Mouse Formulary

DRUG NAME DOSE (mg/kg) & ROUTE FREQUENCY NOTES
Anticholinergics – Prevents bradycardia and cardiac arrhythmias. Not commonly used in mice
Atropine 0.02-0.05 SC Once at induction
Recommended: Glycopyrrolate 0.01-0.02 SC Once at induction
Inhalation anesthetics – Best administered using a precision vaporizer but may also be administered via nose cone containing small amount of anesthetic. Survival surgery requires concurrent pre-emptive analgesia.
Recommended: Isoflurane or Sevoflurane 1-3% inhalant to effect (up to 5% for induction). Up to 8% for Sevoflurane Whenever general anesthesia is required Induction is commonly performed in an induction box. Survival surgery requires concurrent pre-emptive analgesia.
Carbon dioxide To effect (cannot determine percentage) Once, at time of euthanasia May be used for fast terminal procedure such as cardiac blood collection followed by euthanasia
Ketamine combinations – These dose combinations vary depending upon the type of procedure and the age/strain of the animal. Higher ketamine dose with lower xylazine dose are used for less invasive procedures and for very young/very old or critical patients. In general, higher doses of xylazine with concomitant lowering of the ketamine dose are used for more invasive procedures. See cocktail recipe at the end of table.
Recommended: Ketamine-Xylazine 50 – 100 + 10-15 (all IP in same syringe) As needed Provides surgical level anesthesia. If redosing, administer ¼ dose of the mixture. May be partially reversed with Atipamezole or Yohimbine
Recommended: Ketamine-Xylazine-Acepromazine

50 – 75

+ 10 – 15

+ 2.0 (all IP in same syringe)

As needed Provides surgical level anesthesia. Acepromazine extends the anesthesia time for long surgical procedures. If redosing, use ketamine/xylazine ¼ dose. May be partially reversed with Atipamezole or Yohimbine
Ketamine-Medetomidine 50-75 + 0.5 -1 (all IP in same syringe) As needed May not produce surgical-plane anesthesia for major procedures. If redosing, use ketamine alone. May be partially reversed with Atipamezole
Ketamine-Midazolam 80-100 + 4-5 (all IP in same syringe) As needed Does not produce surgical-plane anesthesia for major procedures, but may be useful for restraint.
Mouse cocktails

Ketamine/xylazine/acepromazine Dosing IP To administer
Ketamine                    65 mg/kg
Xylazine                     13 mg/kg
Acepromazine            2.0 mg/kg

Mouse body weight Volume cocktail
20 g                           0.13 ml
25 g                           0.16 ml
30 g                           0.20 ml
35 g                           0.23 ml

To prepare cocktailKetamine (100 mg/ml)         1.0 ml
Xylazine (20 mg/ml)            1.0 ml
Acepromazine (10 mg/ml)    0.3 ml
Sterile water or saline          7.7 ml
—————————————–
Cocktail                            10.0 ml

This cocktail is useful for longer more invasive surgical procedures in mice. It provides anesthesia for 45 -60 minutes. If the acepromazine is eliminated, the anesthesia will be shorter and the recovery faster.

Reversal agents to alpha 2 agents. Atipamezole is more specific for medetomidine than for xylazine (as a general rule, Atipamezole is dosed at the same volume as Medetomidine, though they are manufactured at different concentrations).
Atipamezole 1.0 – 2.0 IP, IM, IV, SC Once. Repeat if needed To reverse medetomidine or xylazine
Yohimbine 1.0 – 2.0 SC or IP Once. Repeat if needed. For reversal of xylazine effects
Other injectable anesthetics
Sodium pentobarbital (Nembutal) 50 – 90 IP Recommended for terminal/acute procedures only, with booster doses as needed. May be appropriate for some survival procedures such as intracranial or cranial surgery Consider supplemental analgesia (opioid or NSAID) for invasive procedures, especially when used on a survival basis. Very long acting with a long recovery period. Keep animal warm.
Tribromoethanol (Avertin) 0.2 ml/10 g 200 – 240 mg/kg IP May be used once for survival procedure (boosted as necessary during procedure) and once for terminal/acute procedure Use fresh solution (<1 week of age). See recipe below.
AVERTIN recipe

66.66% stock solution
Dissolve 1 g 2, 2, 2-tribromoethanol in 0.5 g amylene hydrate. Store wrapped in foil (light sensitive solution, ok to use brown glass bottle), at -20 o C. Date and label bottle. Stock solution can be kept for up to one year.

1.25% working solution 12.5 mg/ml)
Take 0.5 ml concentrate and mix with 39.5 ml sterile saline. Adjust to pH 7. Recommended to be used the same day it is prepared. If it must be stored, it should be kept frozen at -20 o C, in a foil wrapped container or brown bottle. Use the frozen aliquots after it is thawed the same day; discard frozen aliquots after 2 months. Date and label all bottles.

Dosing 200 -240 mg/kg

Mouse body weight Volume working solution
20 g                              0.32-0.38 ml
25 g                              0.40 – 0.48 ml
30 g                              0.48 – 0.58 ml
35 g                              0.56 – 0.68 ml

Propofol 20 – 30 IV As needed/to effect Only useful IV, so therefore limited usefulness in mice. Respiratory depression upon induction is possible.
Opioid analgesia
Recommended: Buprenorphine 0.05 – 0.5 SC, IP, IV Used pre-operatively for preemptive analgesia and post-operatively every 6-8 hour For major procedures, requires more frequent dosing than 12 hour intervals. Consider multi-modal analgesia with an NSAID
Recommended: Butorphanol 0.5 – 5.0 SC, IP, IV Used pre-operatively for preemptive analgesia and post-operatively every 1 – 4 hours Consider multi-modal analgesia with a NSAID. Shorter acting than buprenorphine
Morphine 5 – 10 IP, SQ Every 2 -4 hours As pre-emptive analgesia and post-procedural analgesic for very painful procedures
Reversal agents for opioids
Naloxone 0.01 -0.10 IV, IM Once as needed to reverse respiratory depression Note that reversal will also remove the analgesic effect of the opioid
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) analgesia. Note that prolonged use may cause renal, gastrointestinal or other problems
Recommended: Carprofen 4-5 SC, PO Used pre-operatively for preemptive analgesia and post-operatively every 12-24 hour Depending on the procedure, may be used as sole analgesic, or as multi-modal analgesia with buprenorphine. Drinking water dose: 27 ug/ml = 5 mg/kg/day. Carprofen is light sensitive –use dark bottles.
Recommended: Meloxicam Metacam® 0.3 – 1.0 SC, PO Used pre-operatively for preemptive analgesia and post-operatively every 24 hour Depending on the procedure, may be used as sole analgesic, or as multi-modal analgesia with buprenorphine. Drinking water dose: 1.7 ug/ml (0.3 mg/kg/day). Use injectable form of meloxicam to prepare drinking water: Meloxicam suspension does not dissolve well in water.
Recommended: Ketoprofen 2 – 5 SC Used pre-operatively for preemptive analgesia and post-operatively every 12-24 hour Depending on the procedure, may be used as sole analgesic, or as multi-modal analgesia with buprenorphine.
Ketorolac 5 – 7.5 oral or SC Used pre-operatively for preemptive analgesia and post-operatively every 12-24 hour Depending on the procedure, may be used as sole analgesic, or as multi-modal analgesia with buprenorphine.
Flunixin meglubin Banamine® 1.0 – 2.0 SC For supplemental postop analgesia Every 12 – 24 hours for no more than 3 days Useful for treating hyperthermia
Local anesthetic/analgesics (lidocaine and bupivacaine may be combined in one syringe for rapid onset and long duration analgesia)
Lidocaine hydrochloride Dilute to 0.5%, do not exceed 7 mg/kg total dose, SC or intra-incisional Use locally before making surgical incision Faster onset than bupivacaine but short (<1 hour) duration of action
Bupivacaine Dilute to 0.25%, do not exceed 8 mg/kg total dose, SC or intra-incisional Use locally before making surgical incision Slower onset than lidocaine but longer (~ 4-8 hour) duration of action
BU IACUC Approved October 2008