Injectable Contraceptives and Bone Ultrasound Measures

Some studies have suggested that bone mineral density is lower in users of injectable progestogen contraceptives (IPCs) than nonusers. The purpose of this study is to determine whether the use of IPCs indeed decreases bone mineral density in users, and whether an effect is reversible after cessation of use. The study is being conducted in South Africa, where IPCs are widely used and for long durations by African women and women of mixed racial descent. African women and women of mixed racial descent ages 18-44 years are being enrolled from health centers in two towns in the greater Cape Town area. They are interviewed about contraceptive history and risk factors for bone mineral density, including smoking history, alcohol use, physical activity, lactation, calcium intake, and reproductive history. Their height and weight are measured, and a bone ultrasound measurement is taken of one heel. At least 3,000 women will be studied, half of whom will be African women and half women of mixed racial heritage.


Lynn Rosenberg, Sc.D., Principal Investigator
Slone Epidemiology Center

Zuqing Zhang, M.B., Sc.D., Co-Investigator
Boston University School of Medicine

Margaret Hoffman, M.B., Principal Investigator
University of Cape Town School of Medical

Diane Cooper, Ph.D., Co-Investigator
University of Cape Town School of Medicine

Asgar Kalla, M.B., Co-Investigator
University of Cape Town School of Medicine

Study Staff:

Eleanor Marks, Project manager
Deborah Constant, Data manager
Phoebe Gribble, R.N., Nurse Interviewer
Lungiswa Mankaya, R.N., Nurse Interviewer
Bev Arendse, R.N., Nurse Interviewer

Source of Funding:

National Institute of Child Health and Human Development

Study Period:

April 2002 to March 2007