Sources that provide overviews or snapshots of a topic or person, mainly factual information with references for further research. Encyclopedias and biographical dictionaries are examples.
Object(s) of analysis, interpretation, discussion, and/or criticism.
Sources that discuss, interpret, analyze, or provide context for the exhibit or primary source. Books and articles introduce you to the “scholarly conversation” about a topic or object. Then you can jump in with your own ideas or thesis. Typically, these sources are books and scholarly journal articles, but may be newspapers and popular magazines, depending on your topic and your course requirements. You find these sources using bibliographic databases.
A bibliographic database contains records of books and journal articles.
The records consist of searchable fields: authors, titles, publication dates, abstracts or table of contents, etc. Advanced Search lets you “customize” the search using one or more of the fields.
When you do a search, a list of records formatted as results is produced. The list may be thought of as a beginning bibliography that you sift through looking for sources that may provide information or insight into the topic or object.
In general, the results are citations to books and articles (and other materials the database is covering such as conference reports, images).
MLA Style citation:
Wilson, Kristina. “The Intimate Gallery and the “Equivalents”: Spirituality in the 1920s Work of Stieglitz.” The Art Bulletin 85.4 (2003): 746-68. Web.
Getting the actual content–the book or article–depends on the database and on your library’s access. Databases might contain the texts of most of the articles, e.g., Art Full Text, or all of the articles, e.g., JSTOR. If the database does not contain the full text, it provides a link, Find@BU, to your library’s subscription. If the library does not have a subscription, request the article through Interlibrary Loan. Likewise, if the library does not have a book either in print or online, request it through Interlibrary Loan.
BULS: Boston Universities Libraries Search (your search retrieves results for books in the library and online and mainly full-text articles) Tips:
1. “Sign In” with your BU login. Signing in allows you to immediately access ebooks and full-text journal articles. You also can save citations to the eShelf; note the gold star by the first result. The eShelf stores your citations in folders for future use and pushes the ones you want to a bibliographic manager such as Zotero or Refworks. You will not need to sign in again until you close your browser and restart.
2. Refine My Results lets you filter your results to narrow down to what you really want. You may want to limit to articles or reviews, for example. Creation Date‘s slider lets you quickly retrieve publications from the most recent years. Author/Creator and Journal Title are very useful for finding articles by an author or finding articles in a specific journal.
3. More Information provides details of the article or book. Sometimes chapter titles or summaries of the publication. It also is a good way to copy/paste a book title into the search box to find books reviews.
4. Virtual Browse lets you see the books on the shelf at Mugar. But not our ebook collection!
5. Save/email lets you send the citation (result) to: eShelf, E-mail, Print, Permalink, Citation, EasyBib, EndNote, RefWorks, RIS for Zotero/Mendeley.
6. Show only Peer-reviewed Journals. This limits the results to just those articles published by scholars after other (peer) scholars in the same research area have reviewed, evaluated, and critiqued them. Some databases call them “refereed.”
7. Book Reviews. An American Lens: scenes from Alfred Stieglitz’s New York Secession
Type the book title in the search box and look for reviews.
ProQuest News and Newspapers (historical)
1. to recognize and credit an author’s work and ideas
2. to enable the reader of your paper to find the article (or book, etc.) and read it
3. to avoid possible copyright and plagiarism problems
4. the citation formatting guides below are from the Purdue [University] Online Writing Lab (OWL).
Your professor will review plagiarism with you. The websites below offer examples of how to paraphrase and cite the original source.
Avoiding Plagiarism, University of Arizona Libraries
Evaluating Information, Sheridan Libraries, Johns Hopkins University
Please feel free to contact me.
Ruth Thomas, Art and Art History Librarian
The Pardee Management Library has several databases for creating lists of companies by industry and geographic location. Two examples would be Reference USA and the Company Dossier database in LexisNexis Academic. These databases can be very helpful when you need to create a list of targeted companies for your job search or when you want to identify local competitors for your course projects. Reference USA is a U.S. company directory database that currently contains over 24 million business listings. The Company Dossier database in LexisNexis provides both U.S. and international company listings. Pardee librarians have also prepared online tutorials for these databases.
If you have any questions or need help searching these databases, please contact the Pardee Library Reference Desk.
The BU Libraries have recently acquired The HistoryMakers, a database of streamed interviews with historically significant African Americans. Over 52,799 stories are assembled here from life oral history interviews with 1,043 people.
If you need help searching this database, please contact a reference librarian.
WR 150 – Bozek – Mugar Library 2nd Floor Balcony 2/11/16
Search by keywords e.g. “race and Katrina”
- General Science Full Text / Social Sciences Full Text
- Lexis Nexis Academic
- BU WorldCat Local- Books, journals and more owned by libraries around the world. Allows direct borrowing from our partner libraries.
EVALUATING YOUR SOURCES
- What are scholarly sources?
What are peer reviewed journals? A peer reviewed journal consists of articles that have been reviewed by a panel of subject experts before they are approved for publication.
- What are Primary sources? Primary sources are materials that provide direct evidence or firsthand testimony concerning the period or subject under investigation.
What are Secondary sources? Secondary sources interpret or analyze an event or subject.
DOCUMENTING YOUR SOURCES
- Citing your Sources
- Create Bibliographies
- RefWorks research management, writing and collaboration software
Please contact me with ANY library or research questions
The following are some examples of books by topic.
Research tip: Take note of the authors– who are they and what else have they written? Look at their bibliographies and sources cited to find related works.
Africa : facing human security challenges in the 21st century
Mentan, Tatah ; 2014
After the rebellion : black youth, social movement activism, and the post-civil rights generation
Franklin, Sekou M. ; 2014
Indigenousness in Africa : a contested legal framework for empowerment of ‘marginalized’ communities
Ndahinda, Felix Mukwiza ; c2011
Available at Law Library Annex (KQC572 .N33 2011 )
International human rights law in Africa ; 2nd ed..
Viljoen, Frans. ; 2012
Online Access (also available in the Law Library Annex KQC572 .V55 2012 )
Protecting human security in Africa
Ademola Abass ; 2010
Available online (also available in Mugar Memorial Library KQC572 .P76 2010 )
Ukweli : monitoring and documenting human rights violations in Africa : a handbook
Codesria.; Amnesty International. ; 2000
Available at Mugar Memorial Library Stacks (JC599.A36 U48 2000 )
American culture warriors in Africa : a guide to the exporters of homophobia and sexism
Kaoma, Kapya J. ; 2014
Available at Theology Library Open Stacks (HQ76.45.A35 K36 2014 )
Human rights and homosexuality in Southern Africa ; 2nd, expanded ed..
Dunton, Chris. ; Mai Palmberg ; 1996
Available at Mugar Memorial Library Stacks (HQ76.3.A356 D86 1996 )
Queer African reader
Hakima Abbas; Sokari Ekine ; 2013
Available at Theology Library Open Stacks (HQ76.3.A6 Q83 2013 )
Grace, tenacity and eloquence : the struggle for women’s rights in Africa
Patrick Burnett; Shereen Karmali; Firoze Madatally Manji ; 2007
Available Online (also available at Mugar Memorial Library HQ1236.5.A35 G73 2007 )
Women’s rights in the Middle East and North Africa progress amid resistance ; 2010 ed..
Sanja Kelly; Julia Breslin ; 2010
Breathing life into the African Union protocol on women’s rights in Africa
Roselynn Musa; Faiza Jama Mohammed; Firoze Madatally Manji; Solidarity for African Women’s Rights.; African Union. Directorate of Women, Gender and Development. ; 2006
Available at Mugar Memorial Library Stacks (HQ1236.5.A35 B74 2006 )
International human rights : the protection of the rights of women and female child in Africa : theory and practice
Otiocha, Eleazar Echezonachi. ; c2011
Available at Law Library Annex (KQC145.W64 O85 2011 )
Children’s rights in Africa : a legal perspective
Julia Sloth-Nielsen ; c2008
Online Access. See Find Online for options. The library also has physical copies.
Do African children have rights? : a comparative and legal analysis of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child
Achilihu, Stephen Nmeregini ; 2010
Available at Law Library Annex (KQC145.M55 A28 2010 ) . See Find in Library for other locations
Children’s lives in an era of children’s rights the progress of the Convention on the Rights of the Child in Africa
Afua Twum-Danso Imoh; Nicola Ansell ; 2014
Online Access. See Find Online for options
Children at work : child labor practices in Africa Kielland, Anne. ; Maurizia C Tovo ; 2006 Available at Mugar Memorial Library Stacks (HD6250.A352 K54 2006 )
Gender, religion, & family law theorizing conflicts between women’s rights and cultural traditions
Lisa Fishbayn Joffe; Sylvia Neil ; 2013
Waltham, Mass. : Brandeis University Press
Muslims and global justice
Naʻīm, ʻAbd Allāh Aḥmad ; c2011
Available Online (also available at Fineman & Pappas Law Libraries Annex KBP2460 .N353 2011 )
Proselytization and communal self-determination in Africa
Naʻīm, ʻAbd Allāh Aḥmad, ; 1999
Available at Mugar Memorial Library Stacks (BL2400 .P76 1999 )
Here are some selected books that can help you get started with research on these controversial topics. Note who the authors are, what else have they written? Peruse bibliographies and sources cited. Also, be sure to look for journal articles for more current information.
Our library has a lot of literature concerning censorship and banning of books in apartheid-era South Africa. It will take a little more work to seek out materials on places where censorship currently occurs, such as in Eritrea. In such cases, academic journals are very helpful as they are likely to contain recent scholarship on such issues.
Some selected titles:
Popular music censorship in Africa. Michael Drewett; Martin Cloonan ; c2006
Available Online (also available at the Music Library ML3917.A4 P6 2006 )
Adewale-Maja Pearce. Who’s Afraid of Wole Soyinka? Essays on Censorship. Oxford: Heinemann, 1991.
(Law Annex JC599.N54 M35 1991).
The Internet in the Mideast and North Africa : free expression and censorship.
Goldstein, Eric. ; Human Rights Watch (Organization) ; c1999
Available at Law Library Annex (P96.C46 G65 1999 )
A good journal to search is Index on Censorship. (African Studies Library K9 N3)
The literature police : apartheid censorship and its cultural consequences. McDonald, Peter D. ; 2009.
Available Online (also available at Mugar Memorial Library Z658.S6 M34 2009)
The hidden history of South Africa’s book and reading cultures. Dick, Archie L. ; c2012
Available at Mugar Memorial Library Stacks (Z1003.5.S6 D53 2012)
Ideas Under Arrest: Censorship in South Africa. Kunene, Daniel P.; 2014.
Escape from Eritrea: Fleeing one of the world’s harshest regimes. Einashe, I
Index On Censorship, 2015 Spr, Vol.44(1), pp.46-49 [Peer Reviewed Journal]
Tip: Look for news items, such as the following:
Censorship in South Africa:
Examples of resources on the Internet:
***The South African Film and Publication Board (FPB) regulates cinema and video distribution.
NGO’s keeping an eye on censorship in South Africa:
- Freedom of Expression Institute
- Right To Know Campaign
- SOS Coalition
- Association for Progressive Communications
- Legalising land rights : local practices, state responses and tenure security in Africa, Asia and Latin America
Janine M. Ubink; A. J Hoekema; Willem Assies ; c2009
Available Online (also available at the Fineman & Pappas Law Libraries Annex K3871 .L44 2009 )
- Securing land rights in Africa
Tor Arve Benjaminsen; Christian Lund; European Association of Development Research and Training Institutes. ; 2003
Available at Mugar Memorial Library Stacks (HD966 .S43 2003 )
- Property and political order in Africa : land rights and the structure of politics
Boone, Catherine. ; 2014
Mugar Memorial Library Stacks . See Find in Library to Request
- Community rights, conservation and contested land : the politics of natural resource governance in Africa
Fred Nelson ; 2010
Available at Science & Engineering Library Stacks (QH77.A4 C56 2010 )
Librarians at Brigham Young University have created a video that nicely points out how students can learn to evaluate different types of information sources. This includes peer-reviewed and scholarly sources, which are often conflated as being one and the same.
You can also find more tips on how to evaluate sources in our guide entitled About the Research Process.
BU Libraries Search
You can use the BU Libraries Search box to look for print and electronic resources available thru the Boston University Libraries. These resources include print books and journals available in the library stacks, as well as e-books and full-text journals available electronically.
For search tips or questions regarding the search function: see the Search Help page.
For physical items, you will need the call number and library location to locate the books or journals in the stacks. See the location chart (available by the elevators and at the research center) to help you find the floor by call number range. Floor maps are also available by all the elevators.
How to locate a specific journal:
If you have a citation for a journal article and need to locate the full text:
Simply enter the Journal Name in the eJournals search box and a list of databases will be displayed; but note the dates!
If not available at BU, try searching BU WorldCat to request a copy from a BLC Library or submit an interlibrary loan request.
Browse Books and E-Books
- Haussmann, Georges Eugène, baron, 1809-1891
- City Planning–France–Paris–History–19th Century
- Paris (France) — Social life and customs — 19th century
- Paris ( France )–In literature
Visit the Mugar Research Center (353-2700) for immediate, walk-in help:
Monday – Thursday : 9am – 8pm
Friday : 9am – 5pm
Saturday : 10am – 5pm
Sunday : 12pm – 6pm
Use the ask-a-librarian service to email or chat
Scroll down the page for tips and resources for researching Refugees, Immigration and Xenophobia.
- Be sure to research the background history of the region or peoples of interest. It will provide you with valuable context for the current situation.
- You will notice that much of the best information is found in works that include world-wide treatments.
- The most recent reports and data often exist online, from sources such as the UNHCR, World Bank, etc. Pay attention to your sources.
- Searching BULS for “refugees Africa” yields over 14,000 results. Try to be as specific as you can.
Narrow your search to find information on individual countries, e.g. : “refugees Guinea”
|You will find that often the literature will discuss 5 kinds of activity:- flight / travel from a particular country
– flight / travel to another country
– internal displacement
– return of populations
– refoulement or forcible return of refugees
First, it is important to understand the context. These can help:
Africa South of the Sahara. Europa Publications Limited.
2016 edition available in African Studies Library Reference (DT351 .F71 )
Note: This book gives a great overview of each country south of the Sahara, including the most recent statistics available.
The Oxford handbook of refugee and forced migration studies ; First Edition.
Elena Fiddian-Qasmiyeh; Gil Loescher; Katy Long; Nando Sigona ; 2014
Available at Mugar Memorial Library Stacks (HV640 .O94 2014 )
United Nations High Commission for Refugees. (UNHCR). The State of the World’s Refugees. Fifty Years of Humanitarian Action. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.
Note: documents half a century of humanitarian assistance and the plight of refugees worldwide.
There are almost 15 million displaced people within Africa. Thousands travel north towards Europe, others head for South Africa. Today almost 2 million people of African-birth are immigrants in the (about 4% of the total number of immigrants) in the United States today. (Migration Policy Institute)
Much of this movement is prompted by war and political instability. Other motivators are desire for employment and education.
Contemporary migration to South Africa : a regional development issue
Aurelia Wa Kabwe-Segatti; Loren B Landau; World Bank.; Agence française de développement. ; c2011
Of myths and migration : illegal immigration into South Africa ; 1st ed.
Solomon, Hussein. ; c2003 Pretoria : University of South Africa
Available at Mugar Memorial Library Stacks (JV8825 .S65 2003 )
International migration within, to and from Africa in a globalised world
Aderanti Adepoju; Network of Migration Research on Africa. ; 2010
Available at Mugar Memorial Library Stacks (JV8790 .I64 2010 )
According the UNHCR’s Mid-Year Trends 2015 Report, the number of refugees, asylum-seekers, and internally displaced persons worldwide has likely risen to 60+ million and still grows.
Between 1969 and 1994, Africa’s refugee population grew from 700,000 to more than 7 million (see the 1994 report from an OAU/UNHCR Symposium). Africa has more refugees than any other continent.
Some Useful Books:
Refugee politics in the Middle East and North Africa : human rights, safety, and identity
Ullah, Ahsan ; Ebooks Corporation ; 2014
Asylum-seeker and refugee protection in sub-saharan Africa the peregrination of a persecuted human being in search of a safe haven
D’Orsi, Cristiano ; (author) ; 2015
Outcast : the plight of Black African refugees. Yilma Tafere Tasew ; 2011
Available at Mugar Memorial Library Stacks (HV640.5.A3 O98 2011 )
Some Useful Journals
Refugee survey quarterly (Online) (print also available)
Centre for Documentation on Refugees (United Nations); UNHCR Centre for Documentation and Research.; Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. Library.; Oxford University Press.
Journal of refugee studies (Online)
University of Oxford. Refugee Studies Programme
Data / Statistics
US – Africa Relations
U.S. Department of State, Bureau of African Affairs – See country profiles, news, and regional topics, particularly the Horn of Africa
Xenophobia in South Africa
Since the end of apartheid, South Africa has drawn immigrants from elsewhere in the continent. From that time on, tensions have occasionally resulted in episodes of violence. Mostly notably in 2008 and again in April/May of 2015, immigrants were brutally attacked.
Some Useful Books
The perfect storm: the realities of xenophobia in contemporary South Africa.
Southern African Migration Project.; Institute for Democracy in South Africa.; Queen’s University (Kingston, Ont.). Southern African Research Centre. ; 2008
Available at Mugar Memorial Library Stacks (JV8825.2 .P47 2008 )
From ‘foreign natives’ to ‘native foreigners’ explaining xenophobia in post-apartheid South Africa: citizenship and nationalism, identity and politics. Neocosmos, M. ; c2010
Online Access. See Find Online for options
Ethnic and racial studies.
London : Routledge
Check out their references and resources page:
The MRI+ database has a new upgraded platform and a new name: University Reporter. University Reporter still provides access to the same consumer product usage data, but has more options for creating reports and sorting data. In order to use this database, you will need to create an account with the registration code that is provided in the University Reporter tutorial. This tutorial includes instructions for creating an account, as well as how to create and read the reports.
If you need any assistance, please contact the Pardee Library Reference Desk.