Routing the Byzantines, Caliph Umar takes the cities of Syria one by one. Iliya surrenders in 635 or 638.
The "Pact of Umar" regulates the status of the Byzantine Christians, who remain the majority population.
The Muslim rulers readmit Jews and non-Orthodox Christians.
Under the Umayyads
Adapting themselves to the symbolic language of the Byzantine Emperors, the Umayyads transform the hitherto neglected erstwhile Temple Mount into a newly restored "Holy House." Abd al Malik, a new King Solomon and eschatological ruler, provides Islam with its first monumental building, Qubbat as-Sakhra, the Dome of the Rock.
Abbasids and Fatimids
With the center of the Sunni Caliphate removed to Baghdad, Iliya
falls into disrepair. Devout Jerusalemites begin to collect much lore in praise of the Holy City to persuade others of its importance. The Shiite Fatimids
of Egypt vie with Rum Seljuks for control over the Levant. With the exception of Caliph El Hakim (for the Druze: the mahdi) who has Constantine's
Anastasis destroyed, Muslim rule allows religious freedom for all, and Jerusalem turns into a place of scholarship and mystical contemplation.
Holy City: Jerusalem in time, space and imagination