Swine Formulary

DRUG NAME DOSE (mg/kg) & ROUTE FREQUENCY NOTES
Anticholinergics – Prevents bradycardia and cardiac arrhythmias
Atropine 0.04 IM or SC Once at induction
  • Recommended:
    Glycopyrrolate
0.01 IM or SC Once at induction
Inhalation anesthetics – Must use precision vaporizer.  Survival surgery requires concurrent pre-emptive analgesia.
  • Recommended:
    Isoflurane or
    Sevoflurane
1-3% inhalant to effect (up to 5% for induction). Up to 8% for Sevoflurane Whenever general anesthesia is required Mask induction is possible with small pigs. Survival surgery requires concurrent pre-emptive analgesia.
Nitrous oxide (N2O) Up to 60% with oxygen Whenever deep sedation or general anesthesia is required Not acceptable for surgery as sole agent – usually used with inhalant anesthetic to potentiate effect and lower required dose
Ketamine and/or Telazol®) combinations – May sting on IM injection – Frequently used for pre-anesthesia prior to intubation and induction of isoflurane anesthesia
Ketamine-Acepromazine 33 +
1.1 IM, SC
(in same syringe)
For sedation and pre-anesthesia Can result in large volumes
Recommended:
Ketamine-Xylazine
–20 +
2 IM
(in same syringe)
Prior to general anesthesia Can result in large volumes – consider using Telazol® or Telazol® combination as alternative
  • Recommended:
    Telazol® alone (a combination of tiletamine and zolazepam – when reconstituted with 5 ml sterile water, a vial contains 50 mg/ml of each drug. Dose listed is based on 100mg/ml of combined active ingredients)
6 – 8 IM
=.06 – .08 ml/kg
For sedation or pre-anesthesia Note that Telazol® must be stored refrigerated once reconstituted.
Telazol®-Ketamine-Xylazine (TKX) ~ 0.025 ml of cocktail per kg IM For sedation or pre-anesthesia Note that Telazol® must be stored refrigerated once reconstituted.
To mix: reconstitute Telazol® with ‘large animal xylazine (100mg/ml) instead of water; add 5 ml ketamine (concentration of 100mg/ml)
Telazol® – Xylazine 4.0 (Telazol) +
2.0 (xylazine)
IM, SC
For sedation or pre-anesthesia Note that Telazol® must be stored refrigerated once reconstituted. Reconstitute Telazol with 5ml of sterile water.  Withdraw appropriate dosage and mix in syringe with animal’s dose of Xylazine.
Reversal agents – Atipamezole is more specific for medetomidine than for xylazine (as a general rule, Atipamezole is dosed at the same volume as Medetomidine, though they are manufactured at different concentrations.
Atipamezole 0.25 – 1.0 IV, IM SC Any time medetomidine or xylazine has been used
Yohimbine 0.125 – 0.3 IV
0.2 IV
Once.
Repeat as needed.
To reverse xylazine
Other injectable anesthetics and tranquilizers
Sodium pentobarbital (Nembutal) 20 – 30 IV to effect and maintained with
intermittent bolus as needed
or
2-20 mg/kg/hr IV continuous infusion after induction
Recommended for terminal/acute procedures only, with booster doses as needed. Preemptive analgesia strongly recommended.  Consider supplemental analgesia (opioid or NSAID) for invasive procedures.
Propofol 16 – 22 IV As induction agent, prior to general anesthesia with pentobarbital or inhalant Respiratory depression upon induction is possible.
Acepromazine 0.08 – 0.2 IM or SC May be used whenever ketamine combinations are used Usually only used in conjunction with anesthetics such as ketamine. Acepromazine is a tranquilizer and does not confer analgesia.
Opioid analgesia – Pure mu receptor agonists are not recommended  in swine as they may produce excitation
  • Recommended:
    Buprenorphine
0.005 – 0.05 SC Used pre-operatively for preemptive analgesia and post-operatively every 6-12 hour For major procedures, require more frequent dosing than 12 hour intervals. Consider multi-modal analgesia with a NSAID
Butorphanol 0.1 – 0.5 SC Used pre-operatively for preemptive analgesia and post-operatively every 4-6 hour For major procedures, require more frequent dosing than 12 hour intervals. Consider multi-modal analgesia with a NSAID
Reversal agents for opioids
Naloxone 0.01 – 0.05 IV, IM Once as needed to reverse respiratory depression Note that reversal will also remove the analgesic effect of the opioid
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) analgesia- Note that prolonged use may cause renal, gastrointestinal, or other problems.
Carprofen 2 – 4 SC or PO Used pre-operatively for preemptive analgesia and post-operatively every 24 hour for up to 4 days. Depending on the procedure, may be used as sole analgesic, or as multi-modal analgesia with buprenorphine.
  • Recommended:
    Meloxicam
0.4 PO, IM or SC Used pre-operatively for preemptive analgesia and post-operatively every 24 hour for up to 4 days. Depending on the procedure, may be used as sole analgesic, or as multi-modal analgesia with buprenorphine.
Ketoprofen ~ 1.0 – 2.0 SC Used pre-operatively for preemptive analgesia and post-operatively every 24 hour for up to 4 days Depending on the procedure, may be used as sole analgesic, or as multi-modal analgesia with buprenorphine.
Ketorolac 1.0 – 5 SC Used pre-operatively for preemptive analgesia and post-operatively every 24 hour for up to 4 days. Depending on the procedure, may be used as sole analgesic, or as multi-modal analgesia with buprenorphine.
  • Recommended:
    Flunixin meglubin
    Banamine®
1.0 IM only For supplemental postop analgesia
Every 24 hours for no more than 3 days
Useful for treating hyperthermia
Local anesthetic/analgesics (lidocaine and bupivacaine may be combined in one syringe for rapid onset and long duration analgesia)
Lidocaine hydrochloride 4 mg/kg
Dilute to 0.5 -1% (=10mg/ml). May be mixed in same syringe with bupivacaine.
SC or intra-incisional
Use locally before making surgical incision Faster onset than bupivacaine but short (<1 hour) duration of action
Bupivacaine Dilute to 0.25 – 0.5%, May be mixed in same syringe with lidocaine.
SC or intra-incisional
Use locally before making surgical incision Slower onset than lidocaine but longer (~ 4-8 hour) duration of action
BU IACUC Approved October 2008