Animals can carry organisms that can be potentially harmful to humans. Use the recommended preventative handling measures for each type of animal to minimize your risk of injury. Contact BU ASC at buasc@bu.edu for training in handling of and working with research animals.

If you are injured in the course of handling research animals or have other health concerns about your work with them, please contact the Research Occupational Health Program (ROHP) at 617-414-7647 or rohp@bu.edu.

Reverse Zoonoses (people to animals)

AGENTHUMAN DISEASEANIMAL DISEASEANIMALS
Mumps virusMumpsParotiditisDogs
Infectious hepatitisHepatitisHepatitisNHP
Corynebacterium diphtheriaeDiphtheriaUlcers on teats, mastitisCattle
Staphylococcus aureusFurunculosisFurunculosis, mastitisCattle
Streptococcus pyogenesPharyngitis, scarlet feverMastitisCattle
Giardia lambliaNausea, flatulence, diarrheaNone knownBeavers
Mycobacteria tuberculosisTuberculosisTuberculosisDeer, dogs, elephants, NHP
MeaslesFebrile, illness, rashFebrile, illness, rashNHP
InfluenzaFebrile, illness, pneumoniaFebrile, illness, pneumoniaNHP, ferrets

Zoonoses of Wildlife

INFECTIOUS AGENTPRIMARY HOST(S)DISEASES IN ANIMALSDISEASES IN PEOPLE
Alphaviruses:
Eastern encephalitisSmall birds, ducks, horses (mosquitoes)No apparent disease; encephalitisEncephalomyelitis
Western encephalitisBirds, squirrels, snakes, horses (mosquitoes)No apparent disease; horses dieEncephalomyelitis
Venezuelan encephalitisRodents, horses (mosquitoes)No apparent disease; horses dieEncephalitis
Flaviviruses:
St. Louis encephalitisBirds (mosquitoes)No apparent diseaseEncephalomyelitis
Japanese B encephalitisBirds, pigs, horses, cattle (mosquitoes)No apparent disease; domestic animals may dieEncephalitis
Murray Valley encephalitisBirds (mosquitoes)No apparent diseaseEncephalomyelitis
Tick-born encephalitisRodents, birds, goats, cattle (ticks)No known apparent diseaseEncephalitis
Yellow fever virusNonhuman primates (mosquitoes)No apparent disease; deathYellow fever
Dengue virusesNHP (mosquitoes)No apparent diseaseDengue fever
Bunyavirus:
California encephalitisRabbits, hares, squirrels, deer, horses, cows (mosquitoes)No apparent diseaseEncephalitis
HantaRodents, mice, ratsNo apparent diseaseHanta pulmonary syndromw
ArenavirusesRodents, NHPNo apparent disease; deathNo clinical disease; malaise, fever, shock, meningitis, encephalitis
Rabies virusWeasel-skunk, civet-ferret, families with bats, foxes, skunks, most important; also dogs, cats, cattleNo apparent disease; death with paralysisExcitation, paralysis, death
Colorado tick fever virusSquirrels, chipmunks, mice, porcupines (ticks)No apparent diseaseFever, malaise, leukopenia, rash
Chlamydia psittaciPsittacine birds, pigeons, poultryNo apparent disease; deathFever, cough, pneumonia
Rickettsia typhiRats (fleas)No apparent diseaseMurine typhus
Rickettsia rickettsiiRabbits, squirrels, rats, mice, groundhogs, dogs (ticks)No apparent disease; dogs may dieRocky Mountain spotted fever
Rickettsia akariMice (mites)No apparent diseaseRickettsialpox
Coxiella burnetiiWild ungulatesNo apparent diseaseQ fever
Brucella sppWild ungulates, dogsNo apparent disease; abortionBrucellosis
Francisella tularensisRabbits, squirrels, rats, skunks, bears, muskrats, coyotes, cats, dogs, swine, sheep, cattle (ticks, deerflies, mosquitoes)No apparent disease; lymphadenitis, septicemiaTularemia
Yersinia pestisRats, mice, prairie dogs, squirrels, marmots, rabbits, gerbils, chipmunks (fleas)No apparent disease; deathBubonic, pneumonic, septicemic plague
Yersinia enterocoliticaRodents, rabbits, pigs, sheep, cattle, horsesNo apparent diseaseEnterocolitis, reactive polyarthritis
Campylobacter jejuniBirds, cattle, sheep, pigs, goatsNo apparent disease; deathGastroenteritis
Pseudomonas pseudomalleiRats, mice, rabbits, ruminants, dogs, cats, NHPNo apparent disease; deathPulmonary abscesses, septicemia
Streptobacillus moniliformisRats, squirrels, weasels, turkeysNo apparent diseaseFever, rash
Listeria monocytogenesWild mammals, birdsNo apparent disease; deathMeningitis, abortion, septicemia
Borrelia burgdorferiDeer, mice, raccoons (ticks)No known apparent diseaseLyme disease
Spirillum minorRats, mice, catsNo apparent diseaseFever, rash
Cryptosporidium sppRodents, snakes, birdsNo apparent disease; enteritis, respiratory diseaseEnteritis, dysentery
Blastocystitis hominisPigs, guinea pigs, fowl, NHPNo apparent disease; diarrheaDiarrhea
Leishmania sppRodents, canines, rodents, other carnivores (sandflies)No apparent disease; skin ulcersChronic skin ulcerations, mucocutaneous lesions, kalaazar syndrome
Trypanosoma cruziArmadillos, bats, rodents, opossums, NHP, dogs, cats (triatomes)No known apparent disease; neurologic dysfunctionsSkin rash, myocarditis, conjunctivitis, myositis (Chagas disease)
Trypanosoma brucci var. gambiense and var. rhodesienseWild ungulates (tsetseflies)No apparent disease; death in comeMeningoencephalitis
Pneumocystitis cariniiRodents, foxes, NHP, sheep, goats, dogs, catsNo known apparent diseasePneumonitis
Diphyllobothrium latumFresh-water fish, bears, dogs, catsNo known apparent diseaseTapeworm infection, megaloblastic anemia
Hymenolepis nana and diminutaMice, ratsTapeworm infectionTapeworm infection
Trichinella spiralisWild carnivores, wild pigsNo known apparent diseaseNo apparent disease; muscle invasion death
Fasciola hepaticaSnails, fish, cattle, sheep, goats, camel, deer, rabbitsNo apparent disease; deathAcute hepatitis, cholecystitis, cirrhosis
Schistosoma sppSnails, rodents, baboonsNo apparent disease; deathCollitis, hepatitis, cystitis
Dracunculus medinesisWild carnivores, NHP (water fleas)No known apparent diseaseSkin ulcers
Brugia sppNHP, wild carnivores, rodents (mosquitoes)No known apparent diseaseLymphadenopathy, lymphadema

Zoonoses of Domestic Animals

INFECTIOUS AGENTPRIMARY HOST(S)DISEASES IN ANIMALSDISEASES IN PEOPLE
Prions
Bovine spongiform encephalopathy
CattleFatal degeneration of CNCAtypical Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease
Vaccinia virus (cowpox)Cattle, horsesPapulo vesiculo pustular lesions of skin of udder and teatsPapulovesiculopustular skin lesions
Newcastle diseasePoultryRespiratory, GI, CNSConjunctivitis
Paravaccinia virus (milker’s modules)CattleVesicles, ulcers, and granulomas of udderPapulovesiculo granulomatous skin lesions
Bovine pustular stomatitis virus (orf, contagious ecthyma)Sheeps, goatsPustular lesions of mouth, vulva, eyePapulovesiculo granulomatous skin lesions
Vesicular stomatitis virusCattle, swine, horsesUlceration of oral mucosa, feet, and teatsFever, chills, headache, myalgia
Rabies virusDogs, cats, cattle, horses, sheepNo apparent disease; death with paralysisExcitation, paralysis, death
Chlamydia psittaciPigeons, poultryNo apparent disease; deathFever, cough, pneumonia
Coxiella burnetiiSheep, cattle, goats (? Ticks)No disease; rickettsemiaQ fever
Ehrlichia canisDogs (ticks)Hemorrhagic disease, deathEhrlichiosis
Afipia felisCats, dogsNo known diseaseCat-scratch disease
BartonellaCats, dogsNo known diseaseCat-scratch disease, peliosis hepatis, bacillary angiomatosis
Bacillus anthracisCattle, horses, sheep, goats, swine, dogs, catsSudden death, systemic disease, GI afflictionMalignant pustule, gastroenteritis, pneumonitis
Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiaeSwine, fowl, sheep, fishPorcine erysipelas, polyarthritis, septicemiaErysipeloid
Listeria monocytogenesSheep, cattle, rabbits, goats, guineau pigs, chickens, horses, rodents, birdsMeningoencephalitis, abortion, myocarditis, septicemia, ophthalmitisLeptomeningitis, fetal listeriosis, septicemia, oculoglandular infection
Mycobacterium bovisCattle, horses, swine, cats, dogsPulmonary, lymph nodes, udder, GI tuberculosis, spondylitisPrimarily GI, lymph node, bone pulmonary tuberculosis
Streptobacillus moniliformisFowlNo apparent diseaseFever, rash
Pseudomonas malleiHorses, mules, asses, cats, dogs, sheep, goatsNodular pneumonia, farcy, lymphadenopathyGranulomatous to pustular lesions, skin and subcutaneous; septicemia
Pasteurella multocidaFowl, cattle, sheep, swine, goats, horses, mice, rats, rabbitsHemorrhagic septicemia, pneumoniaSkin ulcer, osteomyelitis, sinusitis, pleuritis, leptomeningitis
Brucella sppCattle, goats, swine, sheep, horses, mules, dogs, cats, fowl, deer, buffalo, rabbitsAbortion lameness, mastitis, granulomas, abcessessFever, malaise, lymphadenopathy, bacteremia, splenomegaly, osteomyelitis
Capnocytophagia canimorsusDogsNo apparent diseaseFever, gengrene, meningitis, septicemia
Salmonella spp (nontyphoidal)Fowl, swine, cattle, sheep, horses, dogs, cats, rodents, reptiles, birds, cattleNo apparent disease; enteritis, septicemia, puerperal feverGastroenteritis, focal infection, septicemia
Yersinia enterocoliticaDogs, catsNo known diseaseDiarrhea, reactive arthritis
Campylobacter fetusSheep, cattleMetritis, infertility, placentitis, abortionPlacentitis with abortion, endocarditis, bacteremia, meningitis
Sporothrix schenckiiHorses, mules, dogs, cats, mice, ratsGranulomas of extremitiesUlcerative lymph-vascular, skin, subcutaneous lesions, pneumonia
Microsporum sppDogs, cats, horses, cattleAlopecia, dermatitisAlopecia, dermatitis
Trichophyton spp
Cryptosporidium sppFarm animals, cats, dogsNo apparent disease; enteritis, respiratory diseaseEnteritis, dysentery
Trypanosoma cruziDogs, cats (triatomes)No known apparent diseaseSkin rash, myocarditis, conjunctivitis, myositis, neurologic dysfunctions (Chagas disease)
Balantidium coliPigs, monkeysStillbirth, congenital defects, CNS lesionsStillbirth, congenital defects, retinochoroiditis, encephalitis
Toxoplasma goudiiCats, dogs, sheep, cattle, swineStillbirth, congenital defects, CNS lesionsStillbirth, congenital defects, retinochoroiditis, encephalitis
Ancylostoma canium (Uncinaria stenocephala)Dogs, catsAnemia, dystentery, hypoproteinemia, edema, stunted growth, death of pupsItching, erythema of skin, Loeffler syndrome
Toxocara canis and catiDogs, catsDiarrhea, granulomas in kidneys and other viscera, weight loss and stunted growth of youngGranulomas in liver, skeletal muscle, lungs, brain and eye
Dipylidium caninumDogs, catsNo apparent or known disease; chronic enteritisAbdominal discomfort, diarrhea, anal pruritus
Trichinella spiralisSwine, cattle, horses, dogs, cats, rabbitsNo apparent or known diseaseChemosis, conjunctivitis, myositis, skin rash
Taenia saginataCattleNo apparent or known diseaseAbdominal pain, diarrhea, weight loss
Tacunia soliumSwineNo apparent or known diseaseAbdominal pain, diarrhea, weight loss, cysticercosis
Diphyllobothrium latumDogs, catsNo apparent or known diseaseTapeworm infection, mealobastic anemia
Dirofilaria immitis, D tenuisDogs, raccoons, cast (mosquitoes)Cardiopulmonary granulomata, subcutaneous nodulesPulmonary nodules, subcutaneous granulomata of face, trunc, or arms
Echinococcus granulosusDogsNo apparent or known diseaseSpace-occupying cysts in liver, lungs; anaphylaxis
Echinococcus multilocularis and vogeliDogs, wild caninesNo apparent diseaseNoncapsulated, extensive cysts of liver, lungs