Boston University (BU) is committed to observing Federal policies and regulations and the Association for Assessment and Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care (AAALAC) International standards for the humane care and use of animals. This policy provides guidelines for post-approval monitoring (PAM).
Post-approval monitoring of Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) protocols is performed to provide assurance to regulatory agencies and the BU IACUCs that animal experiments are performed in accordance with approved IACUC protocols. The post-approval monitor confirms consistency and accuracy of approved protocols and practice.
The goal of post-approval monitoring is to work with, and in support of, the research staff member, and to confirm accurate and consistent protocol performance in a collegial and unobtrusive manner. According to the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (8th Ed.):
Continuing IACUC oversight of animal activities is required by federal laws, regulations, and policies. Post-approval monitoring helps ensure the well-being of the animals and may also provide opportunities to refine research procedures; PAM programs are more likely to succeed when the institution encourages an educational partnership with investigators. A well designed PAM program can benefit the research process by supporting:
- The Institution by reducing non-compliance
- The Researchers by helping them avoid distractions and consumption of resources to resolve issues of non-compliance
- The Animals which receive better treatment during all phases of a research protocol, and
- The Science which will be more consistent and of a higher quality
II. COVERED PARTIES
This policy is applicable to all persons responsible for conducting approved animal research, teaching, training, breeding, and related activities, hereinafter referred to collectively as “activities” involving live vertebrate animals and conducted at Boston University.
- Selection of Protocols for Review:
- All active protocols involving the use of exemptions to social housing of animals, involve the Category E designation and all USDA-covered species will be monitored at least once annually, or more frequently, at the discretion of IACUC and veterinary personnel.
- All protocols, including field research protocols, will be monitored at least once every three years, or more frequently, at the discretion of IACUC and veterinary personnel. Approximately one-third of the protocols involving less invasive procedures will be monitored annually.
- In general, the post-approval monitor or designee will schedule monitoring sessions with the Principal Investigator or other laboratory personnel in advance. However, the PAM program reserves the right to perform monitoring without prior notice.
- In addition to routine monitoring of protocols, animal welfare and non-compliance concerns will be investigated as they are made known. These for-cause investigations may not exactly follow the process of monitoring described below, as meeting with the entire laboratory staff may not be necessary, or it may not be possible to identify the protocol or personnel involved.
- Process of Monitoring:
- The post-approval monitor shall normally notify the PI that the protocol will be monitored and attempt to make an appointment for routine visits. Follow-up non-compliance visits may or may not be scheduled.
- The post-approval monitor may bring a veterinarian, a member of the IACUC or an external consultant if the IACUC deems it necessary.
- The PI and all laboratory staff working on the protocol will be expected to be present for the visit and to participate in providing information to the post-approval monitor as requested. The PI or post-approval monitor may invite the veterinary or husbandry staff to participate in providing information to the post-approval monitor if appropriate.
- During each monitoring session, the post-approval monitor will compare procedures conducted in the laboratory with those described in the approved protocol. All procedures described in the approved protocol must be carried out in accordance with applicable IACUC guidelines and federal regulations and guidelines. When possible, the post-approval monitor will discuss monitoring results, including any and all departures noted, with the Principal Investigator and other laboratory personnel before leaving the laboratory. The discussion may include formulation of a corrective action plan (acceptable to the post-approval monitor) to be implemented by the PI, as needed.
- Areas of concern may include:
- Personnel who are performing procedures are not listed in the approved protocol.
- Procedures that are performed in the laboratory but not listed in the approved protocol.
- Anesthetics, analgesics, tranquilizers, antibiotics or other medications used in the animal procedures that are not noted in the protocol, are different from those listed in the protocol, or are not used in accordance with the protocol.
- Procedures listed in the protocol to promote animal welfare (e.g. post-operative monitoring procedures) that are not being performed as approved in the protocol.
- Survival surgery that is not being performed aseptically.
- Euthanasia procedures that are employed differ from those listed in the protocol and/or a method for ensuring euthanasia (e.g. after CO2 exposure) is not employed.
- Laboratory personnel appear to lack the necessary training to appropriately perform procedures as described in the protocol.
- Supporting documentation for animal care, post-operative care or other study procedures is incomplete or unavailable.
- Conditions are not safe for humans and/or animals.
- Outdated materials (drugs, suture, etc.) are used.
- Equipment (e.g. anesthetic vaporizers) in use is not calibrated or certified.
- There is evidence of animal misuse, mistreatment or neglect.
- Process of Follow-Up:
- The post-approval monitor will send a written report of the monitoring results, including any and all departures from the protocol or applicable guidelines or regulations, and any corrective action plan with deadlines, to the Principal Investigator, laboratory personnel, IACUC Chair, Manager, Animal Welfare Assurance, and Attending Veterinarian. If no departures are noted, the PI will receive a congratulatory report.
- The post-approval monitor will follow up on any issues that require corrective action and will attempt to support the laboratory corrective action by providing or scheduling required training and/or assistance with form preparation (e.g., amendment submission).
- On occasion, additional monitoring sessions may be part of the follow-up to assist with and ensure proper corrective actions.
- Corrective actions may include, for example:
- Modifying an existing protocol,
- Reverting to the procedures which are already listed in the approved protocol
- Training or re-training
- Issues of veterinary care that pose an immediate threat to animal welfare will be referred to the Attending Veterinarian or another veterinarian for immediate resolution.
- Any departures from the approved protocol, the Guide, or AWA regulations that may constitute significant, serious or continuing violations will be immediately reported to the IACUC Manager. Such departures will be reported to the IACUC for discussion by the Committee to determine which require (or do not require) specific IACUC corrective actions, and whether they are (or are not) reportable to the Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare (OLAW), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), or Association for Assessment and Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care International (AAALAC).
- Semiannual reports of visits conducted, including corrective actions, will be reviewed at a convened IACUC meeting.
- Process of Appealing Concerns:
- Investigators who disagree with monitoring results, corrective action plans and/or recommendations may appeal to the IACUC.
- A copy of the final monitoring report, including a record of all corrective actions, will be kept in the protocol file.
- The information concerning departures from approved protocols or applicable regulations and guidelines will be recorded for use as institutional trending or follow-up.
- Personal Protective Equipment (PPE):
- The post-approval monitor and other visitors shall wear the PPE prescribed for the specific activity or laboratory.
IV. RESPONSIBLE PARTIES
- The BU IACUC is responsible for ensuring the implementation of this policy. The PAM program should be considered an extension of the oversight and educational functions of the IACUC.
- Principal Investigators are responsible for ensuring they and their laboratory staff strive to maintain compliance and work with the post-approval monitor to observe and confirm monitoring procedures with the approved protocol.
- Veterinarians and husbandry staff: Provide medical and day-to-day care for animals and special veterinary services in support of the approved protocols in collaboration with the researchers and IACUC.
- Post-approval monitor: Works with the PI and laboratory staff to observe activity, prepare accurate reports, and provide recommendations for maintaining compliance, and endeavors to provide training and assistance if needed.
- Manager, Animal Welfare Assurance: Provides operational oversight and management of the post-approval monitor and the post-approval monitoring program, assures the IACUC receives reports or updates on items of concern, and provides support as required to assure compliance
- Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC): means the committee that is responsible for oversight and evaluation of the entire Animal Care and Use Program and its components as described in other sections of The Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, Eighth Edition. Its oversight functions include review and approval of proposed animal use (protocol review) and of proposed significant changes to animal use; regular inspection of facilities and animal use areas; regular review of the Program; ongoing assessment of animal care and use; and establishment of a mechanism for receipt and review of concerns involving the care and use of animals at the institution.
- Category E procedure: means a procedure that may produce pain or distress lasting for more than a moment, which will not be alleviated through analgesia, anesthesia, or other methods.
- Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, Eighth Edition, 2011. NRC ILAR. 33-34. Postapproval Monitoring.
- Animal Welfare Act. http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title9-vol1/xml/CFR-2013-title9-vol1-chapI-subchapA.xml
Original Date of Approval: 09/14/2012