Case-Control Surveillance of Serious Illnesses and Drugs

The Case-Control Surveillance Study’s purpose is to systematically evaluate the relationship of medications to the incidence of certain illnesses and to screen for unsuspected drug/disease associations. Since 1983 the main focus of the study has been on various cancers. Patients from a network of hospitals in Philadelphia, who reside in specified ZIP Code areas and have a new (within 1 year) diagnosis of interest (e.g., breast cancer) are identified by nurse interviewers assigned to the hospitals and asked to participate. Non-cancer patients are similarly interviewed in order to amass a pool of potential controls. The latter are selected according to specific criteria: acute conditions (e.g. accidents, appendicitis), and other non-chronic diseases, or chronic conditions diagnosed within the past year (e.g. kidney stones, gallstones). Using a laptop computer, the nurse interviews the subject in their hospital room, after a consent has been signed. The data collected includes: demographic information, lifestyle habits (e.g. smoking, exercise, alcohol use), past and present illnesses, and a lifetime medication history elicited by asking for drug use for over 40 indications. In addition to the interview, since 1998 cheek cell samples are obtained by rubbing a soft brush on the inner cheek for about 15 seconds. This genetic component will investigate whether genetic polymorphisms modify associations of medications with disease. Discharge summaries and pathology reports are reviewed to verify diagnoses, and classify and stage all cancer diagnoses. To date, over 80,000 patients have been interviewed, including over 25,000 with incident cancer.

Investigators and Study Staff

Investigators:

Lynn Rosenberg, Sc.D., Principal Investigator
Slone Epidemiology Center

Brian Strom, M.D., Principal Investigator
University of Pennsylvania

Patricia Coogan, Sc.D., M.P.H., Co-Investigator
Slone Epidemiology Center

Julie Palmer, Sc.D, Co-Investigator
Slone Epidemiology Center

Study Staff:

Jane Sheehan, R.N., M.S., Project Coordinator
Barbara Lauchle, R.N., Nurse Interviewer
Colleen Ferris, R.N., Nurse Interviewer
Michael Stanley, Computer Applications Specialist

Study Details

Source of Funding:

National Cancer Institute

Study Period:

1976 to 2009

Publications

  • Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast Cancer. Menarche, menopause, and breast cancer risk: individual participant meta-analysis, including 118,964 women with breast cancer from 117 epidemiological studies. Lancet Oncol 2012;13(11):1141-51. doi: 10.1016/S1470-2045(12)70425-4.
  • Collaborative Group on Epidemiological Studies of Ovarian Cancer. Ovarian cancer and smoking: individual participant meta-analysis including 28,114 women with ovarian cancer from 51 epidemiological studies. Lancet Oncol 2012;13:946-56. doi: S1470-2045(12)70322-4.
  • Collaborative Group on Epidemiological Studies of Ovarian Cancer. Ovarian cancer and body size: individual participant meta-analysis including 25,157 women with ovarian cancer from 47 epidemiological studies. PLoS Med 2012;9(4):e1001200. doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1001200.
  • Coogan PF, Kelly JP, Strom BL, Rosenberg L. Statin and NSAID use and prostate cancer risk. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 2010;19:752-5. doi: 10.1002/pds.1970. PMCID: PMC2906219.
  • Zhang Y, Coogan PF, Palmer JR, Strom BL, Rosenberg L. A case-control study of reproductive factors, female hormone use, and risk of pancreatic cancer. Cancer Causes Control 2010;21:473-8. doi: 10.1007/s10552-009-9478-9. PMCID: PMC2895493.
  • Coogan PF, Strom BL, Rosenberg L. Antidepressant use and colorectal cancer risk. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 2009;18(11):1111-4. doi: 10.1002/pds.1808. PMCID: PMC2783290.
  • Zhang Y, Coogan PF, Palmer JR, Strom BL, Rosenberg L. Vitamin and mineral use and risk of prostate cancer: the Case-Control Surveillance Study. Cancer Causes Control 2009;20(5):691-8. doi: 10.1007/s10552-008-9282-y. PMCID: PMC2755205.
  • Rosenberg L, Zhang Y, Coogan PF, Palmer JR. A case-control study of oral contraceptive use and incident breast cancer. Am J Epidemiol 2009;169(4):473-9. doi: 10.1093/aje/kwn360. PMCID: PMC2726644.
  • Coogan PF, Strom BL, Rosenberg L. Diuretic use and the risk of breast cancer [research letter]. J Hum Hypertens 2009;23:216-9. doi: 10.1038/jhh.2008.131.
  • Collaborative Group on Epidemiological Studies of Ovarian Cancer. Ovarian cancer and oral contraceptives: collaborative reanalysis of data from 45 epidemiological studies including 23,257 women with ovarian cancer and 87,303 controls. Lancet 2008;371:303-14.
  • Coogan PF, Strom BL, Rosenberg L. SSRI use and breast cancer risk by hormone receptor status. Breast Cancer Res Treat 2008;109(3):527-31. doi: 10.1007/s10549-007-9664-y.
  • Coogan PF, Rosenberg L, Strom BL. Statin use and the risk of 10 cancers. Epidemiology 2007;18:213-9.
  • Rosenberg L, Coogan PF, Palmer JR. Case-control surveillance. In: Strom BL, Kimmel SE, eds. Textbook of pharmacoepidemiology. 5th ed. New York: Wiley, 2006:137-49.
  • Zhang Y, Coogan PF, Palmer JR, Strom BL, Rosenberg L. Risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma and use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Cancer Detect Prev 2006;30(1):99-101.
  • Coogan PF, Palmer JR, Strom BL, Rosenberg L. Use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and the risk of breast cancer. Am J Epidemiol 2005;162:835-8.
  • Zhang Y, Coogan PF, Palmer JR, Strom BL, Rosenberg L. Use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and risk of breast cancer: the Case-Control Surveillance Study revisited. Am J Epidemiol 2005;162:165-70.
  • Coogan PF, Zhang Y, Palmer JR, Strom BL, Rosenberg L. Cimetidine and other histamine2-receptor antagonist use in relation to risk of breast cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2005;14:1012-5.
  • Rosenberg L, Coogan PF, Palmer JR. Case-control surveillance. In: Strom BL, ed. Pharmacoepidemiology. 4th ed. New York: Wiley, 2005:185-202.
  • Zhang Y, Coogan PF, Palmer JR, Strom BL, Rosenberg L. Cigarette smoking and increased risk of mucinous epithelial ovarian cancer. Am J Epidemiol 2004;159:133-9.
  • Brooks DR, Palmer JR, Strom BL, Rosenberg L. Menthol cigarettes and risk of lung cancer. Am J Epidemiol 2003;158:609-16.
  • Coogan P, Rosenberg L. Response to Etminan’s letter regarding “Statin use and the risk of breast and prostate cancer” [letter to the editor]. Epidemiology 2002;13:607-8.
  • Blackman JA, Coogan PF, Rosenberg L, Strom BL, Zauber AG, Palmer JR, Langenberg P, Shapiro S. Estrogen replacement therapy and risk of lung cancer. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 2002;11:561-7.
  • Coogan PF, Rosenberg L, Palmer JR, Strom BL, Zauber AG, Shapiro S. Statin use and the risk of breast and prostate cancer. Epidemiology 2002;13:262-7.
  • Kaufman DW, Rosenberg L, Mitchell AA. Signal generation and clarification: use of case-control data. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 2001;10:197-203.
  • Coogan PF, Rosenberg L, Palmer JR, Strom BL, Zauber AG, Stolley PD, Shapiro S. Phenolphthalein laxatives and risk of cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 2000;92:1943-4.
  • Coogan PF, Rosenberg L, Palmer JR, Strom BL, Stolley PD, Zauber AG, Shapiro S. Risk of ovarian cancer according to use of antidepressants, phenothiazines, and benzodiazepines (United States). Cancer Causes Control 2000;11:839-45.
  • Rosenberg L, Palmer JR, Rao RS, Coogan PF, Strom BL, Zauber AG, Stolley PD, Shapiro S. A case-control study of analgesic use and ovarian cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2000;9:933-7.
  • Coogan PF, Rosenberg L, Louik C, Zauber AG, Stolley PD, Strom BL, Shapiro S. NSAIDs and risk of colorectal cancer according to presence or absence of family history of the disease. Cancer Causes Control 2000;11:249-55.
  • Coogan PF, Rosenberg L, Palmer JR, Strom BL, Zauber AG, Stolley PD, Shapiro S. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and risk of digestive cancers at sites other than the large bowel. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2000;9:119-23.
  • Kelly JP, Rosenberg L, Palmer JR, Rao RS, Strom BL, Stolley PD, Zauber AG, Shapiro S. Risk of breast cancer according to use of antidepressants, phenothiazines, and antihistamines. Am J Epidemiol 1999;150:861-8.
  • Coogan PF, Rao RS, Rosenberg L, Palmer JR, Strom BL, Zauber AG, Stolley PD, Shapiro S. The relationship of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use to the risk of breast cancer. Prev Med 1999;29:72-6.
  • Shapiro S.  Case-control surveillance.  In: Strom BL, ed.  Pharmacoepidemiology.  3rd ed.  Chichester, UK:  John Wiley and Sons, 2000:209-30.
  • Rosenberg L, Stephenson WP, Rao RS, Palmer JR, Strom BL, Shapiro S. The diagnosis of renal cell cancer in relation to hypertension (United States). Cancer Causes Control 1998;9:611-4.
  • Rosenberg L, Rao RS, Palmer JR, Strom BL, Stolley PD, Zauber AG, Warshauer ME, Shapiro S. Calcium channel blockers and the risk of cancer. J Am Med Assoc 1998;279:1000-4.
  • Rosenberg L, Rao RS, Palmer JR, Strom BL, Zauber A, Warshauer ME, Stolley PD, Shapiro S. Transitional cell cancer of the urinary tract and renal cell cancer in relation to acetaminophen use (United States). Cancer Causes Control 1998;9:83-8.
  • Palmer JR, Rosenberg L, Rao RS, Zauber A, Strom BL, Warshauer ME, Stolley PD, Shapiro S. Induced and spontaneous abortion in relation to risk of breast cancer (United States). Cancer Causes Control 1997;8:841-9.
  • Zhang Y, Rosenberg L, Colton T, Cupples LA, Palmer JR, Strom BL, Zauber AG, Warshauer ME, Harlap S, Shapiro S. Adult height and risk of breast cancer among white women in a case-control study. Am J Epidemiol 1996;143:1123-8.
  • Rosenberg L, Palmer JR, Rao RS, Zauber AG, Strom BL, Warshauer ME, Harlap S, Shapiro S. Case-control study of oral contraceptive use and risk of breast cancer. Am J Epidemiol 1996;143:25-37.
  • Palmer JR, Rosenberg L, Rao RS, Strom BL, Warshauer ME, Harlap S, Zauber A, Shapiro S. Oral contraceptive use and breast cancer risk among African-American women. Cancer Causes Control 1995;6:321-31.
  • Rosenberg L, Palmer JR, Zauber AG, Warshauer ME, Strom BL, Harlap S, Shapiro S. Relation of benzodiazepine use to the risk of selected cancers: breast, large bowel, malignant melanoma, lung, endometrium, ovary, non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, testis, Hodgkin’s disease, thyroid, and liver. Am J Epidemiol 1995;141:1153-60.
  • Palmer JR, Rosenberg L, Harlap S, Strom BL, Warshauer ME, Zauber AG, Shapiro S. Adult height and risk of breast cancer among US black women. Am J Epidemiol 1995;141:845-9.
  • Rosenberg L. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and cancer. Prev Med 1995;24:107-9.
  • Rosenberg L, Palmer JR, Zauber AG, Warshauer ME, Strom BL, Harlap S, Shapiro S. The relation of vasectomy to the risk of cancer. Am J Epidemiol 1994;140:431-8.
  • Rosenberg L, Palmer JR, Zauber AG, Warshauer ME, Lewis JL Jr, Strom BL, Harlap S, Shapiro S. A case-control study of oral contraceptive use and invasive epithelial ovarian cancer. Am J Epidemiol 1994;139:654-61.
  • Shapiro S.  Case-control surveillance.  In: Strom BL, ed.  Pharmacoepidemiology.  2nd ed.  Chichester, UK: John Wiley and Sons, 1994:301-22.
  • Kaufman DW, Palmer JR, Rosenberg L, Shapiro S. Oestrogen replacement therapy and breast cancer: new results from the Slone Epidemiology Unit’s Case-Control Surveillance Study. In: Mann RD, ed. Hormone replacement therapy and breast cancer risk. Park Ridge, NJ: The Parthenon Publishing Group, 1992:173-84.
  • Palmer JR, Rosenberg L, Strom BL, Harlap S, Zauber AG, Warshauer ME, Shapiro S. Oral contraceptive use and risk of cutaneous malignant melanoma. Cancer Causes Control 1992;3:547-54.
  • Kaufman DW, Palmer JR, de Mouzon J, Rosenberg L, Stolley PD, Warshauer E, Zauber AG, Shapiro S. Estrogen replacement therapy and the risk of breast cancer: results from the Case-Control Surveillance Study. Am J Epidemiol 1991;134:1375-85.
  • Johannes CB, Kaufman DW, Rosenberg L, Palmer JR, Stolley PD, Lewis JL Jr, Zauber AG, Warshauer ME, Shapiro S. Side of origin of epithelial ovarian cancer. BMJ 1992;304:27-8.
  • Palmer JR, Rosenberg L, Clarke EA, Stolley PD, Warshauer ME, Zauber AG, Shapiro S. Breast cancer and cigarette smoking: a hypothesis. Am J Epidemiol 1991;134:1-13.
  • Lesko SM, Rosenberg L, Kaufman DW, Stolley PD, Warshauer ME, Lewis JL, Shapiro S. Endometrial cancer and age at last delivery: evidence of an association. Am J Epidemiol 1991;133:554-9.
  • Rosenberg L, Palmer JR, Zauber AG, Warshauer ME, Stolley PD, Shapiro S. A hypothesis: nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs reduce the incidence of large-bowel cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 1991;83:355-8.
  • Palmer JR. Oral contraceptive use and gestational choriocarcinoma. Cancer Detect Prev 1990;15:45-8.
  • Shapiro S, Rosenberg L. The need for future studies of breast cancer risk in relation to oral contraceptive use: a comprehensive strategy. In: Mann RD, ed. Oral contraceptives and breast cancer. Park Ridge, NJ: The Parthenon Publishing Group, 1990:373-94.
  • Rosenberg L, Palmer JR, Shapiro S. Oral contraceptive use in relation to the risk of breast cancer: the data of the Slone Epidemiology Unit in women aged 45-59 years. In: Mann RD, ed. Oral contraceptives and breast cancer. Park Ridge, NJ: The Parthenon Publishing Group, 1990:159-68.
  • Miller DR. Breast cancer and early oral contraceptive use: studies from the Slone Epidemiology Unit. In: Mann RD, ed. Oral contraceptives and breast cancer. Park Ridge, NJ: The Parthenon Publishing Group, 1990:137-57.
  • Austin KL, Palmer JR, Seddon JM, Glynn RJ, Rosenberg L, Gragoudas ES, Kaufman DW, Shapiro S. Case-control study of idiopathic retinal detachment. Int J Epidemiol 1990;19:1045-9.
  • Rosenberg L, Palmer JR, Zauber AG, Warshauer ME, Stolley PD, Shapiro S. Vasectomy and the risk of prostate cancer. Am J Epidemiol 1990;132:1051-5.
  • Kaufman DW, Werler MM, Palmer JR, Rosenberg L, Stolley PD, Warshauer ME, Clarke EA, Miller DR, Shapiro S. Diazepam use in relation to breast cancer: results from two case-control studies. Am J Epidemiol 1990;131:483-90.
  • Kelly JP, Rosenberg L, Kaufman DW, Shapiro S. Reliability of personal interview data in a hospital-based case-control study. Am J Epidemiol 1990;131:79-90.
  • Kaufman DW, Kelly JP, Welch WR, Rosenberg L, Stolley PD, Warshauer ME, Lewis J, Woodruff J, Shapiro S. Noncontraceptive estrogen use and epithelial ovarian cancer. Am J Epidemiol 1989;130:1142-51.
  • Palmer JR, Rosenberg L, Kaufman DW, Warshauer ME, Stolley P, Shapiro S. Oral contraceptive use and liver cancer. Am J Epidemiol 1989;130:878-82.
  • Rosenberg L, Werler MM, Palmer JR, Kaufman DW, Warshauer ME, Stolley PD, Shapiro S. The risks of cancers of the colon and rectum in relation to coffee consumption. Am J Epidemiol 1989;130:895-903.
  • Rosenberg L, Palmer JR, Shapiro S. Gestational trophoblastic disease and use of oral contraceptives [letter to the editor]. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1989;161:1087-8.
  • Kaufman DW, Kelly JP, Rosenberg L, Stolley PD, Warshauer ME, Shapiro S. Hydralazine use in relation to cancers of the lung, colon, and rectum. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1989;36:259-64.
  • Kaufman DW, Palmer JR, Rosenberg L, Stolley P, Warshauer E, Shapiro S. Tar content of cigarettes in relation to lung cancer. Am J Epidemiol 1989;129:703-11.
  • Miller DR, Rosenberg L, Kaufman DW, Stolley P, Warshauer ME, Shapiro S. Breast cancer before age 45 and oral contraceptive use: new findings. Am J Epidemiol 1989;129:269-80.
  • Shapiro S. Case-control studies of acute and long-term adverse effects. In: Adverse drug reactions: a global perspective on signal generation and analysis. Proceedings of the WHO Anniversary Symposium. Uppsala, Sweden. September 22-23, 1988. Uppsala, Sweden: UMC Publications, 1988:51-5.
  • Rosenberg L, Palmer JR, Kaufman DW, Strom BL, Schottenfeld D, Shapiro S. Breast cancer in relation to the occurrence and time of induced and spontaneous abortion. Am J Epidemiol 1988;127:981-9.
  • Levy M, Miller D, Kaufman D, Siskind V, Schwingl P, Rosenberg L, Strom B, Shapiro S. Major upper gastrointestinal bleeding: relation to the use of aspirin and other nonnarcotic analgesics. Arch Intern Med 1988;148:281-5.
  • Rosenberg L, Lesko SM. Cigarette smoking and endometrial cancer. In: Rosenberg MJ, ed. Smoking and reproductive health. Littleton, MA: PSG Publishing Company, Inc., 1987:160-6.
  • Schatzkin A, Palmer JR, Rosenberg L, Helmrich SP, Miller DR, Kaufman DW, Lesko SM, Shapiro S. Risk factors for breast cancer in black women. J Natl Cancer Inst 1987;78:213-7.
  • Kaufman DW, Kelly JP, Rosenberg L, Stolley PD, Schottenfeld D, Shapiro S. Hydralazine and breast cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 1987;78:243-6.
  • Helmrich SP, Rosenberg L, Kaufman DW, Strom B, Shapiro S. Venous thromboembolism in relation to oral contraceptive use. Obstet Gynecol 1987;69:91-5.
  • Miller DR, Rosenberg L, Kaufman DW, Helmrich SP, Schottenfeld D, Lewis J, Stolley PD, Rosenshein N, Shapiro S. Epithelial ovarian cancer and coffee drinking. Int J Epidemiol 1987;16:13-7.
  • Miller DR, Rosenberg L, Kaufman DW, Schottenfeld D, Stolley PD, Shapiro S. Breast cancer risk in relation to early oral contraceptive use. Obstet Gynecol 1986;68:863-8.
  • Rosenberg L. Post-marketing surveillance: the approach of the Drug Epidemiology Unit [editorial]. Drug Inf J 1985;19:263-8.
  • Shapiro S, Parsells JL, Rosenberg L, Kaufman DW, Helmrich SP, Rosenshein N, Lewis J, Knapp R, Stolley PD, Schottenfeld D. Risk of localized and widespread endometrial cancer in relation to recent and discontinued use of conjugated estrogens. N Engl J Med 1985;313:969-72.
  • Lesko SM, Kaufman DW, Rosenberg L, Helmrich SP, Miller DR, Stolley PD, Shapiro S. Evidence of increased risk of Crohn’s disease in oral contraceptive users. Gastroenterology 1985;89:1046-9.
  • Rosenberg L, Miller DR, Helmrich SP, Kaufman DW, Schottenfeld D, Stolley PD, Shapiro S. Breast cancer and the consumption of coffee. Am J Epidemiol 1985;122:391-9.
  • Lesko SM, Rosenberg L, Kaufman DW, Helmrich SP, Miller DM, Strom B, Schottenfeld D, Rosenshein NB, Knapp RC, Lewis J, Shapiro S. Cigarette smoking and the risk of endometrial cancer. N Engl J Med 1985;313:593-6.
  • Miller DR, Rosenberg L, Helmrich SP, Kaufman DW, Shapiro S. Ovarian cancer and coffee drinking. In: Banbury report 17: coffee and health. New York: Cold Spring Harbor, 1984:157-65.
  • Rosenberg L, Miller DR, Helmrich SP, Kaufman DW, Shapiro S. Breast cancer and coffee drinking. In: Banbury report 17: coffee and health. New York: Cold Spring Harbor, 1984:189-95.
  • Kaufman DW, Miller DR, Rosenberg L, Helmrich SP, Stolley PD, Schottenfeld D, Shapiro S. Noncontraceptive estrogen use and the risk of breast cancer. J Am Med Assoc 1984;252:63-7.
  • Shapiro S, Parsells JL, Rosenberg L, Kaufman DW, Stolley PD, Schottenfeld D. Risk of breast cancer in relation to the use of rauwolfia alkaloids. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1984;26:143-6.
  • Shapiro S. The epidemiological evaluation of drugs. Acta Med Scand Suppl 1983;683:23-7.
  • Helmrich SP, Rosenberg L, Kaufman DW, Miller DR, Schottenfeld D, Stolley PD, Shapiro S. Lack of an elevated risk of malignant melanoma in relation to oral contraceptive use. J Natl Cancer Inst 1984;72:617-20.
  • Rosenberg L, Miller DR, Kaufman DW, Helmrich SP, Stolley PD, Schottenfeld D, Shapiro S. Breast cancer and oral contraceptive use. Am J Epidemiol 1984;119:167-76.
  • Rosenberg L, Schwingl PJ, Kaufman DW, Miller DR, Helmrich SP, Stolley PD, Schottenfeld D, Shapiro S. Breast cancer and cigarette smoking. N Engl J Med 1984;310:92-4.
  • Kaufman DW, Watson J, Rosenberg L, Helmrich SP, Miller DR, Miettinen OS, Stolley PD, Shapiro S. The effect of different types of intrauterine devices on the risk of pelvic inflammatory disease. J Am Med Assoc 1983;250:759-62.
  • Helmrich SP, Shapiro S, Rosenberg L, Kaufman DW, Bain C, Miettinen OS, Stolley PD, Rosenshein NB, Knapp RC, Leavitt T, Schottenfeld D, Engle R, Levy M. Risk factors for breast cancer. Am J Epidemiol 1983;117:35-45.
  • Rosenberg L, Shapiro S, Slone D, Kaufman DW, Helmrich SP, Miettinen OS, Stolley PD, Rosenshein NB, Schottenfeld D, Engle RL. Epithelial ovarian cancer and combination oral contraceptives. J Am Med Assoc 1982;247:3210-2.
  • Kaufman DW, Slone D, Shapiro S, Rosenberg L, Helmrich SP, Miettinen OS, Stolley PD, Levy M, Schottenfeld D. Diazepam and the risk of breast cancer. Lancet 1982;1:537-9.
  • Rosenberg L, Slone D, Shapiro S, Kaufman DW, Helmrich SP, Miettinen OS, Stolley PD, Levy M, Rosenshein NB, Schottenfeld D, Engle RL. Breast cancer and alcoholic-beverage consumption. Lancet 1982;1:267-70.
  • Kaufman DW, Shapiro S, Slone D, Rosenberg L, Miettinen OS, Stolley PD, Knapp RC, Leavitt T, Watring WG, Rosenshein NB, Lewis JL, Schottenfeld D, Engle RL. Decreased risk of endometrial cancer among oral-contraceptive users. N Engl J Med 1980;303:1045-7.
  • Shapiro S, Slone D, Kaufman DW, Rosenberg L, Miettinen OS, Stolley PD, Knapp RC, Leavitt T, Watring WG, Rosenshein NB, Schottenfeld D. Use of thyroid supplements in relation to breast cancer. J Am Med Assoc 1980;244:1685-7.
  • Rosenberg L, Shapiro S, Slone D, Kaufman DW, Miettinen OS, Stolley PD. Thiazides and acute cholecystitis. N Engl J Med 1980;303:546-8.
  • Shapiro S, Kaufman DW, Slone D, Rosenberg L, Miettinen OS, Stolley PD, Rosenshein NB, Watring WG, Leavitt T, Knapp RC. Recent and past use of conjugated estrogens in relation to adenocarcinoma of the endometrium. N Engl J Med 1980;303:485-9.
  • Kaufman DW, Slone D, Rosenberg L, Miettinen OS, Shapiro S. Cigarette smoking and age at natural menopause. Am J Public Health 1980;70:420-2.
  • Hartz SC, Shapiro S, Kaufman DW, Rosenberg L, Slone D. Factors associated with oral contraceptive use. Am J Public Health 1980;70:1105-8.
  • Kaufman DW, Shapiro S, Rosenberg L, Monson RR, Miettinen OS, Stolley PD, Slone D. Intrauterine contraceptive device use and pelvic inflammatory disease. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1980;136:159-62.
  • Slone D, Shapiro S, Miettinen OS, Finkle WD, Stolley PD. Drug evaluation after marketing: a policy perspective. Ann Intern Med 1979;90:257-61.
  • Rosenberg L, Shapiro S, Kaufman DW, Slone D, Miettinen OS, Stolley PD. Patterns and determinants of conjugated estrogen use. Am J Epidmiol 1979;109:676-86.
  • Slone D, Shapiro S, Miettinen OS. Case-control surveillance of serious illnesses attributable to ambulatory drug use. In: Colombo F, Shapiro S, Slone D, Tognoni G, eds. Epidemiological evaluation of drugs. Amsterdam: Elsevier/North Holland Biomedical Press, 1977:59-70.
  • Miettinen OS, Slone D, Shapiro S. Current problems in drug-related epidemiologic research. In: Colombo F, Shapiro S, Slone D, Tognoni G, eds. Epidemiological evaluation of drugs. Amsterdam: Elsevier/North Holland Biomedical Press, 1977:295-303.
  • Shapiro S, Slone D. Case-control surveillance. In: Gross FH, Inman HW, eds. Drug monitoring. London: Academic Press, 1977:33-48.