I. Semantics, concepts, and thought:
  1.  Lexical knowledge: general
  2.  Concepts and category structure
  3.  Semantic structure
  4.  Language and thought

II. Language and space:
  1.  Lexical studies
  2.  Spatial language and spatial cognition
  3.  Acquisition of spatial terms

III. Visual perception:
  1.  Low-level vision and attention
  2.  Visual perception: objects
  3.  Visual perception: spatial relations
  4.  Visual perception: motion
  5.  Visual perception: environment

IV. Spatial cognition:
  1.  Cognitive maps
  2.  Spatial representations: general
  3.  Frames of reference
  4.  Mental imagery
  5.  Mental models
  6.  Brain bases

V. Artificial intelligence:
  1. Artificial Intelligence: vision
  2. Artificial intelligence: common-sense knowledge
  3. Artificial intelligence: spatial language
  4. Connectionist models of acquisition and use of spatial terms

			   I. Semantics, concepts, and thought

1.  Lexical knowledge: general

Geeraerts, D. 1993. Vagueness' puzzles, polysemy's vagaries.  Cognitive
Linguistics, 4: 223-272.

Nunberg, G. 1979. The nonuniqueness of semantic solutions: polysemy.
Linguistics and Philosophy, 3, 143-184.

2.  Concepts and category structure

Barsalou, L. W. 1987. The instability of graded structure in concepts.
In U. Neisser (Ed.), Concepts and conceptual development: ecological and
intellectual factors in categorization. New York: Cambridge University
Press. 101-140.

Barsalou, L. W. 1993. Flexibility, structure, and linguistic vagary in
concepts: manifestations of a compositional system of perceptual sym-
bols. In A. F. Collins, S. E. Gathercole, M. A. Conway, & P. E. Morris
(Eds.), Theories of memory (pp. 29-102). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum

Brugman, C. and G. Lakoff. 1988.  Cognitive topology and lexical net-
works.  In S. I. Small et al. (Eds.), Lexical Ambiguity Resolution.  San
Mateo, Ca.: Morgan Kaufmann, 477-508.

Lakoff, George. 1987.  Women, Fire, and other Dangerous Things. Chicago:
University of Chicago Press.

Rosch, E. 1976. Natural categories. Cognitive Psychology, 4, 328-350.

Rosch, E. 1976. Human categorization.  In N. Warren (Ed.), Advances in
cross-cultural psychology, vol. 1. London: Academic Press.

3. Semantic structure

Jackendoff, R. 1983.  Semantics and cognition. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Jackendoff, R. 1990.  Semantic structures. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Langacker, R. W. 1991. Foundations of cognitive grammar. Stanford: Stan-
ford University Press.

Langacker, R. W. 1991. Concept, image, and symbol.  New York: Mouton de

4. Language and thought

Slobin, D. I. 1992. From ``thought and language" to ``thinking for
speaking". Unpublished manuscript. Department of Psychology, University
of California, Berkeley.

II. Language and space

1.  Lexical studies

Bierwisch, M. and E. Lang. 1989. Somewhat longer-much deeper-further and
further.  Epilogue to the Dimensional Adjectives Project.  In M.
Bierwisch and  E. Lang (Eds.), Dimensional adjectives: grammatical

Brugman, C. 1984. The use of body-part terms as locatives in Chalcatongo
Mixtec. Report No. 4 of the Survey of California and other Indian
languages, University of California, Berkeley.

Cuyckens, H. 1991. The semantics of spatial prepositions in Dutch.  PhD
thesis, Universitaire Instelling Antwerpen, Antwerpen.

Hawkins, B. W. 1984. The semantics of English spatial prepositions.  Ph.
D. dissertation, University of California, San Diego.

Lindner, Susan. 1981.  A Lexico-semantic analysis of verb-particle con-
structions  with  `up'  and  `out.' Ph.D. thesis, University of Califor-
nia, San Diego.

Perrig, W. and Kintsch, W. 1985. Propositional and situational represen-
tations of text. Journal of Memory and Language, 24, 503-518.

Vandeloise, C. 1991. Spatial prepositions: a case study from French.
Chicago:  University of Chicago Press.

2.  Spatial language and spatial cognition

Carlson-Radvansky and L. A., Irwin, D. E. 1993. Frames of reference in
vision and language: Where is above? Cognition, 46, 223-244.

Garnham, A. 1989. A unified theory of the meaning of some spatial rela-
tions.  Cognition, 31, 45-60.

Herskovits, A. 1986. Language and  Spatial  Cognition: an  Interdisci-
plinary  Study of the Prepositions in English.  Cambridge, England: Cam-
bridge University Press.

Herskovits, A. 1991. The linguistic expression of spatial knowledge.
Manuscript. Computer Science Department, Wellesley College.

Herskovits, A. 1994. "Across" and "along": an exploration of the cogni-
tive geometry underlying language.  Manuscript. Computer Science Depart-
ment, Wellesley College.

Herskovits, A.,  A. Levitt,  M. Lucas, and  L. Wagner 1992.  The mental
representation of the meaning of ``across".  Presented at the Annual
Conference of the Linguistics Society of America, Philadelphia, PA.

Jackendoff, R. 1987. On beyond Zebra: The relation of linguistic and
visual information. Cognition, 26, 89-114.

Landau, B. and R. Jackendoff. 1993. ``What" and ``where" in spatial
language and spatial cognition.  Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 16,

Levelt, W. J. M. 1984. Some perceptual limitations in talking about
space.  In  A. J. van Doorn, W. A. van de Grind and J. J.  Koenderink
(Eds.) Limits in perception.  Utrecht: VNU Science Press.

Levinson, S. C. 1991. Primer for the field investigation of spatial
description and conception.  Working paper No. 5. Max Planck Institute
of Psycholinguistics.

Levinson, S. C. 1992. Vision, shape, and linguistic description:
Tzeltzal body-part terminology and object description.  Working paper
No. 12. Max Planck Institute of Psycholinguistics.

Levinson, S. C. 1993. Language and cognition: cognitive consequences of
spatial description in Guugu Yimithirr.  Working paper No. 13. Max
Planck Institute of Psycholinguistics.

Lang, E. 1990. Primary perceptual space and inherent proportion schema:
two interaction grids underlying the conceptualization of spatial
objects.  Journal of Semantics, 1, 121-141.

Talmy, L.  1983. How language structures space.  In H. and L. Acredolo
(Eds.), Spatial  Orientation:  Theory, Research, and Application, New
York: Plenum Press.

3.  Acquisition of spatial terms

Bowerman, M. 1991.  The origin of children's spatial semantic
categories: cognitive vs semantic determinants. To appear in J.J. Gum-
perz and S.C. Levinson (Eds.), Rethinking linguistic relativity.

Johnston, J. R. 1988. Children's verbal representation of spatial loca-
tion.  In J. Stiles-Davis, M. Kritchevsky, and U.  Bellugi (Eds.) Spa-
tial cognition: brain bases and development.  Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence
Erlbaum Associates.

					III. Visual perception

1.  Low-level vision and attention

Julesz, B. 1984. A brief outline of the texton theory of human vision.
Trends in Neurosciences, 7, 41-45.

Treisman, A. 1982. Perceptual grouping and attention in visual search
for features and objects. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Per-
ception and Performance 8 (2), 194-214.

Treisman, A. and S. Gormican. 1988. Feature analysis in early vision:
evidence from search asymmetries. Psychological Review 95 (1), 15-48.

Treisman, A. and J. Souther. 1985, Search asymmetry: a diagnostic for
preattentive processing of separable features. Journal of Experimental
Psychology: General, 114 (3), 285-310.

2.  Visual perception: objects

Biederman, I.  1987.  Recognition by components: a theory of human image
understanding. Psychological Review 94, 115-147.

Treisman, A. Properties, Parts, and Objects. 1986. In Handbook of Per-
ception and Human Performance, vol. 2, ed. by K. Boff, L. Kaufman, and
J. Thomas. John Wiley & Sons.

Jolicoeur, P. 1985. The time to name disoriented natural objects.
Memory and cognition, 13 (4), 289-303.

Jolicoeur, P. 1988. Mental rotation and the identification of
disoriented objects. Canadian Journal of Psychology, 42 (4), 461-478.

Kohler, W. 1947. Gestalt Psychology, New York: Mentor/Liveright.  and
conceptual interpretation.  New York: Springer-Verlag.

Navon, D. 1977. Forest before trees: the precedence of global

Rock, Irvin 1973. Orientation and Form. New York: Academic Press.

Rock, Irvin 1983. The Logic of Perception. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Rock, I. and DiVita, J. 1987. A case of viewer-centered object percep-
tion. Cognitive Psychology, 19, 280-293.

Rock, I., Wheeler, D., and Tudor, L. 1989. Can we imagine how objects
look from other viewpoints? Cognitive Psychology, 21, 185-210.

Tarr, M. and Pinker, S. 1989. Mental rotation and orientation-dependence
in shape recognition. Cognitive Psychology, 21, 233-282.

Tarr, M. and Pinker, S. 1990. When does human object recognition use a
viewer-centered reference frame? Psychological Science, 1(4), 253-256.

features in visual perception. Cognitive Psychology, 9, 353-383.

3.  Visual perception: spatial relations

Jolicoeur, P., Ullman, S., and Mackay, M.: Curve tracing: a possible
basic operation in the perception of spatial relations. Memory and Cog-
nition, 14 (2), 129-140.

Kosslyn, S., Reiser, B., and Ball, T. 1978. Visual images preserve
metric spatial information:  Evidence from studies of image scanning.
Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 4
(1), 47-60.

Kosslyn, S. M.,  Chabris, C. F., Marsolek,C. J., and Koenig, O. 1992.
Categorical versus coordinate spatial relations: computational analyses
and computer simulations. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 18 (2),

4. Visual perception: motion

Johansson, G. 1964. Perception of motion and changing form.  Journal of
Scandinavian Psychology, 5, 181-208.

5.  Visual perception: environment

Gibson, J. J. 1950. The perception of the visual world.  Boston: Hough-
ton Mifflin.

Gibson, J. J. 1979. The ecological approach to visual perception.  Bos-
ton: Houghton Mifflin.

Gibson, E. 1991. An odyssey in learning and perception.  Cambridge, MA:
MIT Press.

Sedgewick, H. A. and Levy S.  1986. Environment-centered and viewer-
centered perception of surface orientation.  In Rosenfeld, A. (Ed.),
Human Vision II.  New York: Academic Press.

Shepard, Roger N. and S. Hurwitz 1984. Spatial cognition, mental rota-
tion, and interpretation of maps.   Cognition, 18, 161-193.

					IV. Spatial cognition

1.  Cognitive maps

Coucelis, H., Golledge, R., and Tobler, W. 1987. Exploring the anchor-
point hypothesis of spatial cognition. Journal of Environmental Psychol-
ogy, 7, 99-122.

Downs, R. M. and Stea, D. 1973. Image and environment. Chicago: Aldine.

Hirtle, S. and Jonides, J. 1985. Evidence of hierarchies in cognitive
maps. Memory and Cognition, 13, 208-217.

Kuipers, B. 1978. Modeling spatial knowledge. Cognitive Science, 2,

Sadalla, E., Burroughs, W., Staplin, L. 1980. Reference Points in Spa-
tial Cognition. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 6(5), 516-528.

Yoshino, R. 1991. A note on cognitive maps: an optimal spatial knowledge
representation. Journal of Mathematical Psychology, 35, 371-393.

2.  Spatial representations: general

Bryant, D. J. 1992. A spatial representation system in humans.  Psycolo-
quy (electronic journal). Text available  from D. J. Bryant, Department
of Psychology, Northeastern University, Boston, MA.

Eilan, N,  McCarthy, R. and Brewer, B. 1993. Spatial representations
Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Landau, B. and L. Gleitman. 1981. Spatial knowledge and geometric
representation in a child blind from birth. Science 213, 1275-1278.

McNamara, T. P. 1986. Mental representations of spatial relations.  Cog-
nitive Psychology, 18, 87-121.

3.  Frames of reference

Friederici, A. D. and Levelt, W. J. M. 1990.  Spatial reference in
weightlessness: Perceptual factors and mental representations. Percep-
tion and psychophysics, 47, 253-266.

Hinton, G. E. and L. M. Parsons. 1988.  Scene-based and viewer-centered
representations for comparing shape.  Cognition, 30, 1-35.

4. Mental imagery

Cooper, L. A., and Shepard, R. N. 1973a. The time required to prepare
for a rotated stimulus. Memory and Cognition, 1, 246-250.

Cooper, L. A., and Shepard, R. N. 1973b. Chronometric studies of the
rotation of mental images. In W. G. Chase (Ed.), Visual information
processing. New York: Academic Press.

Iorger, T. R.   1991. Imagery and categories: the indeterminacy problem.
Annual Proceedings of the Cognitive Science Society.

Kosslyn, S., Reiser, B., and Ball, T. 1978. Visual images preserve
metric spatial information:  Evidence from studies of image scanning.
Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 4
(1), 47-60.

5. Mental models

Bryant, D. J., B. Tversky, and N. Franklin. 1992. Internal and external
spatial frameworks for representing described scenes. Journal of Memory
and Language, 31, 74-98.

Bransford, J., Barclay, J., and Franks, J. 1972. Sentence memory: a con-
structive versus interpretive approach. Cognitive Psychology, 3, 193-

Franklin, N., B. Tversky, and V. Coon. 1992. Switching points of view in
spatial mental models, Memory and Cognition, 20, 507-518.

Johnson-Laird, P. N. 1983. Mental models: towards a cognitive science of
language, inferences, and consciousness. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univer-
sity Press.

Johnson-Laird, P. 1989. In M.I. Posner (Ed.) Foundations of Cognitive
Science.  Cambridge: MIT Press.

Mani, K. and Johnson-Laird, P. 1982. The mental representations of spa-
tial descriptions. Memory and Cognition, 10, 181-187.

Tversky, B. 1993. Spatial mental models. In G. H. Power (Ed.), The
psychology of learning and motivation: advances in research and theory,
vol. 27. New York: Academic Press.

6. Brain bases

De Renzi, E. 1983. Disorders of space exploration and cognition.  Chi-
chester: Wiley.

Gallistel, C. R. 1990. Organization of learning. Cambridge, MA: MIT

Hein, A. and Jeannerod, M. 1983. Spatially oriented behavior.  Heidel-
berg: Springer-Verlag.

Liben, L. S., Patterson, A. H., and Newcombe, N. 1981.  Spatial
representation and behavior across the life span. New York: Academic

O'Keefe, J. and Nadel, L. 1978. The hippocampus as a cognitive map.
Oxford:Oxford University Press.

Paillard, J. 1991. Brain and Space. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Stiles-Davis, J., Kritchevsky, M., Bellugi, U. 1988. Spatial cognition:
brain bases and development. Hillsdale, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum
Associates, Publishers.

Ungerleider, L. G. and Mishkin, M. 1982. Two cortical visual systems.
In D. J. Ingle, M. A. Goodale, and R. J.W. Mansfield (Eds.).  Cambridge:
MIT Press.

				   V. Artificial intelligence

1. Artificial intelligence: vision

Hoffman, D. D. and W. A. Richards. 1985. Parts of recognition.  In S.
Pinker, (ed.),  Visual cognition. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 65-96.

Marr, D. 1982a. Representing and computing visual information.  In P. H.
Winston and R. H. Brown (Eds.), Artificial Intelligence: an MIT perspec-
tive, vol. 2, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Marr, D. 1982b. Vision. New York: Freeman.

Romanycia, M. H. J. 1987. The design and control of visual routines for
the computation of simple geometric properties and relations.  M.S.
thesis, Department of Computer Science, University of British Columbia,
Vancouver, BC.

Ullman, Shimon. 1985. Visual routines. In S. Pinker (Ed.), Visual Cogni-
tion.  Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 96-159.

2. Artificial intelligence: common-sense knowledge

Hayes, P. 1985. The second naive physics manifesto. In J. R. Hobbs and
R. C. Moore (Eds.), Formal theories of the common sense world.  Norwood,
NJ: Ablex Publishing Corporation, 1-36.

3.  Artificial intelligence: spatial language

Aurnague, M. 1991. Contribution a l'etude de la semantique formelle de
l'espace et du raisonnement spatial: la localisation interne en fran-
cais, semantique et structure inferentielles. PhD dissertation, Univer-
site Paul Sabatier, Toulouse.

Chapman, D. 1991. Vision, instruction, and action.  Ph.D. thesis, MIT,
Cambridge, MA.

Hays, E. M. 1987. A computational treatment of locative relations in
natural language. Technical Report MS-CIS-87-31, Linc Lab 58, Department
of Computer and Information Science, University of Pennsylvania.

Vieu, L. 1991. Semantique des relations spatiales et inferences spatio-
temporelles: une contribution a l'etude des structure formelles de
l`espace en langage naturel. PhD dissertation, Universite Paul Sabatier,

4. Connectionist models of the acquisition and use of spatial terms

Harris, C.  1989. A connectionist approach to the story of over.
Proceedings of the Berkeley Linguistics Society.

Regier, T. 1992. The acquisition of lexical semantics for spatial terms:
a connectionist model of perceptual categorization. PhD thesis, Computer
Science Department, University of California, Berkeley.