Nonhuman Primate Formulary

DRUG NAME DOSE (mg/kg) & ROUTE FREQUENCY NOTES
Anticholinergics – Prevents bradycardia and cardiac arrhythmias
Atropine 0.02-0.05
IM or SC
Once at induction
  • Recommended:
    Glycopyrrolate
0.01 IM or SC Once at induction
Inhalation anesthetics – Must use precision vaporizer.  Survival surgery requires concurrent pre-emptive analgesia.
  • Recommended:
    Isoflurane or Sevoflurane
1-3% inhalant to effect (up to 5% for induction). Up to 8% for Sevoflurane Whenever general anesthesia is required Survival surgery requires concurrent pre-emptive analgesia.
Nitrous oxide (N2O) Up to 60% with oxygen Whenever deep sedation or general anesthesia is required Not acceptable for surgery as sole agent – may be used with inhalant anesthetic to potentiate effect and lower required dose
Ketamine combinations – May sting on IM injection
  • Recommended:
    Ketamine alone
5 – 20 IM, SC As needed.
Administer as pre-anesthetic, or as sole sedative/restraint.  Add ¼ – ½ dose as needed
Ketamine alone is recommended for NHP only.  Used for restraint for short procedures, including blood collection, Tb testing, physical exam and prior to induction of gas anesthesia
  • Recommended:
    Ketamine-Midazolam
5 -20
+ 0.05-0.2 IM, SC
(in same syringe)
As needed May not produce surgical-plane anesthesia for major procedures, but useful for restraint.
Ketamine-Medetomidine
(Rhesus)
5 – 10
+ 0.1 IM or SC
(in same syringe)
As needed Will not produce surgical plane of anesthesia for major procedures. If redosing, use ketamine alone
Ketamine – Xylazine 3.0 – 10.0
+ 0.15 – 0.60
IM or SC
(in same syringe)
As needed Will not produce surgical plane of anesthesia for major procedures. If redosing, use ketamine alone.
Reversal agents for alpha 2 agonists– Atipamezole is more specific for medetomidine than for xylazine (as a general rule Atipamezole is dosed at the same volume as Medetomidine, though they are manufactured at different concentrations).
Atipamezole ~ 1.0 subcutaneous or IV Once.
Repeat as needed.
To reverse medetomidine or xylazine
Yohimbine 0.1 IV (slowly), IM Once.
Repeat as needed.
To reverse xylazine.
Other injectable anesthetics and tranquilizers
Sodium pentobarbital (Nembutal) 15 – 30 IV to effect and maintained with
intermittent bolus as needed
or
2-20 mg/kg/hr IV continuous infusion after induction
Recommended for terminal/acute procedures only. Occasionally used on survival basis when cortical evoked responses are being measured. Preemptive analgesia strongly recommended.  Consider supplemental analgesia (opioid or NSAID) for invasive procedures.
Propofol 2.5 – 5.0 IV boluses. 0.3 – 0.4 mg/kg/hr continuous infusion As induction agent, prior to general anesthesia with pentobarbital or inhalant, or as sole agent on continuous infusion. Respiratory depression upon induction is possible. Requirement for IV administration usually means that ketamine must be used first.
Opioid analgesia
  • Recommended:
    Buprenorphine
0.005 – 0.1 SC Used pre-operatively for preemptive analgesia and post-operatively every 6-12 hour For major procedures, require more frequent dosing than 12 hour intervals. Consider multi-modal analgesia with a NSAID
Morphine 0.5 – 2.0 IM. SC or IV

Every 2 -4 hours As pre-emptive analgesia and post-procedural analgesic for very painful procedures
Fentanyl patch Patch/B.Wt.
25 µg/hr in <7 kg
50 µg/hr in 7–18kg
Place patch 24 hours in advance of surgery and maintain for up to 3 days.
Alternatively, place at induction, premedicate with morphine, adm. morphine at 4 and 8 hrs.
When severe post-surgical pain is anticipated.
Reversal agents for opioids
Naloxone 0.01 – 0.05 IV, IM Once as needed to reverse  respiratory depression Note that reversal will also remove the analgesic effect of the opioid
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs analgesia (NSAID) – Note that prolonged use may cause renal, gastrointestinal, or other problems
  • Recommended:
    Carprofen
2 – 4 SC or PO Used pre-operatively for preemptive analgesia and post-operatively every 24 hour for up to 4 days. Depending on the procedure, may be used as sole analgesic, or as multi-modal analgesia with buprenorphine.
  • Recommended:
    Meloxicam
0.1 – 0.3 PO or SC Used pre-operatively for preemptive analgesia and post-operatively every 24 hour for up to 7 days. Depending on the procedure, may be used as sole analgesic, or as multi-modal analgesia with buprenorphine.
  • Recommended:
    Ketorolac
0 0.5 – 1.0 SC or IM Used pre-operatively for preemptive analgesia and post-operatively every 8 -12 hour for up to 4 days. Depending on the procedure, may be used as sole analgesic, or as multi-modal analgesia with buprenorphine.
Flunixin meglubin
Banamine®
1.0 IM only For supplemental postop analgesia
Every 24 hours for no more than 3 days
Useful for treating hyperthermia
Local anesthetic/analgesics (lidocaine and bupivacaine may be combined in one syringe for rapid onset and long duration analgesia)
Lidocaine hydrochloride May dilute to 0.5 -1% (=10mg/ml). May be mixed in same syringe with bupivacaine.
SC or intra-incisional
Use locally before making surgical incision Faster onset than bupivacaine but short (<1 hour) duration of action
Bupivacaine May dilute to 0.25 – 0.5%, May be mixed in same syringe with lidocaine.
SC or intra-incisional
Use locally before making surgical incision Slower onset than lidocaine but longer (~ 4-8 hour) duration of action

BU IACUC Approved October 2008