Public health policies can raise challenging ethical dilemmas. Examples studied by CLER faculty include rationing scarce resources, allocating emerging technologies, insurance coverage, theories of paternalism and behavioral economics, genetic testing and screening, reproductive health, health information privacy, religion and public health, needs of disadvantaged populations, end of life care, substance abuse treatment alternatives, institutional care delivery, torture, and refugee health. CLER also develops health law, public health, and ethics curricula and provides clinical ethics consultation services.