The ISCIP Analyst
Behind the Breaking News
Volume II Number 17 (September 25, 1997)
The text of the decree maintains the administration's previous stature within the presidential staff, but expands the scope of its authority in line with the president's July decree, which increased the role of the president's representatives in the regions.
President Yel'tsin also dismissed two longtime advisers last week. Georgi Satarov, who most recently was noted for his assistance in drafting the president's March speech to the Federal Assembly, was dismissed in connection with another assignment. While there is some debate over whether he was fired or resigned, Satarov himself claims he had planned to resign for some time and had informed Chief of Staff Yumashev of his intentions. Lev Sukhanov, the president's liaison with public organizations, was also let go and apparently intends to retire. (ITAR-TASS, 16 Sep 97)
Borodin appraises presidential property, Nemtsov
Asked to value all of the property under his jurisdiction, which includes the Kremlin, Borodin responded: "The Americans estimate it at $13 trillion. But we ourselves adhere to a more modest figure of $6-8 trillion."
Borodin also allowed himself a swipe at First Deputy Premier Boris Nemtsov, with whom he publicly disagreed over the switch from foreign-made cars to Volgas for administration officials. Noting that Nemtsov (along with Deputy Premier Syusev) is "responsible for Russia," Borodin noted they must be "outstanding people," if they "still have time left to tackle the problems of foreign cars."
While allegations of wrongdoing persist in the headlines of media outlets representing the various bankers and officials involved in the privatization auctions, President Yel'tsin has intervened through a meeting with the bankers at which he asked them not "to sling mud" at Chubais and Nemtsov. (ITAR-TASS, 16 Sep 97; FBIS-SOV-97-259) Yel'tsin, at least, was pleased with the results of the meeting, claiming that bankers had agreed to "back the policy of the President and the Government."
While the mud continues to flow, the result of this latest Kompromat war may be an increased level of presidential involvement in the next stage of privatization.
Justice minister outlines needed reforms
The Main State-Legal Administration is primarily responsible for the drafting and reviewing of presidential decrees to ensure their consonance with the constitution. Stepashin's singling out of this agency suggests he sees a need for the ministry to have a greater role in the decree-writing process. He also finds current ministry structures inadequate to provide court support, and envisages the creation of an "Institute of Bailiffs and Executors." This agency would be responsible for "protection of the courts; maintenance of order during court proceedings; and...execution of court decisions." Staffing for these "judicial police" would theoretically comprise officers from "down-sized" security and military agencies.
According to Stepashin, a new law signed by the president tasks the Justice Ministry with the "registration of real estate and deals involving it." Property laws are not only an extremely contentious issue within Russia, but the problems of ownership and taxation represent a complex tangle of conflicting interests. Stepashin's evolving role in this matter will bear further investigation.
by Susan J. Cavan
Iran, according to the report, is constructing two systems, based on a North Korean model, that have a range of 1,200 miles; the missiles could therefore threaten both the state of Israel and US troops based in Saudi Arabia. The missiles could deliver chemical or biological weapons, or a nuclear warhead, should Tehran succeed in developing one.
Among the Russian firms accused of helping the Iranians are Rosvooruzhenie, the Russian arms-export agency; the Bauman Institute, a leading Russian technological institute; and NPO Trud, a rocket-motor builder. (The Washington Times, 10 Sep 97).
The Russian Foreign Ministry and Rosvooruzhenie both strongly denied the reports. "Information on alleged infringements by Russian entities and officials said to be working for Iran have been thoroughly checked by Russia's relevant bodies and proved false," Vladimir Andreev, a foreign ministry spokesman, said. (Reuters, 10 Sep 97; Johnson's Russia List #1190)
Foreign Minister Yevgeni Primakov said that Russia would continue to develop strong economic ties with Iran, and would not postpone its planned cooperation on the construction of a nuclear power plant at Bushehr.
"Nothing will change this stance as it has nothing to do with the existing suspicions," Primakov said. (Interfax, 1217 GMT, 15 Sep 97; FBIS-SOV-97-258)
While Israel decries pact, Iran welcomes Russian involvement in region
The Israeli government was also considering withdrawing its ambassador to Moscow, and Netanyahu hinted at possible military action. "Imagine what would have happened," he told US Secretary of State Madeleine Albright, "had Israel not intervened in the Iraqi nuclear reactor issue." (Ma'ariv, 12 Sep 97, p 2; FBIS-TAC-97-255)
Journalists and diplomats in Tehran meanwhile urged Moscow to strengthen ties to Iran. The English-language Tehran Times urged Moscow to provide a counterbalance to US support of Israel (IRNA, 0651 GMT, 13 Sep 97; FBIS-NES-97-256), while Foreign Minister Kamal Kharrazi said Russian-Iranian cooperation to resolve the crisis in Tajikistan (sic) was a good model for future joint efforts in the region. (IRIB Television First Program Network, 1630 GMT, 16 Sep 97; FBIS-NES-97-259)
Russia objects to Turkey's plans to search merchant ships in Black
Turkish Deputy Foreign Minister Ali Tuygan had promised not to search all vessels, but claimed that Russia's sale of C-300 anti-aircraft systems to the Cypriot Greeks had inspired Ankara's wariness of Russian deliveries to the Mediterranean, Nesterushkin said. (Interfax, 1308 GMT, 16 Sep 97; FBIS-SOV-97-259)
Primakov meets Belgians, French in run-up to first NATO-Russia Council
Belgium is the NATO member that now holds the rotating seat at the joint chairmanship of the Joint Permanent Council. The council's other two positions are filled by permanent seats for the NATO secretary-general and a representative of Russia.
Belgian Foreign Minister Eric Derycke met Primakov in Moscow on 9 September. At the top of the agenda, according to Primakov, was elaboration of "an OSCE Charter as a document able to modify relations between various organizations and serve as a basis for building a European security architecture." (ITAR-TASS, 1700 GMT, 9 Sep 97; FBIS-SOV-97-252)
But Primakov and Derycke also discussed issues unique to the Russian-Belgian relationship. Derycke pressed Primakov and Duma speaker Gennadi Seleznev to return archives, including those of the prewar Belgian Socialist Party, that had been captured by the occupying Nazis, then taken Moscow by Soviet troops after the end of the war.
Seleznev told Derycke that negotiations on the return of the Belgian archives were already under way. He expressed confidence that "the positive dynamism of Russian-Belgian relations will continue gaining impetus." (ITAR-TASS, 1139 GMT, 8 Sep 97; FBIS-SOV-97-251)
Less than a week later, Primakov met with French Foreign Minister H. Vedrine and again discussed both bilateral issues, such as the upcoming visit of President Jacques Chirac, and the agenda of the NATO-Russia session. Primakov continued to stress the importance of transforming the OSCE into a pan-European security structure. (Rossiyskaya gazeta, 13 Sep 97, p 3; FBIS-SOV-97-258)
There was no reported reaction of the US government to the meetings, although Washington has traditionally resisted efforts to strengthen the OSCE at the expense of NATO.
Kremlin, Duma at odds over START II ratification
"We would like the issue of START II to be debated in the light of the country's socioeconomic situation, maintaining and consolidating its defense potential and the outlook for the operation of its defense industrial complex with the factor of NATO's eastward expansion and the development of the country's military doctrine for the 21st century taken into account," Communist Party leader Gennadi Zyuganov said. (Interfax, 1419 GMT, 16 Sep 97; FBIS-TAC-97-259)
US Air Force study supports Russian denial of August nuclear test
The tests give weight to Russian denials that it had exploded a nuclear bomb at its test site on the island of Novaya Zemlya, in violation of its self-imposed ban on testing nuclear weapons. (Associated Press, 13 Sep 97; Johnson's Russia List #1195)
Clinton and Yel'tsin may have shared a backer with interests in Caucasus
Tamraz then told the CIA that he planned to use meetings with President Clinton to inform him of his Russian connection, according to CIA documents. White House officials warned the Clinton campaign to avoid Tamraz, who is wanted for embezzlement in Lebanon, but was overruled by then-Democratic National Chairman Donald Fowler. (Los Angeles Times, 10 Sep 97; Johnson's Russia List #1190)
Russia criticizes NATO's peacekeeping mission in Bosnia
Foreign Minister Yevgeni Primakov said that Russia would bring its complaints with the mission to the table at the first ministerial meeting of the Permanent Joint Council. (Interfax, 1628 GMT, 9 Sep 97; FBIS-SOV-97-252)
Head of Slovak Intelligence Service travels to Moscow
Sme, a daily Slovak newspaper opposed to the current Slovak government, reported that the visit had been prepared both by the FSB's official attache at the Slovak embassy and a second Russian intelligence official working in Bratislava under the cover of a diplomatic portfolio. (Sme, 9 Sep 97, p 1; FBIS-EEU-97-252)
Comment: Divide and discuss
It is now up to Belgium to demonstrate that it can effectively represent all 16 nations of the NATO alliance, and ignore goodies, such as the return of potentially-embarrassing prewar Socialist Party archives, that Moscow has dangled before it.
It is particularly important that the United States reassert itself before
the talks begin, since Russia would like to discuss "out-of-area"
issues such as the peacekeeping mission in Bosnia. Belgium must be encouraged
to press Russia on other "out-of-area" issues, such as accusations
that Moscow has been aiding Iran's efforts to develop a medium-to-long-range
missile. Turkey, a nation with much at stake in such a scenario, is, after
all, a NATO member. Ankara will depend on Brussels to do the right thing.
POLITICAL PARTIES & LEGISLATIVE BRANCH
Former Security Council chief Aleksandr Lebed placed third with 9%, followed by Moscow Mayor Yuri Luzhkov with 5%. The fifth and sixth places were shared by the leaders of the Yabloko movement and the Liberal Democratic Party, Grigori Yavlinsky and Vladimir Zhirinovsky, with 4% each
Some 36% of those polled said it would be best if the future president had experience of working on the Cabinet, while 33% wanted him to be a former local leader (Interfax, 0622 GMT, 12 Aug 97; FBIS-SOV-97-224).
If Nemtsov faced off against Zyuganov -- conceivably in a second round of elections -- the first deputy prime minister would score 44% of the vote in August, compared to 49% in April, while Zyuganov's figure remained unchanged at 28%.
Nemtsov would beat Lebed with a vote of 38% versus 26%, the figures for April being 52% and 25% respectively.
A contest with Luzhkov would bring Nemtsov 37% of the vote in August, compared to 47% in April, while the mayor's result would have stayed at 24% since April (Interfax, 1210 GMT, 14 Aug 97; FBIS-SOV-97-226).
"Working Russia" claims Yel'tsin is a CIA agent
Indeed, the president has called on the Federal Assembly to draft appropriate legislation to clarify the responsibilities between the federal and regional or local authorities. If, and when, such legislation emerges -- and is passed -- the implications for the judicial system are significant. It is the experience of most if not all successful federal systems that the line delineating central and regional authority is often in dispute. A neutral and legitimate authority is needed to adjudicate such conflicts. Presidential fiat may fill in gaps in judicial competence for a while, but ultimately the solution must come from a de-personalized mechanism if the rule of law is to be constructed. This may take some time -- after all, legitimacy is built, not imposed (ITAR-TASS, 1738 GMT, 2 Aug 97; FBIS-SOV-97-214).
by Michael Thurman
Although the government may have caught up on payments to the troops, debts to many defense plants and their workers still have not been met. The defense ministry was still paying off its 1996 debt as of the beginning of September. One trade union official warned of a social explosion if defense debts are not paid. Staff at two of Russia's leading nuclear weapons design centers launched protest actions on 16 September in response to not being paid since May. All of these complaints of money woes coincide with the unveiling of the Russian military's newest tank, the Black Eagle, on 6 September during an arms show in Omsk, Siberia. (Monitor, 9 Sep 97; Agence France-Presse, 6, 16 Sep 97; clari.net)
Military reform comes under fire from retired and active duty officers
Speaking to the German paper Die Zeit, Lebed called for the restoration of wounded national honor, saying "since the Treaty of Versailles, the Germans know only too well where this wound can lead. The issue in Russia is the defeat of the Soviet Union in the cold war." (Die Zeit, 22 Aug 97, p 9; FBIS-SOV-97-252) General Rokhlin has been more active and is forming the Movement to Protect the Army, primarily an officer's movement comprised of active duty officers, retired officers and workers in the defense industry. Rokhlin believes both the Duma and Yel'tsin have been inattentive to the military's pressing needs. Rokhlin says President Yel'tsin's policies are destroying the military. "With complete confidence I say that the Army, the defense industry, and military technology are hurtling to destruction and in the present circumstances there is no possibility of changing the situation." (NTV, 0800 GMT, 11 Sep 97 FBIS-SOV-97-254) Rokhlin's actions came as the defense ministry decided to cut the financing of the military-industrial complex by 30% and to attempt the conversion of some defense plants to civilian production. Rokhlin's actions and Lebed's remarks have raised speculation of a military coup in some parts of the Russian media.
Charges against officers publicized
by CDR Curtis Stevens
Plans for aviation group remain up in the air
Both the Khabarovsk and Novosibirsk governors and Moscow Mayor Luzhkov, along with a group of aviation enterprises, have signed an appeal to Yel'tsin supporting the creation of the FIG concern on grounds that it would "permit the fullest support of the combination of advantages of centralized management by the FIG Management Council and the initiative of each enterprise that is part of the association..."(Rabochaya tribuna, 13 Aug 97, p 2; FBIS-SOV-97-174-S)
Arms exports on the increase
As arms exports increase, the government is decreasing its projected defense spending. According to Economic Minister Urinson, the plan is to reduce the defense order at individual enterprises to 20-60 percent of their current portfolio with the target of making overall military spending 3.5 percent of the gross domestic product. (ITAR-TASS, 1910 GMT, 3 Sep 97; FBIS-SOV-97-246)
Defense Minister Sergeev announced that military hardware orders would be made optimal, stopping all purchases of outdated arms. "In Europe and America, only one type of a fighter is developed, simultaneously six (are developed) in Russia," Sergeev stated. Another reform effort is to make factories in the military industrial sector joint-stock companies. (ITAR-TASS, 1952 GMT, 3 Sep 97; FBIS-SOV-97-246)
Colonel-General Sitnov, chief of armaments of Russia's armed forces, gave further details at a meeting with the heads of defense enterprises of St. Petersburg. After this year's budget reductions, only 18 trillion roubles, or enough "to really feed" one-third of the 2.7 million people working on defense orders, is available by his estimates. The reductions will result in removing 550 enterprises from direct defense production orders and releasing 600,000 workers to civilian production. The approximately 1670 defense industrial research and development sectors and the related 2700 manufacturing enterprises will also be reduced to around 230 and 300 respectively. (ITAR-TASS, 1627 GMT, 4 Sep 97; FBIS-SOV-97-248)
Such significant reductions in military spending will undoubtedly increase the reliance on arms export of both older weapons and of the latest technologies, the latter to insure that the Russian defense industry maintains a modern production capability and that products remain marketable in the highly competitive arms sale arena. Because older weapons usually mean lower prices, we can expect to see a major push in volume sales, thus flooding the market with cheap, low-tech but still effective, conventional arms.
Plans for border troops include housing, reorganization
Yel'tsin's approval of the FBS reorganization plan to establish eight regional directorates controlling six border districts and three border groups was revealed by Nikolaev at a press conference on 13 September 1997. The zones of each directorate are to mirror the territories of the military districts of the Russian armed forces. Nikolaev also said that the transition of the FBS bodies and troops to a professional basis would continue with the goal of having 60 percent of FBS servicemen as "soldiers on contract" by the year 2000. (ITAR-TASS, 1021 GMT, 13 Sep 97; FBIS-SOV-97-256)
Nikolaev calls for extension of mandate in Tajikistan
Russian border troops killed two intruders at 00:30 on 14 September in one of the sectors of the Kalaikhum border detachment on the Tajik-Afghan border. The forced border-crossing attempt was supported by small arms fire from the Afghan side. Border guards returned fire and silenced the weapon emplacements. No losses among the border troops were reported. (ITAR-TASS, 0537 GMT, 14 Sep 97; FBIS-SOV-97-257)
by LtCol Dwyer Dennis
NEWLY INDEPENDENT STATES
Border guard commanders meet
If these recommendations are approved by the Heads of State, they will add to the ever increasing power Nikolaev and his border guards have accumulated. The addition of a mobile reserve force and the expanded command and control provided by an improved, linked information exchange system will help transform a defensive guard unit into a much more capable military force (on par with many defense ministry forces). The more the Border Guards integrate with the CIS Interior Ministers, the more both resemble their pre-1992 Soviet precursors.
CIS interior ministers gather
New Belarusian minister for CIS affairs named
President Lukashenka appointed Valyantsin Vyalichka, the former ambassador extraordinaire and plenipotentiary to Latvia and Finland, as the new minister for CIS affairs (Belapan, 11 Sep 97; FBIS-SOV-97-254). It is interesting to note that now both Russia and Belarus -- the two countries pushing hardest for further CIS integration -- have CIS cooperation ministers who are somehow connected to the Baltic states.
Belarusian Soros foundation closes
Relations with NATO soften
Joint military operations completed
EU offers assistance for Chernobyl
Rumors of impeachment surface
Dniester leader meets Russian officials in Moscow
by Mark Jones
The recent electoral success of Nagorno-Karabakh's new president and former foreign minister, Arkadi Ghukasian, has been interpreted in Yerevan as a mandate for an uncompromising stance in negotiations with Azerbaijan. According to the Yerevan paper, Respublika Armenia, Karabakh should not cede to Azerbaijan any of the Azeri districts it occupies, it should reject any type of "vertical ties" to Azerbaijan, and the OSCE should concentrate on facilitating direct Azerbaijani-Karabakh negotiations. (Respublika Armenia, 6 Sep 97; FBIS-SOV-97-251) This strategy constitutes a complete abandonment of the promising set of compromises that were developed during the last cycle of OSCE-sponsored talks. In May and June the OSCE mediators proposed a plan under which Karabakh would return the Azeri areas it occupies and would be formally part of Azerbaijan. By concluding the military alliance with Armenia, Russia has seriously undermined the mediation efforts of the OSCE Minsk group, of which it is cochairman.
The speaker of the Lebanese parliament, Nabih Berri, told reporters in Yerevan that his country's parliament would recognize Nagorno-Karabakh if its people voted for independence in a UN-sponsored referendum. (Interfax, 1712 GMT, 14 Sep 97; FBIS-SOV-97-257) Although the provision of UN involvement renders the actualization of this offer highly improbable, the suggestion that foreign states may recognize Nagorno-Karabakh puts even greater pressure on Azerbaijan.
Azerbaijani leaders have protested the conclusion of the military alliance to the Russian leadership and have made their apprehensions about Moscow's participation as a mediator on the OSCE Minsk group known. When President Aliev canceled his trip to Moscow for its 850th anniversary, he explained that "the military aspects of the Russian-Armenian treaty signed last week aroused doubts in Baku about the sincerity of the Kremlin's intentions as a neutral mediator in the Armenian-Azerbaijan conflict." (Interfax, 0725 GMT, 5 Sep 97; FBIS-SOV-97-248)
According to the established timetable the AIOC will start to export
"early oil," or small amounts of oil (five million tons per year)
in October along two routes, one through Russia and the other through Georgia.
By the year 2000 the oil flow from the three Azeri oil wells in question
(40 million tons per year) will exceed the capabilities of either pipeline
and a new vastly larger pipeline, the "main" pipeline, will be
required. By that time, the flow from the Azeri wells will be linked to
flow from Kazakhstan's Tengiz oil field, creating a single artery for the
lion's share of Caspian oil wealth. (ITAR-TASS, 1650 GMT, 5 Sep 97; FBIS-SOV-97-248)
Although President Aliev has stated that he prefers the route through Turkey
to Ceyhan, several other routes are also under consideration. Aliev appointed
a committee to study the alternatives, negotiate with the governments in
question, and make a proposal to the Azeri government. (Azerbaijan, 6 Sep
97; FBIS-SOV-97-252) It is estimated that the final decision will be made
next year. Russia's statement that it intends to build a new, larger pipeline,
circumventing Chechnya, constitutes an opening bid in the contest over the
"main" pipeline route.
UTO leader, NRC's opposition delegates finally arrive in Dushanbe
Mr. Nuri's arrival in Dushanbe was delayed numerous times, most recently due to a disagreement with the Tajik government over the size of his accompanying entourage. Mr. Nuri had agreed to attend Tajikistan's Independence Day celebrations on 9 September (at President Rahmonov's invitation) and was expected to arrive on 8 September with a delegation of top-ranking military and political UTO officials, as well as the 13 NRC representatives and 40 bodyguards (ITAR-TASS, 0646 GMT, 4 Sep 97; FBIS-SOV-97-247). The first contingent of UTO troops (whose function is to provide security for Mr. Nuri and the 13 NRC delegates from the opposition) arrived in Dushanbe on 5 September from Chorsada (located approximately 145 km east of Dushanbe, near Tavildora). Boris Kuleshov, deputy chief of the CIS joint peacekeeping forces' staff, was in charge of ensuring that the 206 UTO troops were safely transported to Dushanbe (Interfax, 1235 GMT, 5 Sep 97; FBIS-UMA-97-248), and UN military observers were also present to supervise the operation (ITAR-TASS, 0932 GMT, 5 Sep 97; FBIS-UMA-97-248). The UTO battalion will be subordinate to the Tajik Defense Ministry and will soon be joined by an additional 254 troops still stationed in Afghanistan (Interfax, 1235 GMT, 5 Sep 97; FBIS-UMA-97-248).
However, on the day of Mr. Nuri's scheduled arrival in Dushanbe, ITAR-TASS reported that due to a last-minute disagreement over the size of the UTO leader's entourage, Mr. Nuri had once again delayed his departure for Dushanbe. The Tajik government and the UTO leadership blame each other for the delay. According to an anonymous high-ranking government official, Mr. Nuri had originally agreed to permit only NRC delegates to join his escort (ITAR-TASS, 1133 GMT, 8 Sep 97; FBIS-SOV-97-251). Zafar Saidov, President Rahmonov's press secretary, also stated that the size of the UTO leader's accompanying delegation exceeded the previously established limit, and that Mr. Nuri's demands for security were unreasonable and violated the spirit of the inter-Tajik peace process (Radio Tajikistan Network, 0800 GMT, 9 Sep 97; FBIS-SOV-97-252).
According to IMT Chairman Mahmadsharif Himmatzoda, however, it was the Tajik government which suddenly decided that the size of Mr. Nuri's delegation was unacceptable. Furthermore, Tajik government officials reportedly not only set new restrictions on the number of people to accompany Mr. Nuri, but refused to permit certain members of his delegation to enter Tajikistan at all, including Haji Akbar Turajonzoda, who although not a member of the NRC, is the deputy leader of the UTO (ITAR-TASS, 1133 GMT, 8 Sep 97; FBIS-SOV-97-251).
These new tensions between the Tajik government and UTO leadership were further complicated by a number of bomb blasts in the center of Dushanbe, as well as at the hotel where Mr. Nuri and his companions were to be quartered (the Hotel Vakhsh), and along the route that their convoy had planned to follow on its way from the airport to the hotel. The government has blamed the explosions on an unidentified "third force," whose goal is to prevent the peace process from being implemented (NTV, 1000 GMT, 10 Sep 97; FBIS-TOT-97-253).
In spite of all these obstacles, however, Said Abdullo Nuri finally arrived in Dushanbe on 11 September with a 64-member escort, including the 13 NRC delegates, 25 bodyguards, and a number of other UTO leaders. Haji Akbar Turajonzoda did not accompany Mr. Nuri, although the Tajik government had rescinded its ban on his presence (Interfax, 1252 GMT, 11 Sep 97; FBIS-SOV-97-254). Mr. Nuri and President Rahmonov held a closed-door meeting the following day and afterwards conducted a joint press conference, in order to emphasize their cooperation and mutual dedication to carrying out the terms of peace agreement (Interfax, 0926 GMT, 12 Sep 97; FBIS-SOV-97-255).
The National Reconciliation Commission began its work in Dushanbe on 15 September, at which four sub-commissions were set up (two are headed by UTO delegates, and two by government delegates) to deal with the individual military, political, and legal aspects of the peace agreement, as well as the repatriation of Tajik refugees (ITAR-TASS, 1741 GMT, 15 Sep 97; FBIS-SOV-97-258). The NRC's foremost tasks are to form a coalition government within the next one and one-half years, to prepare the way for new parliamentary and presidential elections, and to integrate the UTO's armed units into Tajikistan's national defense forces. The list of government ministries which the opposition hopes to be put in charge of includes: the Foreign Ministry, the Justice Ministry or Prosecutor General's Office, the Education Ministry, the Ministry for Economy or External Economic Relations, the national television ministry, and any of the three power ministries (ITAR-TASS, 1249 GMT, 16 Sep 97; FBIS-SOV-97-259)
The recent spate of bombings is also very disturbing. The government has thus far insisted that the explosions are the work of some terrorist third force which is opposed to the inter-Tajik peace process, but there are many members of both the current administration and of the armed forces who are dissatisfied with the terms of the peace agreement and who do not wish to share power with the UTO. There have even been speculations that the bombings are being deliberately engineered by the Tajik government in order to prevent the NRC from meeting and doing its work.
Taleban accuses Tajik government of military intervention in Afghanistan