Potsherds found around the Gihon Spring are the first signs of settlement
around the South Hill of the later city.
city state by the name of (u)rushalimum is mentioned in Egyptian Execration
Texts (c1800 BCE).
South Hill is now fortified with a wall, as are the Gihon Spring and its adjacent
Bronze Age (1550-1200BCE)
1330, the city is mentioned in a letter from Tell el-Amarna where the name
of its ruler is given as Abdi Heba.
Oddly, excavations show little evidence that the city was even settled at this age, an indication of the fact that archeological and epigraphic evidence cannot always be reconciled.
and early Israelite history
The Hebrews (hapiru?) begin to consolidate in the hill country.
Terraces and a stepped structure that have been found on the south hill may date to the late Bronze or Early Iron Ages. But debate continues among specialists on whether the city was significantly populated and fortified at this time.
to Joshua 15:63, "the Jebusites, the people of Jerusalem, the people
of Judah could not drive out."
Holy City: Jerusalem in time, space and imagination