Center Patients Remain Uninsured and Left Out of Health Reform

A new report by the Geiger Gibson/RCHN Community Health Foundation Research Collaborative at the George Washington University School of Public Health and Health Services examines the impact of health reform on community health centers (CHCs) and their patients. The study estimates that more than five million health center patients would have gained coverage had all states participated in a sweeping Medicaid expansion. However, nearly half of all CHCs are located in states that have opted out of the expansion. As a result, more than a million uninsured CHC patients who would have been covered under a nationwide Medicaid expansion will be left without the protection of health insurance, according to the report.

Medicaid Family Planning Expansions and Related Preventive Care

Since 1994, 22 states have expanded Medicaid coverage of preventive health services for women aged 21-44 years. These services included screening for breast and cervical cancer and testing for sexually transmitted infections. This article examines the impact of expanded Medicaid coverage on use of preventive services by young women.

Housing Assistance Council Report on Rural Poverty

This report provides an overview of the U.S. Census Bureau’s annual report: Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2012.

SAMHSA National Survey on Drug Use and Health: Summary of National Findings

This report presents the first information from the 2012 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), an annual survey sponsored by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). The survey is the primary source of information on the use of illicit drugs, alcohol, and tobacco in the civilian, noninstitutionalized population of the United States aged 12 years old or older. 

SAMHSA Medicaid Handbook: Interface with Behavioral Health Services

This handbook should prove useful to anyone wishing to learn the fundamental principles of Medicaid and apply them to their existing knowledge of behavioral health services.

USDA Economic Research Service Report on Household Food Security in the United States in 2012

Carsey Institute National Issue Brief on National Child Poverty Rate

The Commonwealth Fund Report: New U.S. Census Data on the Uninsured Underscores Need for Expanded Coverage

This report outlines new data released by the U.S. Census Bureau regarding uninsurance and the early impact of some ACA provisions.

The Commonwealth Fund Report: Health Care in the Two Americas: Findings from the Scorecard on State Health System Performance for Low-Income Populations, 2013

The report identifies opportunities for states to improve their health systems for economically disadvantaged populations and provides state benchmarks of achievement. Analyzing 30 indicators of access, prevention and quality, potentially avoidable hospital use, and health outcomes, the Scorecard documents sharp health care disparities among states.

Maryland Center for Health Equity New Online Educational Program: Building Trust Between Minorities and Researchers

This program seeks to close the gap in racial and ethnic health disparities. The program does so by providing culturally tailored information and skills to minority communities on how to become an informed decision maker for participation in research, including clinical trials.

National Institute of Justice Report: Sex Offender Management, Treatment, and Civil Commitment: An Evidence Based Analysis Aimed at Reducing Sexual Violence

This study was designed to provide a comprehensive exploratory examination of the program management, treatment, and recidivism of sexual offenders in New Jersey.

Journal of Adolescent Health Supplement on Child Maltreatment

The papers in this supplement investigate the role of safe, stable, nurturing relationships (SSNRs) and social contexts in the lives of children and their caregivers, as well as provide insight into relational factors that influence the inter-generational cycle of child maltreatment.

Advances in Social Work 2013 Special Issue

The Impact of Socio-Economic, Cultural, Political, and International Factors on Latinos/Latinas in the US

HHS Results from the 2012 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: Summary of National Findings

This report summarizes findings from the National Survey on Drug Use and health by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality.

Child Welfare Information Gateway Fact Sheet: Long-term Consequences of Child Abuse and Neglect

This factsheet explains the long-term physical, psychological, behavioral, and societal consequences of child abuse and neglect.

The Commonwealth Fund Issue Brief: In States’ Hands: How the Decision to Expand Medicaid Will Affect the Most Financially Vulnerable Americans

Between 2010 and 2012, nearly one-third (32%) of U.S. adults ages 19 to 64, or an estimated 55 million people, were either continuously uninsured or spent a period of time uninsured. Data from the 2011 and 2012 Commonwealth Fund Health Insurance Tracking Surveys of U.S. Adults show that people with incomes below 133 percent of the federal poverty level (i.e., the level that will make them eligible for Medicaid in 2014 under the Affordable Care Act) were uninsured at the highest rates. Yet, fewer than half the states are currently planning to expand their Medicaid programs, because the 2012 Supreme Court decision allows states to choose whether to expand eligibility. In those states that have not yet decided to expand, as many as two of five (42%) adults who were uninsured for any time over the two years would not have access to the new coverage provisions in the law.

Michigan Finds Access to Mental Health Care Lacking For Children, Teens Across U.S.

A survey from the University of Michigan reveals that many adults across the U.S. believe children and teens have extremely limited or no access to appropriate mental health care services. Survey participants were asked how much availability there is in their communities for children and teens to receive healthcare services. More than half of all respondents note that there is “lots of availability” for teens to have hospital care (55 percent) and primary care (56 percent) in their communities, but across all health care services, only 30 percent of respondents reported “lots of availability” for mental health care. Health care availability for children was very similar.

Iowa’s RUPRI Center for Rural Health Policy Analysis Releases Study on Rural Pharmacy Closures

The RUPRI Center for Rural Health Policy Analysis at the University of Iowa recently released “Causes and Consequences of Rural Pharmacy Closures: A Multi-Case Study.”  The Center completed case studies in six rural communities that lost their only remaining retail pharmacy since 2007. In five of the six communities, residents now either drive to the nearest pharmacy or use mail- order to receive their prescriptions and, in some instances, receive their prescriptions through a courier service from a pharmacy in a nearby town.

New Child Welfare Outcomes Report

The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services released the twelfth in a series of reports designed to inform Congress, the States, and the public about State performance on delivering child welfare services. Child Welfare Outcomes 2008-2011: Report to Congress provides information about State performance on seven national child welfare outcomes related to the safety, permanency, and well-being of children involved in the child welfare system.

Adoption and Foster Care Analysis and Reporting System (AFCARS) Report

This month, new statistics were released from the Children’s Bureau on the numbers of children involved with the child welfare system. The AFCARS report provides preliminary estimates for fiscal year (FY) 2012.

Disparities in Child Welfare: Considering the Implementation of Differential Response
By: Heather Allan and Michelle Howard

Can the use of differential response in child protection help reduce the disproportional representation of certain racial/ethnic groups in the child welfare system? A new issue brief from the National Quality Improvement Center on Differential Response in Child Protective Services (QIC-DR) explores the intersection between differential response and disproportionality.

Using Data to Improve Outcomes

The National Resource Center for Child Welfare Data and Technology (NRC-CWDT), in collaboration with several child welfare data managers in the field, developed a framework to help agencies better work with data in order to inform practice and performance and improve child welfare outcomes. The tool is intended to help agencies refine their data-collection process and focus their efforts so that the data collected are more useful and easily incorporated into business processes.

National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (NSCAW): Adverse Child Experiences

More than half of the children in the NSCAW II sample report four or more adverse childhood experiences. This finding is from a brief that uses the second cohort of the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (NSCAW II) to examine rates of adverse childhood experiences among children who have been reported for maltreatment to the child welfare system.  It also compares this sample’s adverse experiences to those reported in the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Adverse Childhood Experiences Study (ACES).