Course Inventory

HI 098 – Advanced Standing in European History
For students with score of 4 or 5 on Advanced Placement exam in European History, confers 4 credits toward total credits required for graduation. Does not count for major or minor in History. Does not count toward fulfillment of Divisional Studies requirement in CAS.

HI 099 – Advanced Standing in United States History
For students with score of 4 or 5 on Advanced Placement Exam in United States History, confers 4 credits toward total credits required for graduation. Does not count for major or minor in History. Does not count toward fulfillment of Divisional Studies requirement in CAS.

HI 100 – Freshman History Seminar
Focusing on provocative themes and dramatic moments, these seminars introduce the art of historical writing while cultivating practical skills. Students learn how to analyze historical literature and debates as well as primary sources such as memoirs and fiction. Freshman only, carries Writing Program credit (CAS WR 100).

HI 101 – The Dawn of Europe: Antiquity to the Renaissance
Ancient and medieval Europe was a world of empires, kingdoms, and religious factions in conflict with each other. This course explores the ideologies, institutions, and texts that shaped these civilizations and continue to hold meaning in the modern world.

HI 102 – The Emergence of Modern Europe: Renaissance to the Present
What is Europe? This course explores the emergence of Europe as an idea and place. Draws on literature and art from Machiavelli to Russian ballet to explain Europe's changing meaning; focuses on nation- and state-building to explain Europe's shifting boundaries.

HI 150 – Freshman Writing and Research Seminar: War in Literature and Film
Explores how young people have experienced combat, killing, suffering, and death, in their own words and through modern films. Wars covered range from medieval Europe and Japan to the Zulu Wars and all the horrors of twentieth-century total war. Satisfies WR 150 requirement.

HI 151 – The Emerging United States to 1865
Explores how the United States, at first only a series of borderland outposts, became a sprawling national republic. Investigates factors that brought Americans together and those that tore them apart, as they struggled passionately over racial, religious, and sectional values.

HI 152 – The United States since 1865
After the Civil War, Americans created a new urbanizing and industrializing landscape, flush with immigrants, growing class conflict, and racial divisions. This course explores how, through times of prosperity, depression, and war, Americans transformed the United States into one of the world's leading nations.

HI 175 – World History to 1500
Explores historical and environmental factors influencing how cultures take shape and impact each other. Examines early global connections and conflicts between people of different continents as well as between humans, other species, the natural environment, and planet as a whole.

HI 176 – World History after 1500
Examines the religious encounters, economic rivalries, and military battles produced by European imperialism in Latin America, Africa, the Middle East, and Asia since 1500. Analyzes how European colonialism came to dominate the world and nationalist movements succeeded in gaining independence.

HI 190 – History of Boston: Community and Conflict
Students work with centuries-old objects, manuscripts, letters, and diaries in reconstructing Boston's past. The course covers witchcraft in America, immigration, and race in depth, with out-of-class visits to museums, churches, and neighborhoods in the city.

HI 191 – What Is Europe?
Explores key moments in history when cultural contact prompted Europeans to reconsider how they defined themselves culturally and geographically. Lectures and discussions are combined with trips to local museums/archives to analyze the material remains of this process of self-definition.

HI 200 – The Historian's Craft
Required workshop for majors, normally taken in the sophomore year. Gives students the opportunity to analyze original sources and engage with leading works of historical scholarship. Explores how historians reconstruct and interpret the past using creativity, deduction, and contextual analysis.

HI 201 – History of Medieval Europe
Traces the evolution of medieval civilization from the fourth to the fourteenth centuries. Emphasizes three main themes: the political and social development of western Europe, the evolution of Latin Christianity, and the role of popular culture. This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the course with the same title that was previously numbered CAS HI 203.

HI 202 – Medieval Intellectual History
Examines the major authors and issues in philosophy, science, and political theory in the medieval Latin West, fourth to fifteenth centuries. This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the course with the same title that was previously numbered CAS HI 305.

HI 203 – Magic, Science, and Religion
Boundaries and relationships between magic, science, and religion from late antiquity through the European Enlightenment. Topics include transformation of pagan traditions, distinctions between learned and popular traditions, Scientific Revolution, and changing assumptions about God and Nature. Also offered as CAS RN 242. This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the course with the same title that was previously numbered CAS HI 306.

HI 204 – History of the Crusades
The origin and development of the Crusade movement in Western Christendom: the first four Crusades, their cause and results; crusader finance, preaching, and military recruitment; changing focus of Crusade movements from the Holy Land to other areas. This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the course with the same title that was previously numbered CAS HI 308.

HI 205 – Millenarian Expectations in Western History, Year 1-2000
The role of millenarian expectations (belief in an imminent, radical transformation of the world) in the development of the modern West. Apocalyptic expectations and millenarian groups, secularization of millenarian hopes, and disappointed expectations in the emergence of modern industrial society. This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the course with the same title that was previously numbered CAS HI 309.

HI 206 – Heresy and Persecution in the Eleventh and Twelfth Centuries
Studies the shared ideals and mutual antagonism of the radical Christian movements that appeared inside and outside the Church around the millennium. Traces the conflict's multiple sources as well as the emergence of Crusade and Inquisition to combat this "popular heresy." This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the course with the same title that was previously numbered CAS HI 310.

HI 207 – Honor-Shame: Middle Ages, Modern World
Considers the dynamics of "honor-shame" cultures generally, then examines their role in the European Middle Ages and the contemporary world. Attempts to understand how other cultures can emphasize significantly different values and social interactions from Western ones. This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the course with the same title that was previously numbered CAS HI 304.

HI 208 – Renaissance Europe
The main political, socioeconomic, intellectual, and artistic currents in Italy (c. 1350-1530) and northwestern Europe (c. 1500-1560); emphasis on leading thinkers (Petrarch, Bruni, Machiavelli, Erasmus, More, and Montaigne) as creators of the modern Western mind. This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the course with the same title that was previously numbered CAS HI 311.

HI 209 – The Reformation: Religious Conflict in Early Modern Europe
Examines religious change in sixteenth- and seventeenth-century Europe, particularly the origins and causes of the Protestant Reformation, the parallel Catholic Reformation, and the consequent military conflicts in Germany, France, and the Netherlands. This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the course with the title "Christendom Divided: Reformation and Religious Conflict in Early Modern Europe" that was previously numbered CAS HI 312. Also offered as CAS RN 310.

HI 210 – Europe between Renaissance and Revolution
Surveys the key movements that transformed European culture, politics, and intellectual life between the fifteenth and eighteenth centuries: the Renaissance, Protestant and Catholic Reformations, new age of science and exploration, absolutism and constitutional monarchy, Enlightenment, and French Revolution. This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the course with the same title that was previously numbered CAS HI 204.

HI 211 – The Age of Discoveries
European discovery, colonization, and exploitation of the non-European world from the fifteenth century to the seventeenth: material, political, and religious factors; Columbus and his legacy; the importance of European events to overseas developments; and the rise of the Protestant maritime powers. This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the course with the same title that was previously numbered CAS HI 210.

HI 212 – Early Modern Europe, 1715-90
Eighteenth-century western and central Europe emphasizing Britain, France, Prussia, and Austria. Focus on international relations, military establishments, and the art of war, monarchy, and administration; the European economy; changing relations of social classes; and the Enlightenment. This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the course with the same title that was previously numbered CAS HI 313.

HI 213 – Sacred and Secular Power in Christianity and Islam
Explores the relationship between sacred and secular power within the Christian and Islamic traditions, with a focus on how their foundational texts and earliest communities established models for negotiating the porous boundary between the sacred and the secular. Also offered as CAS RN 208.

HI 214 – History of Piracy
Examines piracy in European history from ancient time to the present, focusing on its economic and social causes, and its consequences. Addresses too the modern permutations of piracy as a form of social protest and a technique of terrorism.

HI 215 – The European Enlightenment
How Europe became modern. The rise of science, critique of religion, and struggle for rights. The public sphere emerges: newspapers, Freemasons, coffee, salons, smut. The invention of a cosmopolitan republic of letters; Voltaire, Diderot, Kant, Adam Smith, Benjamin Franklin. Also offered as CAS PO 393. This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the course with the same title that was previously numbered CAS HI 314.

HI 216 – The Second Sex in European History
Until recently, most people believed women a "second sex," inferior to men in mind and body. Exploring gender politics and women's lives from the Middle Ages to the present, this course charts a long struggle for equal rights and opportunities.

HI 217 – History of Europe, 1815-1914
Survey of Europe from the Congress of Vienna to World War I. Development of liberalism, nationalism, socialism, democracy, science, and technology; their conflict and accommodation with traditionalism and conservatism. The Industrial Revolution and economic growth. Increasing complexity of international relations leading to world war. This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the course with the same title that was previously numbered CAS HI 231.

HI 218 – Power and Authority in Europe since World War I
Explores the breakdown of tradition authority, the rise of authoritarianism, and the triumph of democracy in twentieth-century Europe. Examines changing notions of power and legitimacy through major events, including communist revolutions, fascist takeovers, wartime occupations, and the fall of the Berlin Wall. This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the course entitled "History of Contemporary Europe, 1900 to the Present" that was previously numbered CAS HI 232.

HI 219 – Jews in the Modern World
Examines how Jewish society, religion, and political definition changed in relation to how Europe, and the world, became modern. Considers Jewish interaction with non-Jewish society from medieval Spain to Eastern Europe today and explores this relationship's creative and destructive products. This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the course with the same title that was previously numbered CAS HI 223.

HI 220 – The Culture of World War I
Studies World War I through works of literature, art, and music. Themes include initial optimism, the brutal reality of the trenches, and consequences of the peace. Works by Owen, Sassoon, Brooke, Kandinsky, Picasso, Grosz, Mahler, Stravinsky, Berg, Jünger, Céline, Woolf. This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the course with the same title that was previously numbered CAS HI 235.

HI 221 – Catastrophe & Memory
Examines the ways in which catastrophes, both natural and social, enter into cultural memory. Goal is to understand how events that seem to defy comprehension are represented in works of art and given a place in the memory of a culture. This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the course with the title "Catastrophe and Cultural Memory" that was previously numbered CAS HI 248. Also offered as CAS PO 394.

HI 222 – Science and Technology in World History
Surveys developments in the history of science and technology in world history from the invention of agriculture to twenty-first century globalization. Examines how science and technology grow and the ways in which they interact in the ambient culture. This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the course with the same title that was previously numbered CAS HI 275.

HI 225 – Communications Revolutions from Language to Cyberspace
History of communications revolutions from the origin of human language through writing to current global revolutions. Focus on the western socio-political matrix of communications technology, implications for both cognitive and social relations, and dilemmas created for cultures by the increased flow of information. This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the course with the same title that was previously numbered CAS HI 348.

HI 226 – Cities and Cultures
Examines the relationship between cultural expression and political, social, and economic change by focusing on cities such as Boston, Paris, London, Casablanca, and Johannesburg during times of intense creativity and upheaval. This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the course with the same title that was previously numbered CAS HI 339.

HI 228 – History of Modern Diplomacy: Institutions, Practices, and Principles, 1400-1919
Surveys the evolution of the institutions, practices, and principles of diplomacy in European interstate relations from 1400 to 1919. Special attention to the balance of power concept and its critics, and to alternative theories and measures for managing international relations. This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the course with the same title that was previously numbered CAS HI 340.

HI 229 – The Great Powers and the Eastern Mediterranean
The Eastern Mediterranean as center of Great Power confrontation. Its impact on wider international relations, the domestic political results, the role of sea power, and the origins, conduct, and resolution of wars. Also offered as CAS IR 325. This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the course with the same title that was previously numbered CAS HI 344.

HI 234 – Introduction to India and South Asia
A survey of South Asian history from antiquity to the present. Considers pre-modern empires, the rise of the British Empire in South Asia, and the struggle for independence. Explores the modern politics and culture of India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh.

HI 237 – Reconstructing the African Past
Explores the richness and diversity of a continent where oral histories and environmental settings have shaped society as much as written records. Considers Africa's critical place in the world from ancient Egypt and Ghana to the Asante and Ethiopian empires. This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the courses with the same title that were previously numbered CAS HI 291 and CAS HI 347. Carries social science divisional credit in CAS.

HI 243 – Britain and the European Question: The Confluence of History and Politics
(Meets with CAS IR 392 E.) Historical and political overview of Britain's evolving relationship with Europe between 1945 and 1992 in the context of ongoing debates concerning national sovereignty and national modernization, losing an empire and maintaining a world role, and the "special relationship" with the United States.

HI 244 – England in the Middle Ages
England's development from the Celtic Age to the Tudor dynasty. Emphasizes social and religious/intellectual changes within the broader context of England's unique political evolution from a strife-torn backwater to a leading European power. This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the course with the same title that was previously numbered CAS HI 318.

HI 245 – Tudor England, 1485-1603
A survey of that turbulent and volatile century that witnessed the apprenticeship of England for a role of world importance. Special attention to the development of state power, the growth of religious diversity, the major economic and social transformations, as well as the resulting cultural development. This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the course with the same title that was previously numbered CAS HI 319.

HI 246 – London Since 1666: Imperial Capital to World City
Social, economic, and cultural history of London since 1666. How London developed from the modest- sized capital of England to the capital of the British Empire and the world's largest city, to the modern multicultural city of today's European Union and globalizing world. This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the course with the same title that was previously numbered CAS HI 303 E.

HI 247 – The Making of Modern Britain
How did a small island nation develop into a global superpower, and at what costs? This course charts Britain's ascendancy in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, with a focus on industrialization, colonial expansion, democratic institution building, and enlightenment thought. This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the course with the same title that was previously numbered CAS HI 321.

HI 248 – Modern Britain, 1867 to Present
A political, social, and cultural history of England with emphasis on the impact of the two world wars, the emergence of the welfare state, the loss of empire, and Britain's relations with Europe. This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the course titled "Twentieth-Century Britain" that was previously numbered CAS HI 322.

HI 249 – London Women's Social History from Aphra Behn to The Blitz
Examines the lives of women in London over the past three centuries from a social history perspective. Students work with primary source materials. Also offered as CAS WS 310 E.

HI 250 – British Youth Culture from 1950 to the Present
The impact of black and white cultures of America and Britain; also, the influence of Europe, the Caribbean, Africa, Asia, and British folk traditions in the context of social change in the second half of the twentieth century.

HI 251 – Cultural Capital: The History of Popular Culture in London
Traces the development of popular culture in London from the late eighteenth century to the present. Concerned with popular cultural "texts" as well as popular cultural sites. Organized chronologically, from the early origins of modern culture to the present. This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the course with the same title that was previously numbered CAS HI 320 E.

HI 252 – Class, Power, and the Making of British Identity
Interdisciplinary study (art, architecture, literature) of the legacy and history of the British self-image. Develops an understanding of Britain's unique character through study of historical, political, and cultural contexts. Lectures, discussions, and three guided field trips. This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the course with the same title that was previously numbered CAS HI 326 E.

HI 253 – London at War: From the Home Front to the Frontline
Examines ways in which the two world wars influenced British society and changed social identities. Explores and evaluates English war experiences through dimensions of gender, race/ethnicity, and class. Includes lectures, field study visits, and discussion.

HI 254 – History of Ireland
Examination of four themes: Ireland's relationship with England; Ireland and the Catholic Church; Ireland during the Union with Great Britain (especially the famine); and the emergence of the modern Irish nation. Emphasis on economic, political, and religious developments. This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the course with the same title that was previously numbered CAS HI 325.

HI 255 – History of Spain, 711-1898
A survey of Spanish history from 711 to 1898, examining the political, social, and economic, and cultural events that shaped Spain in its modern form. Places Spain in a European context. Includes field trips around Madrid. Also offered as CAS LS 340 E.

HI 256 – History of Spain, 711-1898
A survey of Spanish history from 711 to 1898, examining the political, social, economic, and cultural events that shaped Spain in its modern form. Places Spain in a European context. Includes field trips around Madrid. Taught in English.

HI 257 – Early Medieval Spain
History of Spain from the fifth through thirteenth centuries; late Roman Spain, Visigoths, Islamic conquest, society and culture of Islamic Spain, rise of Christian kingdoms; conquest and settlement of Andalusia, social relations and cultural exchange among Christians, Muslims, and Jews. This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the course with the same title that was previously numbered CAS HI 327.

HI 258 – Reform and Reaction in Modern Spain
Social, political, and intellectual confrontation between traditionalists and liberals from the Revolution of 1868 to the Second Republic and Spanish Civil War (1936-39). Franco's Fascist state and the transition to democracy. This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the course with the same title that was previously numbered CAS HI 328.

HI 259 – Colonial British America from Settlement to Revolution
Examines central themes of change in European, Native American, and African populations in North America from the European settlement to the outbreak of the American Revolution. Topics include southern plantations, New England Puritanism, and pluralism in the middle colonies.
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HI 260 – The Venetian Republic
Traces the rise of Venice from its scattered settlements to the height of its imperial glory. Lectures and detailed guided visits to sites in and around the city illuminate the history of Venice through its rich cultural heritage. This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the course with the same title that was previously numbered CAS HI 324 E.

HI 262 – Modern Italian History
From Unification (1860-1870) to the founding of the Republic (1947-1948). Enlightenment, Restoration, the Risorgimento; nation-building and the liberal parliamentary government; the Great War; Fascism; Resistance; fall of the monarchy; founding of the Republic. This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the course with the same title that was previously numbered CAS HI 330.

HI 263 – Modern Italian History
History of Italy's rapid transformation from agricultural economy to an industrial and post-industrial country. Starting from Italy's "liberal" period of the 1870s, through WWI, to Fascism and the Mussolini era; post-war republicanism to the 1970s, and current economic crises and issues.

HI 264 – French Feudal Society, 496-1339
The development after the barbarian invasions of a new society based on landholding and personal loyalties. Examination of its social tensions and warfare, the role of women, chivalry, the growth of towns and universities, and the centralism of Capetian and Valois kings. This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the course with the same title that was previously numbered CAS HI 331.

HI 265 – Early Modern France
Principal political, social, and cultural developments from 1500 to 1789. The Renaissance, Wars of Religion, Age of Louis XIV, and the end of the old regime. This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the course with the same title that was previously numbered CAS HI 332.

HI 266 – French Revolution and Napoleon
The French Revolution began with high ideals of liberty and equality but quickly dissolved into civil war, the Terror, and Napoleon's expansionist ambitions. From the fall of the Bastille to Waterloo, this course traces the revolution's successes, failures, and legacy. This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the course with the same title that was previously numbered CAS HI 333.

HI 267 – Nineteenth-Century France
Political, economic, social, and cultural developments of France, 1814-1914. Themes include the enduring legacy of the Revolution in French politics, romanticism, industrialization, impressionism and the avant-garde, nationalism, the Dreyfus affair. This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the course with the same title that was previously numbered CAS HI 334.

HI 268 – Postcolnl Paris
This course description is currently under construction.

HI 270 – Twentieth-Century Germany
Examines democracy and dictatorship in modern Germany. From World War I and the rise of the Nazis to division and reunification, this course explores problems of authority and governance in a key economic and military power of the twentieth century. This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the course entitled "Germany, 1914 to the Present" that was previously numbered CAS HI 338.

HI 272 – The History of Imperial Russia
Focuses on the history of Russia under the Romanov Dynasty and its establishment as a Eurasian power and empire. Emphasizes issues of religious, ethnic, and cultural diversity, modernization, reform and revolt, and the vexed question of Russian identity. This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the course entitled "History of Russia, 1689-1917" that was previously numbered CAS HI 345 or the course that was numbered CAS HI 272 and previously entitled "Russia and Its Empires until 1900."

HI 273 – The History of the Soviet Union
Examines the tumultuous history of Russia's revolutions and its 74-year experiment with socialism. Explores the new revolutionary state's attempt to create a utopia by re-engineering human bodies, behaviors, and beliefs, and the successes and failures of that project. This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the course with the same number that was previously entitled "Russia and Its Empires Since 1900."

HI 274 – Topics in Modern Russian and Soviet History, 1861–1956
Focuses on nineteenth- and twentieth-century Russian and Soviet history with attention to political, socioeconomic, and cultural transformations as well as war, religion, thought, and ideology. Topics vary from year to year. This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the course with entitled "Issues in Modern Russian and Soviet History, 1861-1956" that was previously numbered CAS HI 347 and CAS HI 274.

HI 275 – History of the Jews in Russia and Eastern Europe
A comprehensive survey of the history of the Jewish communities of Poland, Russia, and Eastern Europe from the middle of the eighteenth century until today. Topics include economic, social, religious, cultural, and political developments affecting Jews and Europeans generally. This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the course with the same title that was previously numbered CAS HI 337.

HI 276 – Jewish Culture
What is "Jewish," or not, about "Jewish culture?" Examines how urbanization, Jewish assimilation, cosmopolitanism, and Jewish nationalism can be seen in music, art, literature, and theater. Looks at how cultural exchange between Jews and non-Jews helped shape our world today. This course may not be taken for credit in addition to the course by the same title that was previously numbered CAS HI 343.

HI 278 – Central Europe
Intellectual, cultural, political, diplomatic, and military history of the region between Germany and Russia, from the end of the Middle Ages to the present. Also offered as CAS IR 341. This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the course with the same title that was previously numbered CAS HI 341.

HI 279 – Intimate Histories of War
An analysis of the intimate, personal aspects of modern warfare through diaries, letters, songs, material culture, and more. Explores how the twentieth century's unprecedented global conflict penetrated everyday lives, affecting the bodies, vocabularies, and world views of men, women, and children.

HI 280 – Special Topics in American History
Two topics are offered 2014/2015. Students may take one or both for credit. Topic for Fall 2014: Wars, Peace, and Diplomacy. Why do wars occur? What constitutes peace and how is it maintained? What are the virtues and deficiencies of diplomacy as practitioners have sought to implement it? Readings center on international politics texts and the U.S. foreign policy record. Also offered as CAS PO 380. Topic for Spring 2015: Protest Movements in Modern America. Examines social and political protest movements as forces of change in modern American society. Explores movements' origins, ideals, tactics, experiences, successes, and failures. Topics include anti-war protesters, civil rights, women's rights, gay's rights, the tea party, and occupy wall street.

HI 281 – American Governance: Foreign Affairs, Politics, and Presidents in the Twentieth Century
Meets with CAS IR 356 E and CAS PO 201 E. Overview of American presidencies of the late twentieth century, specifically considering how politics relates to foreign policy in America. Concepts including isolationism, manifest destiny, moralism, rule of law, national self-interest, and terrorism are discussed. Special focus on Iraq and Afghanistan. This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the course with the same title that was previously numbered CAS HI 356 E.

HI 282 – The Modern American Consumer
Do we control consumer culture or does it control us? Explores the rise of mass marketing, advertising, branding, department stores, commercial amusements, and shoppertainment, with attention to gender, ethnicity, youth, and social class. Examines critiques and the politics of consumerism.

HI 283 – The Twentieth-Century American Presidency
Examines the shifting role of the presidency in American politics, especially over the course of the twentieth century. Considers not only the accomplishments of individual presidents and institutional changes in the executive branch but also the evolving place of the presidency in American popular culture. This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the course with the same title that was previously numbered CAS HI 372.

HI 284 – History of War
Why do we make war? Nothing else so engages the human genius for creative destruction. From crossbows to nuclear fire, this course traces five centuries of war to uncover depths of depravity and cruelty and heights of sacrifice and suffering. This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the course with the same title that was previously numbered CAS HI 307.

HI 285 – The Navy and American History
The role the U.S. Navy has played in the nation's history, both in peace and war; the Navy, a military and political institution, as an element in shaping the national consciousness and sense of purpose. This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the course with the same title that was previously numbered CAS HI 255.

HI 286 – The American Military Experience
Investigates how the United States waged war during the twentieth century-- and continues to wage war since 9/11. Why and how do Americans fight? Who serves and who sacrifices? With what consequences for American democracy? Also offered as CAS IR 320. This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the course with the same title that was previously numbered CAS HI 370.

HI 287 – History of American Foreign Relations since 1898
Analysis of the history of American foreign policy from the perspective of the changing world and regional international systems; emphasis on the effect of these systems and the impact of America on the creation and operation of international systems. Also offered as CAS PO 381. This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the course with the same title that was previously numbered CAS HI 366.

HI 288 – American Foreign Policy Since 1945
America's tradition and heritage in foreign policy. American foreign policy during the Cold War. Conflicting approaches to the formulation of American foreign policy in the current international environment. Domestic and institutional actors in policy formulation: Congress, media, Presidency, CIA, military. Also offered as CAS IR 376. This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the course with the same title that was previously numbered CAS HI 376.

HI 291 – Politics of the American Environment
When have Americans addressed declining resources and ecological deterioration? Why hasn't every environmental problem provoked a policy response? This course examines how debates over environmental rights and risks shaped U.S. political history from the country's beginning to the present. This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the course with the same title that was previously numbered CAS HI 360.

HI 292 – Capitalism in America: Economic History of the US
Surveys the history of corporations and private enterprise since the Civil War, disentangling the evolving relationships between business and government and tracing the influence of money, markets, and their managers in American communities from factories to the frontiers. This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the course with the title "Money, Markets & Managers: Economic History of the United States" that was previously numbered CAS HI 377.

HI 293 – History of Economic Ideas
The history of theories about how the economy works and how it is conceptualized by economic theorists. Covers the main schools in the history of economic thought, from pre-Classical economists to Milton Friedman and the Chicago School. Also offered as CAS EC 331.

HI 294 – American Evangelicalism
Major trends in American Evangelicalism, from the colonial awakenings and religious reform to the contemporary Christian Right. Focus on how evangelicals have negotiated and shaped central tenets of American culture, including understandings of gender, race, performance, nation, sexuality, and economics. Also offered as CAS RN 368.

HI 295 – Religious Controversies and the Law
Explores a major challenge faced by modern states, namely the regulation of religion. Case studies from Europe, North America, and Israel demonstrate the ways in which governments have weighed religious freedom against other social and legal values, rights, and needs.

HI 298 – African American History
The history of African Americans from African origins to present time; consideration of slavery, reconstruction, and ethnic relations from the colonial era to our own time. Also offered as CAS AA 371. This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the course with the same title that was previously numbered CAS HI 371.

HI 299 – History of the Civil Rights Movement
History of the African American struggle for racial equality and democracy from the turn of the century through the 1960s. Use is made of the most recent scholarship, memoirs, documentary films, and oral history accounts. Also offered as CAS AA 310. This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the course with the same title that was previously numbered CAS HI 378.

HI 300 – American Popular Culture
Examines how Americans have changed (and haven't) since the nineteenth century by exploring their curious beliefs, social and sexual practices, and changing understandings of selfhood. Topics include Victorian etiquette, modern city pleasures, racial stereotyping, dating rituals, family dynamics, and more. This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the course with the same title that was previously numbered CAS HI 379.

HI 301 – A History of Women in the United States
Examines the ideas and experiences of women in the United States from the 1600s through the late twentieth century. Considers the common factors that shaped women's lives as well as women's diverse class, ethnic, and regional experiences. Also offered as CAS AM 375. This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the course with the same title that was previously numbered CAS HI 375.

HI 302 – Science and American Culture
Examines the rise of the natural and human sciences as influential forces in American society. Considers why they gained considerable authority in realms of medicine and technology but have proven far more limited in their impact on morality and religion. This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the course with the same title that was previously numbered CAS HI 368.

HI 303 – Sex, Love, Family: Relationships in Recent American History and Pop Culture
Explores modern American romance and family dynamics, especially since the 1970s. Follows the life cycle from birth to death, surveying common milestones and rituals such as coming of age, coming out, getting married, or having a midlife crisis, and more.

HI 304 – Science and Religion: Dialogue and Debate
Challenges conventional wisdom that science and religion have always been at war in Europe and North America. Explores their interactions, mutual existence, and conflict from Copernicus' claim that the earth revolved around the sun to contemporary debates about evolution. Also offered as CAS RN 369. This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the course entitled "Science and Christianity" that was previously numbered CAS HI 369.

HI 305 – American Thought and Culture, 1776-1900
Examines how intellectuals constructed an "exceptional" American identity by adjusting provincial Protestant and Enlightenment traditions to the challenges of transnational democratic, Romantic, and secular thought. Topics include Transcendentalism, pro- and anti-slavery movements, philosophical idealism, literary realism, and Darwinian theories. This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the course with the same title that was previously numbered CAS HI 373.

HI 306 – American Thought and Culture, 1900 to the Present
Investigates how American thinkers brought about an intellectual revolution in three challenging moments: the naturalist revolt in pragmatic philosophy and modern art; progressive liberals' confrontations with radicalism and new conservatisms; and poststructuralists' uncertain leap beyond modernist science, religion, and humanities. This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the course with the same title that was previously numbered CAS HI 374.

HI 307 – Education in American History
Interaction between education and society during the past two centuries. Emphasis on "mass schooling" and quality of education. Relevance of the past as a key to evaluating contemporary education. This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the course with the same title that was previously numbered CAS HI 352.

HI 308 – Religious Thought in America
Surveys many of the strategies that American religious thinkers have adopted for interpreting the cosmos, the social order and human experience, and the interaction of those strategies with broader currents of American culture. This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the course with the same title that was previously numbered CAS HI 354.

HI 309 – Americans in the World: The United States in Transnational Perspective
Examines how artists, activists, migrants, tourists, and other travelers have connected United States society with people and cultures around the world. Considers how foreign criticism, popular wartime experiences, global integration, and more have shaped American culture and the modern nation-state. This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the course entitled "Americans in the World: United States History in Transnational Perspective" that was previously numbered CAS HI 367.
Blower.

HI 310 – Becoming American: The Immigrant Experience
The history of the diverse ethnic groups that comprise the United States with a focus on the immigrant experience; explores questions of inclusion and exclusion and the role immigrants have played in the making of American identity. This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the course entitled "The Peopling of America" that was previously numbered CAS HI 261.

HI 311 – The South in History and Literature
Explores the experience and culture of the U.S. South by focusing on its history and literature to understand how and why the South continues to be seen as a unique component of the larger American experience. This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the course with the same title that was previously numbered CAS HI 660.

HI 312 – Modernism and Modernity: History and Literature of the United States between the World Wars
Modernism and modernity in America from the 1920s to the 1940s: two world wars, Jazz Age, Harlem Renaissance, Great Depression. Team-taught with both professors leading discussions on literature and history of the times, Historical readings alongside Hemingway, Faulkner, Fitzgerald, Hurston, others. Also offered as CAS EN 546.

HI 313 – Internships in Public History
Students undertake supervised work in Boston-area institutions dedicated to the public presentation of America's past. Students meet with the instructor to discuss themes in public history theory and practice that, together with the internship experience and related readings, inform a final research project and class presentation. Also offered as CAS AM 313.

HI 317 – Nineteenth-Century European Thought and Culture
This is the century of "system-builders" who aspired to encompass politics, society, and history in their creations. Discuss the ideas of Marx, Mill, and Nietzsche; study the music of Berlioz, the art of Delacroix, and the fiction of Goethe. This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the course entitled "Intellectual History of Europe in the Nineteenth Century" that was previously numbered CAS HI 315 or the course entitled "Nineteenth-Century European Thought and Culture" previously numbered CAS HI 223.

HI 321 – The American Revolution, 1750-1800
Examines America's dramatic war for independence, situating the colonies' struggles within a series of broader challenges in the Atlantic world. Also shows how Americans struggled, often violently, to create a stable republic in the aftermath of these truly revolutionary upheavals. This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the course with the same title that was previously numbered CAS HI 356.

HI 322 – Colonial British America from Settlement to Revolution
Examines central themes of change in European, Native American, and African populations in North America from the European settlement to the outbreak of the American Revolution. Topics include southern plantations, New England Puritanism, and pluralism in the middle colonies. This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the course with the same title that was previously numbered CAS HI 259.

HI 323 – British History Since 1900 I
Survey of modern British history, with special focus on government and politics. World Wars I and II, the Depression, the end of the Empire, and the rise of the Welfare State.

HI 324 – Britain: Island at War

Nolan.

HI 325 – History of Ireland
Examination of four themes: Ireland's relationship with England; Ireland and the Catholic Church; Ireland during the Union with Great Britain (especially the famine); and the emergence of the modern Irish nation. Emphasis on economic, political, and religious developments.
Kelley.

HI 326 – Historical Roots of the British Genius
Roots of Britain's special character and eminence in world history. Topics include the emergence of political liberties, industrial revolution, and the overseas empire. Artistic reflections of political and economic history in the British novel and in lyric poetry before Tennyson.

HI 328 – The Civil War Era
Social, economic, and political consequences of slavery; Southern secession and the Civil War; political reconstruction; the New South; and the betrayal of black rights. This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the course with the same title that was previously numbered CAS HI 361.

HI 329 – The Gilded Age, 1877-1914
Examines the economic, social, cultural and political transformation from the end of the Reconstruction until 1914. Specific focus on the industrial revolution, foreign policy, the nation state, the metropolis, and conflicts that emerged in American society during the Gilded Age. This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the course with the same title that was previously numbered CAS HI 362.

HI 330 – Modern Italian History
From Unification (1860-1870) to the founding of the Republic (1947-1948). Enlightenment, Restoration, the Risorgimento; nation-building and the liberal parliamentary government; the Great War; Fascism; Resistance; fall of the monarchy; founding of the Republic.

HI 332 – History of International Relations, 1900-45
The causes and consequences of the First World War; the search for postwar reconstruction and stability during the twenties; economic collapse, revolutionary nationalism, and fascism during the 1930s; the Second World War and the advent of the bipolar world. Also offered as CAS IR 349. This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the course with the same title that was previously numbered CAS HI 349 and CAS HI 289.

HI 334 – History of International Relations since 1945
The causes and consequences of the Soviet-American Cold War from its origins in Europe to its extension to Asia, Africa, and Latin America. The rise of the multipolar international system, the emergence of the nonaligned blocs, and inter- and intra-alliance conflicts. Also offered as CAS IR 350. This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the course with the same title that was previously numbered CAS HI 350 or CAS HI 290.

HI 336 – History of World Wars, 1914-1945
Covers the two world wars, viewed as a single contest for economic, military, and geopolitical dominance. Topics include nationalism, imperial ideologies, propaganda, mass mobilization, genocide, grand strategy, operational history, and convergent construction of "war states" capable of waging total war. This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the course by the same title that was previously numbered CAS HI 359.

HI 337 – America in Depression and War, 1890 to 1945
Examines how the modern United States was forged in the economic depressions of the 1890s and 1930s, and shaped by imperial and global ambitions beginning with the Spanish-American War and culminating with World War I and World War II. This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the course entitled "The United States, 1900-1945" that was previously numbered CAS HI 363.

HI 338 – Cold War America, 1945-68
Investigates how the ideological and strategic Cold War between the United States and the Soviet Union shaped American society. Emphasis on the consensus in domestic opinion, the civil rights movement, political and cultural dissent, and the road to Vietnam. This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the course entitled "The United States, 1945-68" that was previously numbered CAS HI 364.

HI 339 – A History of the Present: The United States since 1968
Surveys American society since the upheavals of the 1960s. Topics include war, politics, religion, and popular culture as well as changing notions about race, gender, and selfhood. This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the course entitled "The United States since 1968" that was previously numbered CAS HI 365.

HI 340 – History of Modern Diplomacy: Institutions, Practices, and Principles, 1400-1919
Surveys the evolution of the institutions, practices, and principles of diplomacy in European interstate relations from 1400 to 1919. Special attention to the balance of power concept and its critics, and to alternative theories and measures for managing international relations.

HI 341 – Political and Cultural Revolution
Comparative historical analysis of modern and contemporary revolutionary upheavals and cultural change in Europe, the Americas, East Asia, Africa, Middle East, and the former Soviet republics. Examines the challenges posed by modernization, crisis of legitimacy, nationalism, imperial decline, and globalization. This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the course with the same title that was previously numbered CAS HI 215.

HI 342 – Imperialism and Independence
Examines nineteenth- and twentieth-century imperialist and independence movements, focusing on the colonial projects in Latin America, Africa, the Middle East, and Asia. Analyzes imperialist ideologies and the roles nationalism, liberalism, communism, and socialism played in independence movements.

HI 343 – Taste, Culture, and Power: The Global History of Food
An exploration of the global history of food from prehistory to the present, considering the birth of agriculture, food in nations and empires, hunger and nutrition, and the future of eating, including examples from Asia, Africa, Europe, and the Americas.

HI 346 – History of International Human Rights
Meets with CAS IR 348. History of international human rights since the eighteenth century. Examines political, social, economic rights, the UN Charter, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, and related international conventions, enforcement, regionalism, globalization, and NGOs. Analyzes tensions between national sovereignty and human rights.

HI 348 – Colonialism in Africa: Impact and Aftermath
Uses case studies of particular African societies or nations to examine patterns of European conquest and African resistance; forms of colonial administration and socioeconomic consequences of colonial rule; decolonization and contemporary African liberation movements; economic and political developments since independence; and contemporary social and cultural change. This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the course with the same title that was previously numbered CAS HI 292.

HI 349 – History of Religion in Precolonial Africa
The study of the development of religious traditions in Africa during the period prior to European colonialism. An emphasis on both indigenous religions and the growth and spread of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam in the continent as a whole. Also offered as CAS AA 382 and CAS RN 382. This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the course with the same title that was previously numbered CAS HI 382.

HI 350 – Atlantic History
Examines the various interactions that shaped the Atlantic World, connecting Europe, Africa, and the Americas between 1400 and 1800. Begins by defining the political interaction, then emphasizes cultural exchange, religious conversion, and the revolutionary era. Also offered as CAS AA 385. This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the course with the same title that was previously numbered CAS HI 385.

HI 351 – Environmental History of Africa
Focus on the African environment and ecological systems over the past 150 years. Topics include climatic change, hydrography, agriculture, deforestation, soil erosion, disease, conservation, famine, and the role of colonialism and government policy in environmental change. This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the course with the same title that was previously numbered CAS HI 394.

HI 352 – Power, Leadership, and Governance in Africa and the Caribbean
Haitian Revolution; British Caribbean, leadership, governance, and power in Africa during the period of legitimate trade; visionaries, dictators, and nationalist politics in the Caribbean; chiefs, western elites, and nationalism in colonial Africa; road to governance in post-colonial Caribbean and Africa. Also offered as CAS AA 395 and IR 394. This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the course with the same title that was previously numbered CAS HI 395.

HI 353 – Atlantic Africa and the Slave Trade
Examines--both by region and across the larger Atlantic area--the ways that overseas commerce, in particular the slave trade, interacted with and was shaped by African politics and economic variables. Also offered as CAS AA 396. This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the course entitled "States and Commerce in Atlantic Africa, 1450-1850" that was previously numbered CAS HI 396.

HI 354 – History and Religion: North African Issues
Explores how the colonial experience shaped North African culture and society, and how the North African postcolonial state negotiated the legacy of colonialism and responded to the dynamics underpinning global politics. Also offered as CAS RN 346 E. This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the course with the same title that was previously numbered CAS HI 384 E.

HI 356 – The American Revolution, 1750-1800
The political, economic, and ideological causes of the American War for Independence; the construction of a new political system amid the passions of a revolutionary upheaval; and the gradual emergence of a new economic and cultural order in the United States.
Lepore.

HI 357 – Politics and Culture in Britain, 1660-1759
Introduction to British politics, philosophy, religion, society, and literature, 1660-1759. Many modern ideas, including democracy and individual liberty, had their origins in these years; literary works include slashing satire, sparkling comedy, wicked obscenity, and profound meditations on human nature. Also offered as CAS EN 372.

HI 358 – Twentieth-Century European Thought and Culture
From modernism in art and music, to totalitarianism, to post-war existentialism, this course surveys the richness and upheaval in twentieth-century Europe. Read the fiction of Mann and Woolf, assess Nazi propaganda, and study the art of Cubist, Futurists, and Expressionists. This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the course entitled "Intellectual History of Europe in the Twentieth Century" that was previously numbered CAS HI 316, or the course entitled "Twentieth-Century European Thought and Culture" previously numbered CAS HI 224.

HI 360 – European Dimensions of the Black Diaspora
Relates the Black experience in modern Europe to that in the Americas by exploring religion, art, folklore, and politics in such places as England, interwar France, Nazi Germany, and Soviet Russia. Explicates racism, for example in European soccer. Also offered as CAS AA 380. This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the course entitled "Blacks in Modern Europe" that was previously numbered CAS HI 380.

HI 361 – Black Radical Thought
Black radical thought in America, Europe, and Africa since the eighteenth century through writings of abolitionists, leaders of revolutions and liberation movements, Black nationalists, and Black socialists. Emphasizes the global nature of the "Black World" and its role in world history. Also offered as CAS AA 388. This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the course with the same title that was previously numbered CAS HI 388.

HI 363 – Early Chinese History
From the Bronze Age to the seventeenth century, China changed dramatically yet maintained political and cultural cohesion, unlike any other civilization. This courses explores both diversity and unity in early Chinese society as well as their historical legacies. This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the course entitled "Introduction to Early Chinese History" that was previously numbered CAS HI 389.

HI 364 – Modern Chinese History
Since 1600, China experienced Manchu imperial expansion, conflict with the West, two revolutions, and the construction of a socialist society now dominated by authoritarian capitalism. Explores the interplay between enduring traditions, upheaval and modernity and their consequences for our world. This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the course entitled "Introduction to Modern Chinese History" that was previously numbered CAS HI 390.

HI 365 – Shanghai: The Key to Modern China?
The social, cultural, political, and economic history of Shanghai is used as a lens to understand the making of modern China. Themes include the role of the city's colonial past in shaping its history. Students visit significant sights and museums. Also offered as CAS IR 371 E. This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the course with the same title that was previously numbered CAS HI 387.

HI 369 – Introduction to Modern Japanese History
Developments from late Tokugawa Japan and the Meiji Restoration (1868) to the present. Focus on Japan's economic, political, and social adjustment to modern times, the evolution of twentieth century Japanese imperialism, and Japan's growth after World War II. This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the course with the same title that was previously numbered CAS HI 391.

HI 370 – The Samurai in Myth and History
Explores how samurai, Japan's (in)famous warrior class, defined themselves, and how others have portrayed them in literature, art, plays, film, and animation from ancient times to the present. Investigates why samurai ideals have become the most widely recognized Japanese "tradition." Also offered as CAS LJ 282. This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the course with the same title that was previously numbered CAS HI 381.

HI 372 – Asian American History
Historically follows experiences of Asian and Pacific Islander groups from circumstances of departure to arrival and adjustment to the United States. Covers themes such as similarities and dissimilarities, images and stereotypes, discrimination and oppression, resistance and adaptation, community and family. This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the course with the same title that was previously numbered CAS HI 262.

HI 377 – The Sword, the Cross, and the Crescent: Byzantium and the Near East
Examines Byzantine society and culture, focusing on conflicts and cooperation with the Islamic East until 1453, when Muslim Ottomans captured Constantinople and radically altered life and politics in the eastern Mediterranean. Explores lessons from Byzantine-Muslim relations for the twenty-first century.

HI 378 – Armenia from Antiquity to the Middle Ages
Introduction to Armenian history from antiquity to the medieval period. Themes include geopolitical competition for regional hegemony, the conversion to Christianity, adoption of the Armenian alphabet, quality of leadership under the five kingdoms, and the national struggle for survival. This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the course with the same title that was previously numbered CAS HI 276.

HI 379 – Modern Armenian History and Literature
Introduction to modern Armenian history and literature from the nineteenth-century "cultural renaissance" to the upheavals of the twentieth century--genocide, independence, and Sovietization--and the literatures of Soviet Armenia and the diaspora. This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the course with the same title that was previously numbered CAS HI 277.

HI 381 – History of Modern Iran, 1900-Present
Geographical/historical background; social structure, ethnic, religious, and linguistic diversities; Anglo-Russian interventions; consequences of tobacco concession; constitutional revolution and reform; Qajar legacy; centralization, secularization, modernization under Pahlavis; oil and Mossadeg; autocracy and revolution; liberals, communists, fundamentalists, and Islamic revolution. Also offered as CAS IR 397. This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the course with the same title that was previously numbered CAS HI 397.

HI 382 – Turko-Persia in the Twentieth Century
The twentieth-century history of the non-Arab Muslim Middle East, i.e., Turkey, Iran, Afghanistan, and Central Asia. Analysis of the constitutional revolutions in Turkey and Iran, Kemalism, the Islamic revolution in Iran, and communism in the Soviet Union and Afghanistan. Also offered as CAS IR 328. This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the course with the same title that was previously numbered CAS HI 398.

HI 383 – Modern History and Geopolitics of the Caucasus
Surveys history of the Caucasus with a focus on Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia, from the early nineteenth century to the post-Soviet period. Explores advantages and problems of modernization, nationalism, and major power geopolitics within the context of international political economy. This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the course with the same title that was previously numbered CAS HI 399.

HI 384 – History of Genocide
History and comparative analysis of genocidal mass murder with focus on the twentieth century. Hereros, Armenians, holomodor, Holocaust, Cambodia, Rwanda, Darfur. Attention to political leaders, state ideology, dehumanization of victim groups, geopolitical competition, war, empire building and decline.

HI 385 – History of Premodern Iran
History of Iran from the Muslim conquest to 1900. Examines political developments; Persian literature, visual arts, and culture; Iranian Islam, and religious minorities. Also offered as CAS IR 329.

HI 387 – Introduction to the Middle East
General introduction to the history, culture, and current development in the Middle East. Objective is to introduce students to a specific geographical and historical experience, as well as to acquaint them with some of the literature in the field. This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the course with the same title that was previously numbered CAS HI 392.

HI 388 – Foundations of Jewish Politics
A foundational course for the study of Jewish political history. Students gain a broad understanding of central aspects of the "Jewish political tradition" from biblical times until today -- in Europe, the Americas, and the modern Middle East. Also offered as CAS RN 332.

HI 389 – Americans and the Middle East
Examines the intersecting histories of America and the Middle East from the late eighteenth century to the present, focusing first on American missionary and educational efforts in the region and then on American political and military involvement after World War II. This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the course with the same title that was previously numbered CAS HI 393.

HI 392 – The History of Israel: An Introduction
Using a broad array of readings, popular music, documentaries, film and art, this course explores Israel's political system, culture, and society, including the status of minorities in the Jewish state; post-1967 Israeli settlement projects; and the struggle for Israel's identity. Meets with CAS LH 284.

HI 393 – Topics in the History of Israel
Special topics in the history of Israel. Topics differ from year to year. Topic for Fall 2013: The Israeli-Palestinian Conflict. The challenges of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, historical trajectories, conflicting narratives,and possible solutions through primary sources and film. Students present reflections on the history of the conflict, debate its future implications, and discuss challenges both societies are facing.

HI 394 – U.S.-Mexican Borders
Examines the geographic border, as well as political and cultural boundaries inside Mexico and the U.S., from 1848 to the present. Topics include immigration, Mexican-American culture and politics, the Chicano Movement, economic development, gangs, the drug trade, music and art.

HI 395 – Experiencing Cuba: History, Culture, and Politics
Expeditionary course, team taught by BU and local faculty in Havana, Cuba. Firsthand study of the island's history, culture, and politics, toward understanding of the local, international, and transnational processes that shaped and continue to shape this unique society. Also offered as CAS AA 306 E and CAS IR 246 E.

HI 396 – Introduction to Latin American History
Analysis and discussion of the historical and cultural antecedents of Latin America; the influence of geographic, cultural, and economic forces on the land, people, and patterns of social change during the late nineteenth and twentieth centuries. This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the course with the same title that was previously numbered CAS HI 281.

HI 397 – Modern Latin America
Political, economic, and cultural evolution of Latin American republics. Nineteenth-century conflicts over "civilization" vs "barbarism," liberalism vs conservatism, and slavery. Democracy and military rule in the twentieth century and efforts to create new forms of politics and citizenship. This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the course with the same title that was previously numbered CAS HI 386.

HI 398 – Protest, Revolution, and Human Rights in Latin America
What happens when ordinary people and activists rise up to claim human rights? This course examines movements for land, sustainable agriculture, indigenous rights, women's rights, urban services, and freedom from racial discrimination and violence in twentieth-century Latin America.

HI 401 – Senior Honors Seminar 1
The first of a two-semester seminar that guides students through the research and writing of an honors thesis grounded in primary historical research. Students participate in a workshop environment and are matched with an additional faculty advisor.

HI 402 – Senior Honors Seminar 2
The second of a two-semester seminar that guides students through the research and writing of an honors thesis grounded in primary historical research. Students participate in a workshop environment and are matched with an additional faculty advisor.

HI 406 – Monks, Friars, and Saints
Examines various aspects of the concept of holiness in medieval society. Principal focus on the monastic and mendicant orders, tracing the changing ideals of Christian sanctity and the impact of those ideals on social movements, economic developments, and state policies.

HI 407 – Topics in Medieval Religious Culture
Topic for Fall 2013: Christian, Muslim, and Jew: Religion, Community, and Culture in Medieval Spain. Interactions between Muslims, Christians, and Jews in medieval Europe's most religiously diverse region - from the establishment of an Islamic al-Andalus in 711 CE to the final Christian "reconquest" of the peninsula and expulsion of the Jews in 1492 CE. Also offered as CAS RN 470.

HI 408 – War in Film and Literature
This course explores, through works of film and literature, human experiences of combat, suffering, and death. Topics range from medieval Japan to Africa, the Americas and Europe, WWI, WWII, and various "small wars" from the 19th through 21st centuries.

HI 409 – Medieval Science and Technology
Introduction to medieval science and technology, including the Greek and Roman inheritance, the transmission of Greek science to Europe by the Arabs, and medieval developments leading to the Scientific Revolution.

HI 410 – Religion, Community, and Culture in Medieval Spain
Interactions between Muslims, Christians, and Jews in medieval Europe's most religiously diverse region -- from the establishment of an Islamic al-Andalus in 711 CE to the final Christian "reconquest" of the peninsula and expulsion of the Jews in 1492 CE. Also offered as CAS RN 410.

HI 412 – Popular Culture in Medieval and Early Modern Europe
An exploration of the various expressions of culture among the commoners of Europe, ca. 400-1600. Topics include religion, storytelling, material life, social and political organization, law and justice, gender roles, witchcraft and popular crusades, and the impact of the printing press.

HI 413 – Gender in Medieval Christian Mysticism
Study of the Christian mystical traditions of medieval Europe, both orthodox and heretical, with particular emphasis on the role of gender and authority in mystical writing, practice, and teaching. Also offered as CAS RN 413.

HI 414 – Society and Culture in Early Modern Europe
Examines selected topics in the history of Europe between the Renaissance and the Age of Revolution. The current offering focuses on the persecution of religious dissents, minorities, and witches; Wars of Religion; and the slow spread of ideas of toleration.

HI 417 – England from Reformation to Revolution
Transformation of English society in the period between 1520 and 1660, and the origins of England's global expansion in the seventeenth century. Topics include the English Reformation, the Elizabethan settlement, the reign of James I and Charles I, civil war.

HI 423 – European Unification, 1945-Present
After centuries of violence and division, Europeans joined in economic cooperation. This course explores the European Union's origins, attempts to promote prosperity, environmental protections, and individual rights as well as the EU's struggles with political representation, American superpower, resurgent nationalism, and currency crises.

HI 424 – Communism, 1789-1989
To some, communism posed a threat to freedom; to others, it promised social justice and rights for women and minorities. This course investigates communism's ideological origins, triumph in Russian and Eastern Europe, influence on Western European politics, and ultimate collapse.

HI 425 – Women and Gender in Early Modern Europe
Examines women's domestic and public roles between the Renaissance and the Age of Revolution. Considers queens, artists, and nuns, along with ordinary wives and mothers, asking how they maneuvered within - and around - the limits society tried to impose on them.

HI 426 – Music and Ideas from Mozart to the Jazz Age
Studies masterpieces of music alongside relevant works of fiction, philosophy, criticism, and cultural history to situate compositions in their larger context. The course includes music by such artists as Beethoven, Wagner, and Schoenberg, as well as Davis, Coltrane, and Ellington.

HI 428 – Postwar European Culture
Selected topics in western European culture since 1945, including the legacy of war, the impact of economic recovery, the press, colonialism and its critics, new departures in literature and film, the decline of Marxism, and attitudes toward America.

HI 429 – British History Since 1900 II
Social history of Britain since 1900, focusing on its demography and immigration; poverty, inequality, and social services; health, housing, and education; and the changing role of women.

HI 430 – Comparative European Fascism
Analyzes fascism as a political and social movement in Mussolini's Italy, Hitler's Germany, and beyond. Emphasizes the creation of popular dictatorships through propaganda, repression, and racism, and ends with the fascist attempt to remake Europe through violence and genocide.

HI 432 – Research Seminar and Tutorial in English History
Considers the relationship between the past and the present, and surveys the evolution of key historiographical trends in modern English--and British--history, and how various types of sources have illuminated different aspects of the past.

HI 433 – History of Ireland and Northern Ireland Since 1916
Selected topics in the history of the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland since 1916 with emphasis on political and economic developments and the crisis in Northern Ireland.

HI 434 – Monarchy in Modern Britain
A seminar probing seminal moments in the history of modern British sovereignty, when the politics of the court intersected with the politics of the people. Particular consideration is given to how monarchy has survived as an institution.

HI 435 – Histories of Human Rights
Traces Westerners' development of a humanitarian sensibility in the eighteenth century and considers how this sensibility was deployed in struggles over the rights of various groups during the modern period. Emphasis on Anglo-American contributions.

HI 436 – The Great War and the Fragile Peace
Exploration of the military, political, social, economic, and cultural consequences of the First World War and the peace conference of 1919. Focuses on technological innovations, the expanded role of the state, and the long-range impact of the Versailles settlement. Also offered as CAS IR 436.

HI 440 – Refugee Hollywood (1933-1950)
Examines the flight of artists, writers, and intellectuals from Germany to Los Angeles in the wake of Hitler's rise to power with a focus on accounts by the emigres themselves, their works, and their influence on American culture.

HI 443 – Jews and Germans
Explores German-Jewish history as a failure of nation-states to integrate minorities. The course examines German-Jewish encounters from the Enlightenment until today, focusing on emancipation, demographic shifts, minority identity-formation, neo-Orthodoxy, anti-Semitism, Zionism, and responses to the Holocaust.

HI 446 – Revolutionary Russia
Examines how Russian state and society transformed from an autocratic empire into a radical socialist federation in the early twentieth century. Explores competing ideologies, popular culture, and political violence and considers interpretations and legacies of the revolutions after 1917.

HI 448 – Science and Modern Culture: Darwin, Freud, and Einstein
Development of scientific theories of Darwin, Freud, and Einstein; impact of those ideas in different national cultures and their influence on literature, art, religion, and politics of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.

HI 449 – The History of Soviet Terror
Examines how terror became a tool of revolutionary transformation in the USSR, one which first strengthened, then unseated Soviet state power. Explores how Soviet people experienced and participated in such violence as a part of their everyday lives.

HI 450 – Topics in the History of Popular Culture
Focuses on various themes and debates in the history of popular culture. Takes everyday artifacts seriously to understand how people have organized their lives and explained the world around them through stories, images, music, advertisements, entertainments, and more.

HI 453 – Three Revolutions
Examines how the English civil wars, the Glorious Revolution, and the American Revolution fundamentally altered assumptions about government in the English-speaking world. Faced with these interrelated upheavals, writers form Shakespeare to Jefferson pioneered modern understandings of self and society.

HI 454 – War and American Society, 1607-2001
Although committed to democracy, individual liberty, and the pursuit of happiness, Americans have frequently found themselves waging war. This course examines how war mobilization and the experience of combat since the settling of Jamestown have fundamentally changed American society.

HI 455 – Early American History and Culture
Explores how religious schisms and revival, warfare with native Americans, political revolution, and commercial development transformed New England from a Puritanical agricultural society into an urbanized, industrial society by the outbreak of the American Civil War.

HI 456 – Religion and American Culture
Selected topics on the interaction of religion and American history from the colonial period to the present.

HI 461 – The Civil War in American Memory
Examines the ways in which Americans have thought about the experiences of the Civil War, from the immediate postwar period through the later years of the twentieth century.

HI 462 – History of the American South
The South in American history from the period of colonial settlement through the Civil Rights movement of the twentieth century. Through readings and discussion the course considers whether or not there has been a distinctive Southern identity in American history.

HI 464 – America and the Interwar Period, 1919-41
The relationship and interaction of the U.S. with other powers. The nature of American isolationism and the ways in which the U.S. faced the European and Far Eastern crises of the 1930s is the focal point, but attention is also given to those domestic developments that affected American responses.

HI 465 – The United States and the Cold War
Examination of U.S. Cold War foreign policy from its origins at the end of World War II to the collapse of the Berlin Wall and of the Soviet Union. Also offered as CAS IR 465.

HI 467 – Postwar America: Issues in Political, Cultural, and Social History, 1945-69
Explores how, after the upheavals of World War II, American fought over and refashioned new norms and ideals in politics, daily life, and the home, Topics include youth rebellion, the African American freedom movement, antiwar activism, and the sexual revolution.

HI 468 – American Society since 1970: Issues in Domestic Political, Cultural, and Social History
A historical investigation of the United States at the end of the American century, including Watergate and the imperial presidency, stagflation, the "New Politics" and the "Me Decade," conservatism, feminism, race relations, religion, politics, culture, community and family life.

HI 472 – Wars of the Twentieth and Twenty-First Centuries
Examines the origins, conduct, and consequences of major conflicts of the past century, beginning with the Boer War and ending with the U.S. conflict in Iraq. Also offered as CAS IR 472.

HI 475 – American Consumer History
The history of consumerism in modern America. Topics include origins and critiques of the culture of consumption; the development of national markets; advertising and commercial amusements; and the relationship of consumer society to religion, gender, ethnicity, and class.

HI 476 – Technology in American Society
Technology in American society from the colonial era to World War II. Topics include industrialization, scientific management, household technologies, and the auto age.

HI 479 – Impact of Darwin
Influence of Darwinian evolution on various human activities. Genesis of Darwin's theory; intellectual and social climate for reception of Darwinism in different societies; its impact on natural and social sciences; conflict between evolution and religion.

HI 481 – Looking East, Looking West: Mutual (Mis)Representations of Japan and the West
Examines how understandings of the differences between "east" and "west" developed from ancients precedents through modern times as trade, missionary activity, and imperialism intensified contact and conflict in Japan's relations with western countries over the past 500 years.

HI 482 – Merchants, Pirates, Missionaries, and the State in Maritime Asia, 600-2000
Oceans connected the peoples of coastal Asia, Africa, and Oceania long before the arrival of Europeans in the 1500s. This course examines how commerce, piracy, religious contact, and imperialisms shaped maritime Asia, and how oceans facilitated our own era's global connections.

HI 484 – Revolutionary Change in North Africa and the Middle East
Analysis of problems of revolutionary change and development theories as they apply to North Africa and the Middle East.

HI 485 – Selected Problems in the Modern Middle East
Major events in recent history of the Middle East: emergence of nationalism and intellectual awakening of the Ottoman Empire, impact of western economic penetration, effect of partition, and the seeds of conflict and Egyptian transformation under Nasser.

HI 486 – Islamic History
Examination of major historical forces that determined the growth and character of Islamic civilization from beginnings to modern times.

HI 487 – The Making of Modern China, 1600 to the present
Explores continuity and change between later imperial China and the Republican and Communist eras. Examines family and gender structures, ethnic classifications, and military traditions in late dynastic times and how revolution brought change from within and abroad.

HI 488 – Interwar Japan and the Pacific War
An examination of the cultural, social, and political impact of World War I on Japanese society; the nature of Taisho liberalism; 1930s militaristic nationalism, with emphasis on the role of the United States leading into and beyond World War II.

HI 489 – The African Diaspora in the Americas
Topic for Spring 2015: African American History in Comparative Perspective. African American history in an international framework. Examines development of racial categories during and after the transatlantic trade, Black participation in the wars of independence in the Americas, diverse Black communities in the twentieth century. Also offered as CAS HI 489.

HI 490 – Blacks and Asians
Exploration of historical encounters between Africans and people of African descent and Asians and people of Asian descent. How such people imagined themselves, interacted with each other, viewed each other, influenced each other, and borrowed from each other.

HI 491 – Directed Study

HI 492 – Directed Study

HI 493 – History of Science
Topic for Spring 2009: The role of science within American culture from the colonial period to the present. Examines science and race, the secularization of science, science and "pseudo-science," science and sexuality, and the morality of science.

HI 494 – Histories for the New South Africa
Critical reading of new histories of South Africa (covering the history of the region from the seventeenth to the twentieth centuries). New historiographical perspectives on the transformations in South African society.

HI 496 – Ideology and Conflict in World History
Connects the ideas of European Enlightenment and Romanticism with imperialism, nationalism, fascism, liberalism, communism, and socialism and analyzes the spread of these ideas to Latin America, Africa, the Middle East, and Asia.

HI 497 – Oxford Tutorial in History
Students meet regularly with individual tutors to explore a specific subject based on the special interests of the student. Guided by the tutor, students prepare written work culminating in a major work of research, study, and analysis for this advanced tutorial.

HI 502 – Drafts of History: Journalism and Historical Revisionism
Considers episodes from U.S. history, comparing the "draft" of journalists to subsequent historical accounts. Analyzes how new evidence alters understanding of events, but also how different eras ask questions about the past, interrogate different sources, and appeal to different audiences.

HI 503 – Psychohistory
Addresses the "Whys?" of history and focuses on the application of Freudian analysis and other psychological models to interpret past individual and group behavior. Emphasizes two key subfields: psychobiography and group psychohistory.

HI 514 – Enlightenment and Its Critics
Explores how eighteenth-century criticisms of the Enlightenment have been taken up by twentieth-century thinkers such as Heidegger, Horkheimer, Adorno, Gadamer, and Foucault; discusses recent defenses of Enlightenment ideals of reason, critique and autonomy by Habermas and others. Also offered as CAS PO 592 and CAS PH 412.

HI 524 – The Cold War in Latin America
Meets with CAS IR 524. Analyzes the Cold War as experienced in Latin America. Examines government policies, social movements, economic conditions, and power struggles across Latin America. Compares episodes of direct and indirect intervention by the United States as well as Latin American responses.

HI 525 – Development in Historical Perspective
A critical investigation of modern "development" practices and projects in Asia, Africa, and the Americas. Explores the rise of development paradigms in the nineteenth century and key twentieth-century transformations; interrogates challenges to, critiques of, and reaffirmations of global development schemes.

HI 533 – Empire and Power: British Foreign Policy, 1782-Present
Examines the evolution of British foreign policy over time as well as the nature of Great Power rivalry. Key themes include formulation of national diplomatic strategies, policy coordination, diplomatic vs. military considerations, alliance politics, and policy over-stretch. Also offered as CAS IR 514.

HI 537 – World War II: Causes, Course, Consequences
Hitler, Mussolini, Tojo, Churchill, Roosevelt, Stalin, and 75 million ordinary and extraordinary dead. From 1939-1945, the whole world waged total war in cruel ways unknown to any history before or since. Explore the causes, course, and consequences of these events.

HI 538 – France, Europe, and the World: The History of French Foreign Relations in Modern Times
An advanced research colloquium for history and international relations undergraduate concentrators and graduate students that explores the evolution of France's position in Europe and the world from the beginning of the First World War to the present. Also offered as CAS IR 538.

HI 545 – Issues in Modern Terrorism
Addresses a variety of historical, political, socio-cultural, and psychological issues related to modern terrorism, and analyzes differences between this unique twentieth and twenty-first century phenomenon and political murders in the past.

HI 549 – Nationalism in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries
Explores the origins of modern nationalism as a major force, molding identity and motivating politics. Examines the relationship between nationalism, revolution, and war, as well as the challenges presented by ethnic revivalism, ethnonational conflicts, and globalization.

HI 550 – Jews in Modern Culture
Examines the role and impact of Jews as producers and brokers of modern culture, with focus on fields ranging from psychoanalysis to movies. Considers whether Jews' cultural activities were distinctive and, if so, how and why.

HI 552 – Topics in Jewish History
Examines various aspects of Jewish culture, politics, and society. Topics vary from year to year.

HI 555 – Black Community and Social Change
Forces within the larger society that enhance and/or inhibit development of the black community. Assesses potential of the black community to initiate and implement changes affecting its own development locally and nationally. Also offered as CAS AA 505.

HI 560 – The American Transcendentalists
Led by Emerson, Thoreau, Bronson Alcott, Margaret Fuller, and others, the Transcendentalists constituted the first "counter-cultural" movement in American history. Seminar focuses on how and why they did so within the philosophical, religious, literary, antislavery, communitarian, and ecological currents they inhabited.

HI 566 – Ideas and American Foreign Policy
From "isolationism" to manifest destiny, imperialism, and global leadership, contrary ideas have informed both American foreign policymakers and their critics. Explores the importance of ideas in foreign policy from the era of George Washington to the present. Also offered as CAS IR 522.

HI 568 – The Modern Metropolis: Approaches to Urban History
Cities such as New York, Paris, London, and Shanghai captured the worst problems and most exciting possibilities of the late-nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. This course investigates how urban spaces facilitated commerce, social life, and the forging of modern identitities.

HI 575 – The Birth of Modern America, 1896-1929
The political, economic, social, and cultural history of the United States in the formative years of the early twentieth century. Topics include Progressivism, World War I, immigration, modernism, the Scopes Trial, suffrage, the Harlem Renaissance, and the emergence of modern business practices.

HI 579 – Race and the South: Questions of Interpretation in History and Literature
Methodological colloquium for English or History concentrators. Examines theories and examples of interdisciplinary analysis based on historical and literary interpretation. Also offered as CAS EN 479.

HI 580 – The History of Racial Thought
Study of racial thinking and feeling in Europe and the United States since the fifteenth century. Racial thinking in the context of Western encounters with non-European people and Jews; its relation to social, economic, cultural, and political trends. Also offered as CAS AA 580.

HI 582 – Social Movements in Twentieth-Century Latin America
Examination of the origins, actions, and effects of social movements in twentieth-century Latin America, with particular attention to the relationship between the cultures of everyday life and pathways of political action and change.

HI 584 – Labor, Sexuality, and Resistance in the Afro-Atlantic World
The role of slavery in shaping the society and culture of the Afro-Atlantic world, highlighting the role of labor, the sexual economy of slave regimes, and the various strategies of resistance deployed by enslaved people. Also offered as CAS AA 514.

HI 586 – African Americans Abroad
Develops awareness of the global nature of the African American experience through study of Black Americans' involvement in aspects of world development besides slavery and the U.S. Civil Rights Movement. Focus on Europe and the Americas; some attention to Africa and Asia. Also offered as CAS AA 586.

HI 588 – Women, Power, and Culture in Africa
Understanding the role of women in African history. Topics include the Atlantic slave trade, power, religion, the economy, resistance movements, health, the state, and kinship. Emphasis on the period before independence. Also offered as CAS AA 588.

HI 589 – Nature's Past: Histories of Environment and Society
Explores approaches in environmental history and asks how non-human actors, together with human agents, determined historical outcomes and shaped ecological, technological, demographic, political, and cultural change. Cases are selected from North America, Latin America, Europe, Asia, and Africa.

HI 590 – The World and the West
Explores relations between the West and the Third World from 1850, focusing on national and cultural movements in the Third World, and places the African American struggle for freedom in the United States in global and comparative perspective. Also offered as CAS AA 590.

HI 591 – The Making of the Modern Middle East
Examines the modern Middle East, with its new and old states and its current contested frontiers, as a product of European rivalries in the region in war and peace, 1798-1922. Also offered as CAS IR 591.

HI 592 – The Birth of a State: Israel 1945-1955
Establishment of the State of Israel, 1945-1955. Immediate context following World War II and the Holocaust, out of which the State of Israel was created. Considers the War of Independence, relations with Israel?s Arab neighbors, and internal political developments.

HI 593 – Youth on the Agenda: Roles and Images of Young People in the Jewish Nation
Youth in modern revolutionary movements, including Zionism and the creation of the State of Israel. What it means to grow up in a Jewish state, to consider the military experience, and to deal with the influence of American and other foreign cultures.

HI 594 – The Armenian Genocide
Examines the emergence of the Armenian Question in the Ottoman Empire as a national and international issue. Analysis of Armenian-Turkish relations after the Young Turk revolution in 1908. Focuses on the processes of genocide, survivor memory, and international responses.

HI 595 – Morocco: History on the Cusp of Three Continents
Explores the range and limits of social mixture - cultural, political, economic - as three civilizations met at the northwest corner of Africa and influenced one another from the eighth to the twenty-first centuries.

HI 596 – Muslim Societies: An Interdisciplinary History
Examines the states, empires, faiths, and ideologies of the Muslim world over a 1500-year period, including states from North and West Africa, through the Middle East, to Turkey, Iran, and then to Central and Southeast Asia. Also offered as CAS AH 539, AN 548, and RN 563.

HI 597 – Diasporas and Identity
History of diasporan commercial networks during the past four centuries in the West and other parts of the world, and emergence of modern global political economy. Focuses on transformation from exilic nationalism to diasporization, transnationalism, and deterritorialization of diasporic identity.

HI 606 – Heresy and Persecution in the Eleventh and Twelfth Centuries
Around the millennium radical Christian movements appeared in and outside the Church, which, despite sharing ideals, became mutually antagonistic. The course studies multiple sources of the conflict and traces the emergence of Crusade and Inquisition to combat this "popular heresy." This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the course with the same title that was previously numbered GRS HI 810.

HI 608 – Renaissance Europe
The main political, socioeconomic, intellectual and artistic currents in Italy (c. 1350--1530) and northwestern Europe (c. 1500-1560); emphasis on leading thinkers (Petrarch, Bruni, Machiavelli, Erasmus, More, Montaigne) as creators of the modern Western mind. This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the course with the same title that was previously numbered GRS HI 811.

HI 609 – Christendom Divided: Reformation and Religious Conflict in Early Modern Europe
Religious change in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries centuries; the origins and causes of the Protestant Reformation; the Catholic Reformation; the resulting civil wars in the Germanies, France, and the Netherlands; and pertinent aspects of Tudor and Stuart England. This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the course with the same title that was previously numbered GRS HI 812.

HI 625 – Communications Revolutions from Language to Cyberspace
History of communications revolutions from the origin of human language through writing to current global revolutions. Focus on the western socio-political matrix of communications technology, implications for both cognitive and social relations, and dilemmas created for cultures by the increased flow of information. This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the course by the same title that was previously numbered GRS HI 848.

HI 649 – The Making of Modern Britain
Political, social, and intellectual developments; emphasis on evolution of cabinet government and the party system; the industrial revolution and social problems; political reform and the emergence of democracy. This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the course with the same title that was previously numbered GRS HI 821.

HI 650 – Twentieth Century Britain
A political, social, and cultural history of England with emphasis on the impact of the two world wars, the emergence of the welfare state, the loss of empire, and Britain's relations with Europe. This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the course with the same title that was previously numbered GRS HI 822.

HI 664 – French Feudal Society: 496-1339
A new society based on landholding and personal loyalties developed after the barbarian invasions. Examination of its social tensions and warfare, the role of women, chivalry, the growth of towns and universities, and the centralism of Capetian and Valois kings. This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the course with the same title that was previously numbered GRS HI 831.

HI 666 – French Revolution and Napoleon
Origins of the revolution; principal events in terms of political, social, and cultural impact on France and Europe; Napoleon's restructuring of France and Europe; the settlements of 1815. This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the course with the same title that was previously numbered GRS HI 833.

HI 670 – Germany, 1914-Present
German History from the beginning of World War I to the present with emphasis on the politico-social developments, the Nazi attempt to control Europe, the growing division of Germany, the integration of West and East Germany into power blocs, and German reunification. This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the course with the same title that was previously numbered GRS HI 838.

HI 672 – History of Russia, 1689-1917
Political, socioeconomic, diplomatic, cultural, and intellectual history of Russia from the reign of Peter the Great through the revolutions of 1905 and 1917. This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the course with the same title that was previously numbered GRS HI 845.

HI 673 – History of the Soviet Union and Post-Communist Russia, 1917-Present
Evolution of Soviet Russia from the outbreak of World War I to the present. This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the course with the same title that was previously numbered GRS HI 846.

HI 674 – Issues in Modern Russian and Soviet History, 1861–1956
Modern Russia in the imperial and Soviet eras: from the Great Reforms of Alexander II through the end of Stalin's reign. Examines Russia's political, socioeconomic, and cultural transformation from the traditional society into the first Communist state. This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the course with the same title that was previously numbered GRS HI 847.

HI 689 – History of International Relations, 1900-45
The causes and consequences of the First World War; the search for postwar reconstruction and stability during the twenties; economic collapse, revolutionary nationalism, and fascism during the 1930s; the Second World War and the advent of the bipolar world. Also offered as CAS IR 349. This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the course with the same title that was previously numbered GRS HI 849.

HI 690 – History of International Relations since 1945
The causes and consequences of the Soviet-American Cold War from its origins in Europe to its extension to Asia, Africa, and Latin America. The rise of the multipolar international system, the emergence of the nonaligned blocs, and inter- and intra-alliance conflicts. This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the course with the same title that was previously numbered GRS HI 850.

HI 698 – African American History
The history of African Americans from African origins to present time; consideration of slavery, reconstruction, and ethnic relations from the colonial era to our own time. This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the course with the same title that was previously numbered GRS HI 871.

HI 699 – Teaching College History
The goals, contents, and methods of instruction in history. General teaching-learning issues. Required of all teaching fellows.

HI 702 – Science and American Culture
From the colonial period to the present. Such topics as the American reception of Copernicus and Newton, scientific exploration, the interaction of science and religion, the impact of science on social theory, the rise of "big science," and contemporary "science wars." This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the course with the same title that was previously numbered GRS HI 868.

HI 704 – Science and Christianity
Examines the relationship between science and the Christian tradition in Europe and North America since 1500. Considers the epistemological and metaphysical foundations of both science and Christian thought as they have evolved over time. Also offered as GRS RN 669. This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the course with the same title that was previously numbered GRS HI 869.

HI 705 – American Thought and Culture, 1776 to 1900
Examines how intellectuals constructed an "exceptional" American identity by adjusting provincial Protestant and Enlightenment traditions to the challenges of transnational democratic, Romantic, and secular thought. Topics include Transcendentalism, pro- and anti-slavery movements, philosophical idealism, literary realism, and Darwinian theories. This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the course with the same title that was previously numbered GRS HI 873.

HI 706 – Intellectual History of the United States, 1900 to the Present
Investigates how American thinkers brought about an intellectual revolution in three challenging moments: the naturalist revolt in pragmatic philosophy and modern art; progressive liberals' confrontations with radicalism and new conservatisms; and poststructuralists' uncertain leap beyond modernist science, religion, and humanities. This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the course with the same title that was previously numbered GRS HI 874.

HI 708 – Religious Thought in America
Surveys many of the strategies that American religious thinkers have adopted for interpreting the cosmos, the social order and human experience, and the interaction of those strategies with broader currents of American culture. This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the course with the same title that was previously numbered GRS HI 854. Also offered as GRS RN 614.

HI 710 – Religion, Community, and Culture in Medieval Spain
Interactions between Muslims, Christians, and Jews in medieval Europe's most religiously diverse region -- from the establishment of an Islamic al-Andalus in 711 CE to the final Christian "reconquest" of the peninsula and expulsion of the Jews in 1492 CE. Also offered as GRS RN 710.

HI 721 – The American Revolution, 1750-1800
The political, economic, and ideological causes of the American War for Independence; the construction of a new political system amid the passions of a revolutionary upheaval; and the gradual emergence of a new economic and cultural order in the United States. This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the course with the same title that was previously numbered GRS HI 856.

HI 737 – The United States, 1900-1945
Industrialization; Progressivism; science; religion; expansion and World War I; immigration; the women's movement; Jim Crow; the Great Depression and New Deal; World War II; politics, culture, and diplomacy. This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the course with the same title that was previously numbered GRS HI 863.

HI 745 – Seminar in Early American History and Culture
Readings and research in colonial and early national history and culture. Research topics vary from year to year.

HI 746 – History of International Human Rights
History of international human rights since the eighteenth century. Examines political, social, economic rights, the UN Charter, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, and related international conventions, enforcement, regionalism, globalization, and NGOs. Analyzes tensions between national sovereignty and human rights.

HI 749 – History of Religion in Precolonial Africa
The study of the development of religious traditions in Africa during the period prior to European colonialism. An emphasis on both indigenous religions and the growth and spread of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam in the continent as a whole. Also offered as GRS AA 882 and GRS RN 682.

HI 750 – History of the Atlantic World
Examines the various interactions that shaped the Atlantic World, connecting Europe, Africa, and the Americas between 1400 and 1800. Begins by defining the political interaction, then emphasizes cultural exchange, religious conversion, and the revolutionary era. Also offered as GRS AA 885. This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the course with the same title that was previously numbered GRS HI 885.

HI 751 – Environmental History of Africa
Focus on the African environment and ecological systems over the past 150 years. Topics include climatic change, hydrography, agriculture, deforestation, soil erosion, disease, conservation, famine, and the role of colonialism and government policy in environmental change. This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the course with the same title that was previously numbered GRS HI 894.

HI 760 – European Dimensions of the Black Diaspora
Relates the Black experience in modern Europe to that in the Americas by exploring religion, art, folklore, and politics in such places as England, interwar France, Nazi Germany, and Soviet Russia. Explicates racism, for example in European soccer. Also offered as GRS AA 880. This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the course entitled "Blacks in Modern Europe" that was previously numbered GRS HI 880.

HI 761 – Black Radical Thought
Black radical thought in America, Europe, and Africa since the eighteenth century through writings of abolitionists, leaders of revolutions and liberation movements, Black nationalists, and Black socialists. Emphasizes the global nature of the "Black World" and its role in world history. Also offered as GRS AA 888. This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the course with the same title that was previously numbered GRS HI 888.

HI 777 – The Sword, the Cross, and the Crescent: Byzantium and the Near East
History of Byzantium and its arts and sciences, culture and religion, economy and commerce from the 300s to 1453, when Muslim Ottomans captured Constantinople. Examines the impact of Iconoclasm, the Crusades, cultural relations, and military conflicts with the Islamic East.

HI 794 – U.S.-Mexican Borders
Examines the geographic border, as well as political and cultural boundaries inside Mexico and the U.S., from 1848 to the present. Topics include immigration, Mexican-American culture and politics, the Chicano Movement, economic development, gangs, the drug trade, music and art.

HI 800 – European Historiography
Examines historical writing about Europe through changing trends in method and approach. This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the course with the same title that was previously numbered GRS HI 700.

HI 801 – The Historian's Craft
Intensive training in the best practices of historical research, writing, publication, and oral presentation. Culminates in the production of a publishable journal article. This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the course with the same title that was previously numbered GRS HI 701.

HI 802 – Master's Essay
For students in the BA/MA program.

HI 807 – Topics in Medieval Culture
Topic for Fall 2013: Christian, Muslim, and Jew: Religion, Community, and Culture in Medieval Spain. Interactions between Muslims, Christians, and Jews in medieval Europe's most religiously diverse region - from the establishment of an Islamic al-Andalus in 711 CE to the final Christian "reconquest" of the peninsula and expulsion of the Jews in 1492 CE. Also offered as GRS RN 770. This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the course with the same title that was previously numbered GRS HI 707.

HI 813 – Gender in Medieval Christian Mysticism
Study of the Christian mystical traditions of medieval Europe, both orthodox and heretical, with particular emphasis on the role of gender and authority in mystical writing, practicing, and teaching. Also offered as GRS RN 713. This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the course with the same title that was previously numbered GRS HI 713.

HI 814 – The European Enlightenment
Survey of the intellectual and social transformation of Europe from the 1680s to the French Revolution. Readings draw on both eighteenth-century sources (including Voltaire, Diderot, Condorcet, Lessing, Smith, and Hume) and recent work by historians.

HI 819 – Readings in European History
Required of all graduate students in the field of European history. This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the course with the same title that was previously numbered GRS HI 719.

HI 827 – Early Medieval Spain
History of Spain from the fifth through thirteenth centuries: late Roman Spain, Visigoths, Islamic conquest, society and culture of Islamic Spain, rise of Christian kingdoms; conquest and settlement of Andalusia, social relations and cultural exchange among Christians, Muslims, and Jews.

HI 843 – Problems in Twentieth-Century History
An international and comparative approach to major problems of the twentieth century. Readings on such topics as modernization, urbanization, revolution, and war and its consequences. Topics change annually. This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the course with the same title that was previously numbered GRS HI 743.

HI 849 – United States History 1830 to 1900
Historiographic investigation of various central themes in nineteenth century US history, covering the years 1830-1900. Introduces students to scholarship on such issues as plantation slavery; abolition; Civil War; Reconstruction; and race relations after the Civil War. This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the course with the same title that was previously numbered GRS HI 749.

HI 850 – American Historiography
Examines the methodological and professional development of American historians since the 1880s, changes in the field since the founding period, and new directions in U.S. history. This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the course with the same title that was previously numbered GRS HI 750.

HI 851 – Recent American History
Advanced graduate seminar that investigates significant problems in the history of the United States since 1900. The specific focus of the seminar changes from year-to-year. Recent topics include "Politics and Popular Culture in Twentieth Century America" and "State and Society." This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the course by the same title that was previously numbered GRS HI 751.

HI 852 – Readings in American History
Introduces graduate students to new and recent work in United States history. Readings are tailored to students' particular needs and special emphasis is placed on strategies to prepare for oral exams. This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the course entitled "Readings in American Political History" that was previously numbered GRS HI 752.

HI 854 – Economic History of the United States
American economic development, the role of industry and agriculture, changes in economic structure and institutions, and the historical evolution of roles played by government and business enterprises. This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the course with the same title that was previously numbered GRS HI 754.

HI 855 – American Immigration History
The experience of immigrants to the United States including the study of pre-migration cultures, theories of adaptation, perspectives on race, ethnicity and gender, questions of inclusion and exclusion, transnationalism, and the second generation; training in the methods of oral history. This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the course with the same title that was previously numbered GRS HI 755.

HI 857 – Topics in American Cultural History
Readings seminar focusing on American culture, broadly defined, in various periods of American history. Readings consist of both primary documents and secondary sources relevant to the specific topic. This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the course with the same title that was previously numbered GRS HI 757.

HI 859 – The United States as a World Power
Meets with CAS PO 578. The course material is organized along a debate format. Although the course is primarily concerned with twentieth-century U.S. foreign policy, attention is also given to eighteenth- and nineteenth-century issues. This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the course with the same title that was previously numbered GRS HI 759.

HI 861 – The Civil War Era
Examines the Civil War experience in a broad social and cultural context, looking at Northern and Southern society in antebellum, war-time, and post-war years. Emphasizes issues of slavery, race, and emancipation, as well as political crises of the era.

HI 862 – The Gilded Age, 1877-1914
Examines the economic, social, cultural and political transformation from the end of the Reconstruction until 1914. Specific focus on the industrial revolution, foreign policy, the nation state, the metropolis, and conflicts that emerged in American society during the Gilded Age.
Ferleger.

HI 863 – Topics in American Intellectual History
Introduces graduate students to major methods and themes in the field of U.S. intellectual history. This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the course with the same title that was previously numbered GRS HI 763.

HI 865 – The United States Since 1968
Recent political, economic, social, and cultural history. Includes Nixon, Carter, and Reagan presidencies; stagflation; Watergate; "Me Decade"; end of the Cold War.

HI 866 – History of American Foreign Relations Since 1898
Analysis of the history of American foreign policy from the perspective of the changing world and regional international systems: emphasis on the effect of these systems and the impact of America on the creation and operation of international systems.

HI 870 – African Historiography
Examines historical writing about the African continent through key trends in the study of themes and regional historiographies. Also highlights recent works in the field. This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the course with the same title that was previously numbered GRS HI 770.

HI 872 – The Twentieth-Century American Presidency
Focuses on the alterations in the institution of the presidency during the twentieth century. Consideration of Theodore Roosevelt and Wilson, Franklin Roosevelt, Truman, Eisenhower, Kennedy and Johnson, Nixon, and Reagan.

HI 875 – A History of Women in the United States
This course examines the ideas and experiences of women in the United States from the 1600's through the late twentieth century. The course considers the common factors that shaped women's lives as well as women's diverse class, ethnic, and regional experiences.

HI 877 – Problems in African History
A research seminar in comparative urban history which focuses on, but will not be limited to, cities in Africa. Each student is our resident expert on the history of a city of his or her choice. This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the course with the same title that was previously numbered GRS HI 777.

HI 880 – The History of Food
A comparative perspective on issues of human subsistence through time. Changing patterns of nutrition and health, agricultural production, methods of coping with famine and organizing feasts, origins and impact of culinary and dietary innovations. This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the course with the same title that was previously numbered GRS HI 780.

HI 881 – Readings in Food History
Survey of food history: how food influences, and is influenced by, politics, economics, climate, geography, technology, and culture. Considers the ways food history interconnects with other disciplines and raises important issues for an era of globalized food production, processing, and consumption. This course cannot be taken for credit in addition to the course with the same title that was previously numbered GRS HI 781.

HI 886 – Modern Latin America
Political, economic, and cultural evolution of Latin American republics. Nineteenth century conflicts over "civilization" vs "barbarism," liberalism vs conservatism, and slavery. Democracy and military rule in the twentieth century and efforts to create new forms of politics and citizenship.

HI 889 – Early Chinese History
The development of Chinese civilization through the traditional, medieval, and early modern periods; emphasis on intellectual history and political, social, and economic institutions.

HI 890 – Modern Chinese History
History of China from the Opium War through the Chinese cultural revolution to the post-Mao era. Analysis of the traditional continuities and political, economic, social, and intellectual changes stimulated by modernization and revolution.

HI 892 – The Middle East
General introduction to the history, culture, and current development of the Middle East. Objective is to introduce students to a specific geographical and historical experience as well as to acquaint them with some of the literature in the field.

HI 900 – Dissertation Writing
A workshop designed for students writing a dissertation that provides them with critical responses to their work and addresses important issues associated with becoming a professional historian.

HI 901 – Directed Study: American History
Directed Study on a topic in American History.

HI 902 – Directed Study: European History
Directed study on a topic in European History

HI 903 – Directed Study: African History
Directed study on a topic in African history.

HI 904 – Latin American History
Directed Study on a topic in Latin American history.

HI 905 – Directed Study: Middle Eastern History
Directed study on a topic in Middle Eastern history.

HI 906 – directed Study: East Asian History
Directed study on a topic in East Asian history.

HI 907 – Directed Study: Slavic History
Directed study on a topic in Slavic history.

HI 908 – Directed Study: English History
Directed study on a topic in English history.

HI 910 – Directed Study: History of Science
Directed study on a topic in the history of science.

HI 957 – Directed Study: American Economic History
Directed study on a topic in American economic history.

HI 959 – Directed Research: American History
Directed research on a topic in American history.

HI 961 – Directed Research: Latin American History
Directed research on a topic in Latin American history.

HI 963 – Directed Research: English History
Directed research on a topic in English history.

HI 965 – Directed Research: Slavic History
Directed research on a topic in Slavic history.
Geifman.

HI 967 – Directed Research: European History
Directed research on a topic in European history.

HI 973 – Directed Research: African History
Directed research on a topic in African history.

HI 975 – Directed Research: Middle Eastern History
Directed research on a topic in Middle Eastern history.

HI 977 – Directed Research: Islamic History
Directed research on a topic in Islamic history.

HI 978 – Ds S Asian Hist

HI 979 – Directed Research: East Asian History
Directed research on a topic in East Asian history.

HI 980 – Directed Research: History of Science
Directed research on a topic in the history of science.

HI 981 – Cert Ft Study

HI 982 – Cert Ft Study

HI 983 – Cont Study Pt

HI 984 – Cont Study Pt

HI 985 – Cont Study Cft

HI 986 – Cont Study Cft