Reporting by the
American News Media:
A Bibliography of Scholarship and Criticism, 1990-2001
William A Dorman and Robert Manoff
Global Journalism Program
Note No. 1
CENTER FOR WAR,
PEACE, AND THE
Department of Journalism, College of
Communication, Boston University
640 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston MA 02215
provides citations to the most significant books, articles, chapters,
and other publications and ephemera (including those on the Web) on the
subject of the news media and foreign/international reporting during
the decade-plus following the fall of the Berlin Wall.
This volume is a sequel to an earlier publication, American Press Coverage of U.S.-Soviet
Relations, the Soviet Union, Nuclear Weapons, Arms Control, and
National Security, by William A. Dorman, Robert Manoff, and
Jennifer Weeks (New York: Center for War, Peace, and the News Media,
1988, 102 pp.). This volume became a basic resource for scholars
writing about news media coverage of these issues; it remains available
from the Center for War, Peace, and the News Media.
The present publication is designed to serve as a resource for
scholars, journalists, activists, and others interested in how the
American news media covered the world, and how it organized itself to
do so, from the end of the Cold War until 9/11 and its sequelae (notably the wars in
Afghanistan and Iraq) altered the journalistic landscape. (We have also
included an occasional pre-1990 publication when it was deemed of
particular contemporary interest.) A subsequent volume will identify
research that has been done, and significant analysis that has
appeared, on the U.S. news media's international reporting since
September 11, 2001.
The Center’s Global Journalism Program, for which this is a Research
Note, has been working for several years to develop new concepts for,
and practical approaches to, coverage of the world for an American
public that remains untutored and often confused by developments beyond
our shores. What is more, since the news media remain principal
information sources for diverse policy and political constituencies,
developing the capacity to better inform them remains a critical goal
in a world increasingly shaped by the forces of interdependence,
globalism, and continuing international and “asymmetrical” conflict.
(Information on the Global Journalism Program, as well as other Center
activities, is available from Robert Manoff at email@example.com)
Finally, the Center would like to express its gratitude to the
Rockefeller Brothers Fund, whose institutional grant supported much of
the research for this publication.
– W.A.D and R.M.
Reporting by the
Bibliography of Scholarship and Criticism, 1990-2001
Ackerman, Seth. “Al-Aqsa Intifada and the U.S.
Media.” Journal of Palestine Studies
Winter 2002: 61-74.
---. “Mission: Implausible. What the Media Didn’t Tell You About
the Chinese Embassy Bombing.” In These Times 26 June 2000: 14.
---. “New York Times on Iraq Sanctions: A Case of Journalistic
Malpractice.” Extra! Fairness & Accuracy in Reporting (FAIR)
12 Nov. 2002
---. “Will the Media Remember Al-Shifa?” Fairness & Accuracy
Reporting: The National Media Watchdog Group 17 Aug. 1999
12 Nov. 2002 <http://www.fair.org/press-releases/al-shifa.html>.
"Action Alert: Police Violence in Genoa -- Par for the
Course? Media Complacency
Helps Normalize Assaults on Demonstrators." Fairness &
Reporting: The National Media Watchdog Group 26 July 2001
12 Nov. 2002 <http://www.fair.org/activism/genoa.html>.
Adams, J.B. “A Qualitative Analysis of Domestic and Foreign News
on the AP TA Wire.” Gazette 10 (1964) : 285-295.
Albright, Madeleine K. “Around-the-Clock News Cycle a Double-Edged
Sword.” Harvard International Journal of Press/Politics 6.1
Albrow, Mohammed and E. King. Globalization, Knowledge and
Society. London: Sage, 1990.
Alleyne, D.M. International Power and International
Communication. Oxford: Macmillan, 1995.
Alterman, Eric. Who Speaks for America? Why Democracy Matters in
Foreign Policy. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1998.
Althaus, Scott L. “Revising the Indexing Hypothesis: Officials, Media,
and the Libya Crisis.” Political Communication 13.4 (1996):
Amanpour, Christine. Television’s Role in Foreign Policy.” Quill,
April 1996, 16-17.
Ammon, Royce J. Global Television and the Shaping of World Politics:
CNN, Telediplomacy, and Foreign Policy. London: McFarland &
Anderson, Michael H. and Jim Richstad. Crisis in International
News: Policies and Prospects. New York: Columbia University
Arnett, Peter. “Goodbye World.” American Journalism Review
Nov. 1998: 50.
Aukofer F. and W. Lawrence. America's Team: The Odd Couple. A
Report on the Relationship Between the Media and the Military.
Vanderbilt: Freedom Forum First Amendment Center, 1995.
Auletta, Ken. Three Blind Mice. New York: Random House, 1991.
Badsey, Stephen. “The Media and UN ‘Peacekeeping’ Since the Gulf
War.” Journal of Conflict Studies XVII.1 (1997) 7-27.
Baker, Ross K. “Media and Politics – Deaf to the World.” Media
Studies Journal 14.1 (2000): 94.
Ballew-Gonzales, Christine. “Currents: Trauma, Journalists Counseling
Journalists.” Columbia Journalism Review online
Apr. 2002 <http://www.cjr.org/year/02/1/gonzales.asp>.
Barnes, Fred. “Mr. Barnes I presume.” The Weekly Standard
13 Sept. 1999: 4.
Barkin, Steve M. “Satellite Extravaganza.” American Journalism
Review Sept. 2001:
Barringer, Felicity and Geraldine Fabrikant. “As an Attack
Unfolds, a Struggle to Provide Vivid Images to
Homes.” The New York Times online 12 Sept. 2001
12 Nov. 2002
Barton, Gina. “Patriotism and the News.” Quill Dec. 2001:
Bates, Benjamin. “Global Media Economics: Commercialization,
Concentration, and Integration of the World Media Market.”
Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly 75 (1998): 845-6.
Bauder, David. “Media Gets Some High Marks for Coverage of
Attacks.” Associated Press 22 Sept. 2001.
Baum, Matthew A. “Sex, Lies, and War: How Soft News Brings Foreign
Policy to the Inattentive Public.” American Political Science Review
March 2002: 96.
Beamish, Rita. “US Tries Spinning the Globe.”
Columbia Journalism Review Nov./Dec. 1999: 11.
Beaudoin, Christopher E. and Esther Thorson. “LA Times Offered as
Model for Foreign News Coverage.” Association for Education in
Journalism and Mass Communication Newspaper Research Journal
Winter 2001: 80-93.
Becker, Lee, Wilson Lowery, Dane Claussen and William Anderson. “Why
Does the Beat go on?” Newspaper Research Journal Fall 2000: 2-16.
Bell, Steve. “Impact of the Global Media Revolution.” USA
Today Mar. 1999: 28-31.
Benesch, Susan. “The Rise of Solutions Journalism.”
Columbia Journalism Review Mar./Apr. 1998: 36-39.
Bennett, W.L. and D. Paletz (Eds.). Taken by Storm: The Media,
Public Opinion and U.S. Foreign Policy in the Gulf
War. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1994.
Berger, G. “Grave New World? Democratic Journalism
Enters the Global 21st Century.” Communication Abstracts 23
Berlow Alan. “Human Rights Reporting: Beyond Body Counts
and Statistics.” Investigative Reporters and Editors
Journal 20.2 (1975): 3-5.
Berry, Nicholas O. Foreign Policy and the Press: An Analysis of
the New York Times’ Coverage of U.S. Foreign Policy. New York :
Greenwood Press, 1990.
Beschloss, Michael R. Presidents, Television and Foreign Crises.
Washington, D.C.: The Annenberg Washington Program in Communications
Policy Studies of Northwestern University, 1993.
Binion, Carla. “The Media as Propaganda Ministry.” Online
Journal 2 Oct. 2001.
12 Nov. 2002
Blumenthal, Robin Goldwyn. “Woolly Times on the Web.”
Columbia Journalism Review, Sept./Oct. 1997: 34-36.
Bolling, Landrum R (ed.). Reporters Under Fire: U.S. Media
Coverage of Conflicts in Lebanon and Central America. Boulder:
Westview Press, 1985.
Boyd-Barratt, O. The Globalization of News. London: Sage, 1998.
---. “National and International News Agencies: Issues of Crisis
and Realignment.” Communication Abstracts 23 (2000): 4.
Brady, Lee Ann and Atiba Pertilla. “The Look of Local News.”
Columbia Journalism Review Nov./Dec. 2001: 11-12.
Bridge, Junior. "International News is Dominated by Violence,
Male View." Quill June 1995: 22.
“Bringing the World Home: Showing Readers their Global
Connections.” The American Society of Newspaper Editors 23 July
1999. ASNE <www.asne.org>.
Brock, Peter. "Dateline Yugoslavia: the Partisan Press.” Foreign
Policy 93 (1993-93): 152-172.
Brown, Velma L. International News Coverage in Selected African
American Newspapers: July 1992-June 1993.
Diss. Howard U, 1995. Ann Arbor: UMI, 1995.
Caliendo, Stephen M., Mark P. Gibney and Angela Payne. “All the News
That’s Fit to Print? NY Times Coverage of Human Rights
Violations.” Harvard International Journal of Press/Politics 4.4
Campbell, Kim. “‘Send in the Historians,' Cry Critics of
Sound-bite News.” Christian Science Monitor 4 Oct. 2001: A18.
--- “World on Media; US is Long on Game Shows, Short on Foreign
News.” Christian Science Monitor 1 Mar. 2001: A15.
Carpenter, Ted Galen. The Captive Press: Foreign Policy Crises and the
First Amendment. Washington: Cato Institute, 1995.
Carr, Forrest. “Six O’clock Rocks; What Happens to your Local News
Between 6 and 11?” Columbia Journalism Review Nov./Dec. 1999:
Carrier, Rebecca Ann. Globalization and Domestication of
International News: A Content Analysis of Five
National Broadcasters’ Television News Coverage of the 1991
Persian Gulf War. Diss. University of Illinois at
Urbana-Champaign, 1998. Ann Arbor: UMI,
Carroll, Raymond L. and C.A. Tuggle. 1997. “The World
Outside: Local TV News Treatment of Imported News.” Journalism
& Mass Communication Quarterly 74 (1997): 123-133.
Carruthers, Susan L. The Media At War. New York: St. Martin’s
Case, Tony. 4 May “Local News Attracts Readers."
Editor & Publisher 4 May
Cassara, Catherine. “U.S. Newspaper Coverage of Human Rights in Latin
America, 1975-1982: Exploring President Carter’s Agenda-Building
Influence.” Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly 75
Chadwick, Paul. “Media Accounts and Accountability.” Journal of
Contemporary Analysis 72.1 (2000): 37.
Chandran, Jayanti and Joe Atkins. “Asian News in Time and India
Today.” International Communication Bulletin 1998: 33.
Chang, Kuang-Kuo. “Auto Trade Policy and the Press: Auto Elite as a
Source of the Media Agenda.” Communication Abstracts 23
Chang, Tsan-Kuo. “All Countries Not Created Equal to be News: World
System and International Communication.” Communication Research
25 (1998): 528-563.
Chang, Tsan-Kuo and Jae-Won Lee. “Factors Affecting Gatekeepers’
Selection of Foreign News: A National Survey of Newspaper Editors.”
Journalism Quarterly 69 (Fall 1992): 554-61.
Chang, Tsan-Kuo, Pamela J. Shoemaker and Nancy Brendlinger.
“Determinants of International News Coverage in the U.S. Media.”
Communication Research 14 (1987): 369-414.
---. "Deviance as a Predictor of
Newsworthiness: Coverage of International Events in the U.S.
Media." Communication Yearbook 10 (1987): 348-65.
Chen, G.M. and W.J. Starosta (Eds.). Communication and Global
Society. New York: Peter Lang, 2000.
Chun, Park. A Comparative Analysis of the Selection Process and
Content of Television International News in the
United States and Korea: A Case Study of the U.S. CNN
PrimeNews, Korean KBS 9 o’clock News and SBS 8 o’clock News
Programs. Diss. Ohio U, 1994. Ann
Arbor: UMI, 1995. 9434242.
Chunne, Dante. “Pushed off the Press Plane.” Columbia Journalism
Review May/Jun. (1998): 14.
Clem, Patricia. “TV Outlook for the ’90s: Bearish for Network News,
Bullish for Local News.” Quill Sept., 32 1990.
CNN. Global Forum: Responsible Journalism or Maddening Frenzy?
Cockburn, Alexander. “The Ethics of Photojournalism.” Salon 4 Sept.
Coen, Rachel. “After the Humanitarian War: TV Learns to Accept Ethnic
Cleansing in Kosovo.” Extra!. Nov./Dec. 1999 FAIR
12 Nov. 2002 <http://www.fair.org/extra/9911/kosovo.html>.
Cohen, A.A. et al. Global Newsrooms: Local Audiences. New Jersey: John
Cohen, Bernard C. The Press and Foreign Policy. Princeton:
Princeton University Press, 1963.
Cohen, Jeff. “Rule of Law vs. Rule of War. Are Media Missing the
Lesson of Oklahoma City?”
Fairness & Accuracy in Reporting: The National Media Watchdog
Group. 19 Sept. 2001 FAIR
12 Nov. 2002 <www.fair.org/articles/wtc-okcity.html>.
Cohen, Jeff and Seth Ackerman. 1998. “Media Critic: Media in Cruise
Control.” In These Times 22.22 (1998): 8.
Cohen, Richard. “The Terrorism Story—And How We Blew It.”
The Washington Post 4 Oct. 2001: A13.
Cohen, Stephen. “American Journalism and Russia’s Tragedy.” The Nation
online 2 Oct.
12 Nov. 2002 http://www.thenation.com/doc.mhtml?i=20001002&s=cohen
Cohen, William S. “Be Skeptical, but in a Crisis Give us the Benefit of
the Doubt.” Harvard International Journal of Press/Politics
5.2 (2000) : 6-16.
Colorito, Rita. “Ignoring Foreign News.” The World and I
15.5 (2000) :76-81.
“Compelling Writing on Foreign Affairs.” National Conference of
Editorial Writers. NCEW
12 Nov. 2002 <http://www.ncew.org/con99for.html>.
Corporon, John. “Benchmarking: What Four Quality Stations can Teach
You.” Columbia Journalism Review Nov./Dec. 1999: 89-91.
Cramer, Chris. “American Apocalypse: the Day that Shook the
World.” The Guardian 17 Sept. 2001: A 8.
Crispin Miller, Mark. “Squelching the News in Democracy’s Name.”
Mother Jones 24 Oct. 2001
12 Nov. 2002
Crobett, Julia B. “Atmospheric Ozone: a Global or Local Issue? Coverage
in Canadian and US newspapers.” Canadian Journal of Communication
18 (1993): 81-87.
Cunningham, Brent. “Global Blinders; The End of the Cold War Hastened a
Retreat From Foreign News—Until September 11.” Columbia
Journalism Review Nov./Dec. 2001: 110.
---. “The AP Now.” Columbia Journalism Review
Nov./Dec. 2000: 50.
Daniels, LeAnne. Covering the World at Three Prestigious U.S.
Newspapers: How Newspaper Environments
Influence International News Decisions. Diss. Indiana
U, 1994. Ann Arbor: UMI, 1995.
Dayan, D. and E. Katz. Media Event: The Live Broadcasting of
History. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1992.
Davis, Paul M. "Foreign News: A Casual Disinterest." Quill Apr.
Demertzis, Nicolas, Sylianos Papathanassopoulos and Antonis
Armenakis. “Media and Nationalism: The Macedonian
Question.” Harvard International Journal of
Press/Politics 4.3 (1999): 26-50. Also available
12 Nov. 2002
Denhem, Bryan E. “Anonymous Attribution Two Periods of Military
Conflict: Using Logistic Regression to Study Veiled Sources in American
Newspapers.” Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly 74 (1997):
Dennis, Everette E. “Life Without the ‘Evil Empire’: New Ways to Make
Sense of the World, in The Media and Foreign Policy in the Post-Cold
War World. New York: Freedom Forum Media Studies Center, 1993.
Diamond, Larry and Marc Plattner (Eds.). Nationalism, Ethnic Conflict,
and Democracy. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press,
Dominick, Joseph R. "Geographic Bias in National News."
Journal of Communication 27 (1977): 94-99.
Domke, D. “Strategic Elites, the Press, and Race Relations.”
Journal of Communication 50 (2000): 115-140.
Dorman, William A. and Mansour Farhang. U.S. Press and Iran:
Foreign Policy and the Journalism of Deference. Berkeley: University of
California Press, 1987.
Douglas, Ab. On Foreign Assignment: The Inside Story of Journalism’s
Elite Corps. Calgary, Canada: Detselig Enterprises, Ltd., 1993.
Downie, Leonard, Jr. and Robert G. Kaiser. The News About the News:
American Journalism in Peril. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2002.
Downing, John, Ali Mohammadi and Annabelle Sreberny-Mohammadi (Eds.).
Questioning the Media: A Critical Introduction. London:
Drake, Bruce. “Giving a Damn.” Columbia Journalism Review
Mar./Apr. 1998: 8.
Ehrlich, Dan. “Beware: Corporate Journalism.” Editor &
Publisher 18 Oct. 1997: 72.
Efron, Sonni. “Clinton Under Fire Reaction: World of Laughter,
World of Tear.” Los Angeles Times 19 Aug. 1998, Record edition:
Ellis, Stephen. “Reporting Africa.” Current History
99. 637 (2000): 221-6.
Emery, Michael. “An Endangered Species: The International News Hole.”
Media Studies Journal 3 (1989): 151-164.
Emery, Michael. On the Front Lines: Following America’s Foreign
Correspondents Across the Twentieth Century. Washington, DC: American
University Press, 1995.
Esser, Frank, Carsten Reinemann and David Fan. “Spin Doctors in the
United States, Great Britain, and Germany: Metacommunication about
Media Manipulation.” Harvard International Journal of
Press/Politics 6.1(2001): 16-45.
Evans, Harold. “What a Century!” Columbia Journalism Review
Jan./Feb. 1999 : 27.
Fair, Jo Allen. "War, Famine, and Poverty: Race in the Construction of
Image." Journal of Communication Inquiry 17.2 (1993): 5-22.
Fair, Jo Allen. "Are We Really the World? Coverage of U.S. Food Aid in
1980-89." Africa's Media Image. Ed. Beverly G. Hawk. New York: Praeger
Publishers, 1992: 109-121.
Fan, David P. and Jennifer Ostini. “Human Rights Media Coverage
in Chinese East Asia.” Annals of the American Academy of
Political and Social Science 566 (1999): 93-108.
Featherstone, Michael (ed). Global Culture. London: Sage,
Featherstone, Michael. Undoing Culture: Globalization, Postmodernism
and Identity. London: Sage, 1995.
Ferguson, Mohammed. “The Mythology about Globalization.” European
Journal of Communication 7 (1992) : 69-93.
Finefrock, Camille. “Players Only: Where Media and Foreign Policy
Elites Talk Geopolitics.” Columbia Journalism Review Mar./Apr.
Fiske, J. Remote Control: Television Audiences and Cultural
Power. London: Routledge, 1989.
The Media and Foreign Policy in the Post-Cold War World. New
York: Freedom Forum Media Studies Center, Columbia University,
Folkenflik, David. “Foreign News Back in Demand.” Baltimore Sun
26 Sept. 2001, Final edition:1E.
Folkenflik, David. “Media Juggle Wartime Responsibilities; TV: CNN and
ABC Show how Complicated it can be for Reporters when Patriotism and
Journalism Meet.” Baltimore Sun, 2 Nov. 2001, Final edition: 1E.
Fortner, S. Robert. International Communication. Belmont:
Fost, Dan. “Media Helping to Drive Anthrax Hysteria.” San Francisco
Chronicle 17 Oct. 2001: B1.
“Framing Stories in Macedonia.” Mediachannel.org 16 May 2001.
12 Nov. 2002 <http://www.mediachannel.org>.
Frankland, Mark. “Global Reporting in the ’90s.” IPI Report,
Fourth Quarter. Vienna, 1998
Freedman, L. "The Media and Foreign Policy.” Dispatches: The
Journal of the Territorial Army Pool of Information Officers 1996: 141.
Frederick, H.H. Global Communication and International
Relations. Belmont, Wadsworth, 1993.
Fridner, Peter. “Media Network to Facilitate Regional Links.”
Inter Press Service. Global News Bank, Oct. 1996.
Friedland, L. Covering the World: International Television News
Services. New York: 20th Century Fund Press, 1992.
Friedman, J. Cultural Identity and Global Process. London:
Friedman, Thomas. The Lexus and the Olive Tree. New York: Farrar,
Strauss, and Giroux, 1999.
Friedman, Thomas and Ignacio Ramonet. “Dueling Globalizations: A Debate
Between Thomas L. Friedman and Igancio Ramonet.” Foreign Policy
116 (1999): 18.
Galtung, Johan and Mari Homboe Ruge. “The Structure of Foreign
News.” Journal of Peace Research 1 (1965): 64-91.
Galtung, Johan and Richard C. Vincent. Global Glastnost; Toward a New
World Information and Communication Order? Creskill:
Hampton Press, 1992.
Garon, Lisa. “A Case Study of Functional Subjectivity in Media
Coverage: the Gulf War on TV.” Canadian Journal of Communication
21 (1996): 317-337.
Garrett, Laurie. “‘You Just Signed his Death Warrant’: AIDS
Politics and the Journalist’s Role.” Columbia Journalism
Review Nov./Dec. 2000: 62-3.
Garrison, Chad. “Reporting the Other.” IRE Journal
Jan./Feb. 1999: 15.
Gaziano, Cecilie. “Forecast 200: Widening Knowledge Gaps.”
Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly 74(1997): 237-264.
Gerbner, George, and George Marvanyi. “The Many Worlds of the World’s
Press.” Journal of Communication 27 (1977): 52-66.
Giffard, C. Anthony and Nancy K. Rivenburgh. “International Media
Coverage – News Agencies, National Images and Global Media
Events.” Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly 77
Gilboa, Eytan, (ed.) Media & Conflict: Framing Issues, Making
Policy, Shaping Opinions. Ardsley, N.Y.: Transnational Publishers, 2002.
Gilens, Martin. “Race and Poverty in America: Public Misperceptions and
the American News Media.” Public Opinion Quarterly Winter 1996:
Giuffo, John. “Smoke Gets In Our Eyes.” Columbia Journalism
Review Sept./Oct. 2001:14.
Gjelten, Tom. Professionalism in War Reporting: A Correspondent’s
View. Washington: Carnegie Commission on Preventing Deadly Conflict,
Go, Miriam. “Journalists-in-Government Issue Deserves
Discussion.” Mediachannel 30 Jan. 2002.
Vision New Media 1 Apr. 2002
12 Nov. 2002
Goldfarb, Michael. “All Journalism Is Local: Reporting on the Middle
East. How the U.S. and European Media Cover the Same Events
Differently.” Harvard International Journal of
Press/Politics 6.3 (2001): 110-115.
Gonzenbach, William J., et al. “The World of U.S. Network Television
News: Eighteen Years of International and Foreign News Coverage.”
Gazette 50 (1992).
Gowing, Nik. “Media Coverage: Help or Hindrance in Conflict
Prevention.” Report to the Carnegie Commission on Preventing Deadly
---. "Real Time Television Coverage of Armed Conflicts and
Diplomatic Crises: does it Pressure or Distort Foreign Policy
Decisions?" Discussion Paper 94-1. JFK School of
Government, Harvard University, June, 1994.
Gozenbach, W.J., M.D. Arant and R.L. Stevenson. “The World of US
Network Television News: 18 Years of International and Foreign News
Coverage.” Gazette; International Journal of Mass Communication
Studies 50 (1992): 53-72.
Grier, Peter. “The Motto on Foreign News Coverage: Through a Lens, Dark
and Infrequently.” Christian Science Monitor January 30 1996: A1.
Graber, Doris. Mass Media and American Politics. Washington, DC:
Congressional Quarterly Press, 1993.
Guensburg, Carol. “Online Access to the War Zone.” American Journalism
Review May 1999: 12-13.
Hachten, William A. The World News Prism. 5th ed. Iowa:
Iowa State University Press, 1999.
Hackett, Bob. “Covering (Up) the ‘War on Terrorism’: The Master Frame
and the Media Chill.” 24 Oct. 2001.
12 Nov. 2002
Hader, Leon. “Covering the New World Disorder.” Columbia
Journalism Review July/Aug. 1994: 24-29.
Hallin, Daniel C. The Uncensored War: the Media and Vietnam.
Berkeley: University of California Press, 1986.
Halloran, J.D. 1993. “What We Urgently Require is a
Globalization of Moral Responsibility.” Intermedia 2.2(1993): 4-7.
Hargreaves, Ian. “Is There a Future for Foreign News?” Historical
Journal of Film, Radio and Television 20 (2000): 55-61.
Hamelink, C.J. The Politics of World Communication.
London: Sage, 1994.
Hamilton, J.M. Main Street America and the Third World.
Cabin John: Seven Lock Press, 1986.
---. “The News of the World is Right Here on Main Street.”
Quill 1985: 73.
Henry, W. A. “History as It Happens.” Time 6 Jan. 1992 .
Herman, Edward S. “Good and Bad Genocide: Double Standards in
Coverage of Suharto and Pol Pot.” Extra! Sept./Oct. 1998.
Herman, Edward and Noam Chomsky Manufacturing Consent: The
Political Economy of the Mass Media. London: Vintage, 1994.
Herman, E.S. and R.W. McChesney The Global Media. London:
Hess, Stephen. International News and Foreign Correspondents.
Washington, DC: Brookings Institution, 1996.
Hester, Al. "Theoretical Considerations in Predicting Volume and
Direction in International Information Flow." Gazette 19 (1973):
---. “An Analysis of News Flow from Developed and Developing
Nations.” Gazette 17 (1971): 29-43.
Hickey, Neil. “Different Cultures, Different Coverage.”
Columbia Journalism Review online Mar./Apr. 2002
12 Nov. 2002 <http://www.cjr.org/year/02/2/hickey.asp>.
---. “Access denied: Pentagon’s war reporting rules are toughest
ever.” Columbia Journalism Review Jan/Feb 2002:
---. “Ten Mistakes that led to the CNN/Time Fiasco.”
Columbia Journalism Review Sept./Oct. 1998: 26-32.
---. “Money Lust.” Columbia Journalism Review
July/Aug. 1998: 28.
---. “Can CBS News Come Back?” Columbia Journalism Review
Jan./Feb. 1998: 28.
---. “Over There.” Columbia Journalism Review
Nov./Dec 1996: 53-6.
Hjarvard, Stig (ed.) News in a Globalized Society. Göteborg:
Hoge, J.F. “The End of Predictability.” Media Studies
Journal 9.1 (1995): 111.
Hoge, James F. “Foreign News: Who Gives a Damn?”
Columbia Journalism Review Nov./Dec. 1997: 48-52.
---. “Media Pervasiveness.” Foreign Affairs July/Aug 1994:
Hohenberg, John. Foreign Correspondence: The Great Reporters and Their
ed. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 1995.
Holguin, Lina Maria. “The Media in Modern Peacekeeping.”
Peace Review 10 (1998): 639.
Hornik, Richard. “A New Murrow.” Media Studies Journalism
Hughes, John. “Pentagon and Press Can Both Do Their Job.”
Christian Science Monitor 14 Nov. 2001.
Hunter, Jane. “As Rwanda Bled, Media Sat on Their
Hands.” Extra! July/Aug. 1994 FAIR 12 Nov. 2002
Husband, Charles (ed). “General Introduction: Ethnicity and
Media Democratization within the Nation State.” A Richer Version:
The Development of Ethnic Minority Media in Western Democracies.
London: UNESCO, John Libby, 1994.
Husselbee, L. Paul and Guido H. Stempel III. “Contrast in U.S.
Media Coverage of Two Major Canadian Elections.” Journalism &
Mass Communication Quarterly 74 (1997 ) 591-601.
Iggers, Jeremy. Good News, Bad News. Oxford: Westview
Ignatieff, Michael. Virtual War. London: Chatto and Windus, 2000.
Jurkowitz, Mark. “What’s News: Marry a Multimillionaire: Soft News for
the New Millennium.” Harvard International Journal of
Press/Politics 5.3(2000): 108-110.
Johnson, Melissa A. “Predicting News Flow From Mexico.”
Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly 74 (1997): 315-330.
“IPI Accuses Bush Administration of Curving Media.” Lexis-Nexis
database 21 Feb. 2002. Deutsche Presse-Agentur
1 Apr. 2002 <http://lexis-nexis.com>.
Kalb, Marvin. “How to Cover a War.” New York Times 17 Oct. 2001.
---. “The Industrialization of News.” New Perspectives
Quarterly 15.5 (1998).
Kaplan, David E. and Michael Schaffer. “Losing the Psywar ; The
World's Most Media-Savvy Country Can't Seem to Tell its Own Story in
the Mideast and Asia.” U.S. News and World Report 8 Oct.
Kapner, Suzanne. “Juggling Act for Pakistani Paper in
Britain.” New York Times 29 Oct. 2001, Final Edition: C11.
Kapusciniski, Ryszard. “Media: We Live in a Global
Village. So Why Doesn’t this Woman Give a Damn About the
News?” Guardian 16 Aug. 1999: 4.
Kariel, H. and L. Rosenvall. “Factors Influencing International
News Flow.” Journalism Quarterly 61 (1984): 509-516.
Kavoori, Anandam P. “Discursive Texts, Reflexive Audiences:
Global Trends in Television News.” Journal of Broadcasting and
Electronic Media Summer 1999: 386.
---. Globalization, Media Audiences and Television News: A
Comparative Study of American, British, Israeli, German and French
Audiences. Diss. University of Maryland College Park,
1994. Ann Arbor: UMI, 1995. 9514540.
Kees, Beverly. “Newsroom Training: Where’s the
Investment?” Poynter.org 9 Apr. 2002. 15
---. “Internet May Not Bring Us Together, Reporter Reflects.” The
29 Mar. 2000. The Freedom Forum
12 Nov. 2002
Kennamer, J.D., ed. Public Opinion, the Press and Public Policy.
Westport, Ct.: Praeger, 1992.
Kennedy, George “The British See Things Differently.”
Columbia Journalism Review online
12 Nov. 2002 http://www.cjr.org/year/02/2/kennedy.asp
Kim, K. and G.A. Barrett. 1996. “The Determinants of
International News Flow: a Network Analysis.” Communication News
23 (1996): 323-352.
Kim, Sung Tae. “Making a Difference: U.S. Press Coverage of the
Kwangju and Tianannmen Pro-Democracy Movements.” Journalism &
Mass Communication Quarterly 77(2000): 22-36.
King, Anthony, ed. Culture, Globalization and the
World-System. London: Macmillian, 1991.
Kirtz, William. “Global Means Local.” Quill Mar./Apr. 1999:
---. "Should Journalists Be Crusaders?" Quill May 1997:10.
---. “Are Audiences Stuffed or Starved.” Quill
Mar./Apr. 1999: 23.
Knight, A. “Covering the Global Village: Foreign Reporting on the
Internet.” Communication Abstracts 22 (1999): 1.
Knightly, Philip. The First Casualty: The War Correspondent as Hero and
Myth Maker from the Crimea to Kosovo. New York: Harcourt Brace &
Koch, Gertrud. “The New Disconnect: The Globalization of the Mass
Media.” Constellations 6.1(1999): 26-34.
Koch, Kathy. Journalism Under Fire.” The CQ Researcher 8.48
Koch, Kathleen. “Report From the TV News Trenches.” Quill Apr.
Kohut, Andrew. “Balancing News Interests: The Great Juggling
Journalism Review July/Aug. 2001: 58.
---. “Internet Users are on the Rise; but Public Affairs
Journalism Review Jan./Feb. 2000: 68.
Kohut, Andrew and Robert C. Toth. The People, The Press, and the Use of
Force. Washington: Times-Mirror Center for the People and the Press,
Konner, Joan. “Love the Profession, Fight the Industry.”
Journalism Review July/Aug. 1997: 6.
Kraidy, Marwan. “The Global, the Local and the Hybrid: A Native
Ethnography of Globalization.” CSMC: A Publication of
Speech Dec. 1999.
Kull, Steven and I. Mohammed Destler. Misreading the
Public: The Myth of a New Isolationism. Washington, DC: Brookings
Institution Press, 1999.
Kulman, Linda, Richard Newman and Mark Mazzetti. “Covering All
Bases: Patriotism, Objectivity, and the Pursuit of Journalism in
Wartime.” U.S. News and World Report 19 Nov. 2001: 44-45.
Kurach, B. “Do the News Media make Foreign Policy?” Foreign
Policy 102 (1996): 169-179.
Kurtz, Howard. “War Coverage Takes a Negative Turn; Civilian
Deaths, Military Errors Become Focus as Reporters Revisit Bombing
Sites” Washington Post 17 Feb. 2002, Final Edition: A14.
---. “CNN Chief Orders ‘Balance’ in War News.” Washington Post 31
Oct. 2001: C10.
---. “The Fog of War.” Washington Post 8 Oct. 2001: C1.
Lacy, S. S. “The Effects of Intra-city Competition on Daily
Newspaper Content.” Journalism Quarterly 64(1987) : 281-290.
Lambert, Richard. “Business News and International
Reporting.” Media Studies Journal 13.2 (1999).
Langton, Loup. "Third World Coverage in Four Prestige U.S.
Newspapers." Association for Education in Journalism and Mass
Communication. Washington, DC, 1989
Larsen, Jonathan Z. “Forty Years on a Roller Coaster” Columbia
Journalism Review Nov./Dec. 2001: 40.
---. “The Brightest and the Best.” Columbia Journalism
Review Nov./Dec. 1998: 63.
Larson, James F. and Melvin J. Voigt (Eds.). Television’s Window on the
Word: International Affairs Coverage on the US Networks. Norwood, N.J.
: Ablex Pub. Corp., 1984.
Lasica, J.D. "Conveying the War in Human Terms." American
Layton, Charles. “It’s a Small World.” American Journalism
Review June 2000: 52-63.
Lederman, Jim. Battle Lines: The American Media and the Intifada. New
York: Holt, 1992.
Leigh, David. “Global Disclosure; Today's remarkable revelations
British American Tobacco owe their genesis to a group of investigative
whose newsroom is the world.” The Guardian 31 Jan. 2000: 8.
Lent, John. “Foreign News in the American Media.” Journal
of Communication 27 (1977): 46.
Lewis, Charles. “World’s Journalists Should Collaborate in Age of
Globalization.” Remarks to Global Investigative Journalism
Conference in Copenhagen 26 Apr. 2001.
12 Nov. 2002 <http://www.mediachannel.org>.
Lieberman, David. 2001 “Nation Returns to Traditional News
Outlets.” USA Today October 25 2001.
Lieven, Anatol. “Through a Distorted Lens: Chechnya and the
Western Media.” Current History Oct. 2000: 321-328.
Lieven, Anatol. “Against Russophobia.” World Policy
Journal 17.4 (2000-01): 25-32.
Lull, J. Media, Communication, Culture: A Global Approach.
Cambridge: Polity Press, 1995.
Luxenberg, Steven. “Who, What When—and Scary.” Washington
Post 20 Sept. 2001, section B : 4.
MacArthur, John R. Second Front: Censorship and Propaganda in the
Gulf War. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993.
---. “Unleash the Press.” The Nation online 19 Nov. 2001.
12 Nov. 2002
MacGregor, Brent. Live, Direct, and Biased? Making Television News in
the Age of the Satellite. London: Arnold, 1997.
Madia, Sherrie Ann. The Global News Race: The Branding of
CNN. Diss. Temple U, 1998. Ann Arbor: UMI,
Malcom, MacLean S., Jr. and Luca Pinna. "Distance and News
Interest: Scarperia, Italy." Journalism Quarterly 35
Malek, Abbas, ed. News Media and Foreign Relations: a
Multifaceted Perspective. Norwood, NJ: Ablex, 1997.
Malek, Malek and Anandam P. Kavoori (Eds.). The Global Dynamics of
News: Studies in International News Coverage and News Agendas. Norwood,
NJ: Ablex Publishing, 2000.
Malinkina, Olga V. and Douglas M. McLeod. “From Afghanistan to
Chechnya: News Coverage by Izvestia and the New York Times.”
Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly 77(2000): 37-49.
Mansbach, R. and J. VasquezIn Search of Theory: A New Paradigm for
Global Politics. New York: Columbia University Press, 1981.
Martin-Barbero, J Communication, Culture and Hegemony: From the Media
to Mediations. London: Sage, 1993.
Masmoudi, M. “The New World Information Order.” Journal of
Communication 21 (1979) :172-179.
Massing, Michael. “Talking Heads go to War.” Columbia
Journalism Review Nov./Dec. 2001: 20-23.
---. “Seeing Mexico.” Columbia Journalism Review July/Aug. 2001:
---. “The (Liberal) Media Elite Have Acquired a New Tilt.”
Columbia Journalism Review Mar./Apr. 2001: 37.
Mathews, Jay. “The Myth of Tiananmen.” Columbia Journalism
Sept./Oct. 1998: 12-13.
Matlock, Jack. “The Diplomat’s View of the Press and Foreign
Policy.” Media Studies Journal. Fall 1993: 49-57.
Mattelart, Armand. Mapping World Communication: War, Progress,
Culture. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1994.
McAnany. “Television and Crisis: Ten Years of Network Coverage of
Central America.” Media, Culture and Society 5 (1983): 199-212.
McAuliffe, Kevin. “Kosovo, a Special Report: How Correspondents
are Dealing with the Hazards, Harassments, and Hassles of Getting the
News out of the Balkans. Columbia Journalism Review May/Jun.
McCartney, James. “Signing off at the State Department.”
American Journalism Review Nov. 1998: 65.
McChesney, Robert and Nichols, John. “The Making of a Movement.”
online 7 Jan. 2002.
McClellan, Steve. “Eyes Wide Shut: Underreporting by TV News
Programs May Be Causing Surprise at Depth of Anti-Americanism.”
Broadcasting and Cable 20 (2001).
---. "Dan Rather: CBS's Eye on the World." Broadcasting and
Cable 5(1998): 26-30.
McCombs M.E. and D. Shaw. “The Agenda-Setting Function of the
Mass Media.” Public Opinion Quarterly 1972: 76-87.
McCombs, Maxwell, Edna Einsiedel and David Weaver. Contemporary
Public Opinion, Issues and the News. Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum
McDonald, Sheena. “World in Action.” New Statesman and
Society 25 Mar. 1995: 22-23.
McGrew, T., S. Hall and D.Held (Eds.). “A Global Society?”
Modernity and its Futures. Cambridge: Polity Press, 1992
McNelly, John T. "Intermediary Communicators in the International
Flow of News." Journalism Quarterly 36 (1959): 23-26.
McNelly, John T. and Fausto Izcaray. 1986. “International
News Exposure and Images of Nations.” Journalism Quarterly
63 (1986): 546-53.
McNulty, T. “Television’s Impact on Executive Decision-Making and
Diplomacy.” The Fletcher Forum of World Affairs 17 (1993): 71.
McReynolds, Martin. “Saying Adios to UPI’s Spanish
Wire.” American Journalism Review Sept. 1999: 14-5.
“Measuring Foreign News.” American Journalism Review 57
Medhurst, M.J., R. Ivie, P. Wander and R. Scott. Cold War
Rhetoric: Strategy, Metaphor and Ideology. East Lansing: Michigan
State University Press, 1997.
Meernik, James, and Michael Ault. “Public Opinion and Support for
U.S. Presidents’ Foreign Policies.” American Politics Research
29.4 (2001): 352-373.
Merrill, John E., ed. The Elite Press. New York: Pitman
Merill, John E., ed. Global Journalism: Survey of International
Communication. Third Edition. New York: Longman, 1995.
Mermin, Jonathan. “Television News and American Intervention in
Somalia: The Myth of a Media-Driven Foreign Policy.” Political Science
Quarterly Fall 1997: 385-403.
---. “Conflict in the Sphere of Consensus? Critical Reporting on the
Panama Invasion and the Gulf War.” Political Communication
Meyer, William. “Global News Flows: Dependency and
Neoimperialism.” Comparative Political Studies 22.3
Michnik, Adam and Jay Rosen. “The Media and Democracy: A
Dialogue.” Journal of Democracy 8.4 (1997): 85-93.
Miller, Kerry. “In Sayles Speech, Rather Criticizes Modern
Media.” Brown Daily Herald 17 Apr. 2001.
Mirsky, Jonathan. 2002. “Getting the Story in China:
American Reporters since 1972.” Harvard Asia Quarterly 4.1.
(2002). Harvard University
12 Nov. 2002
Mitchell, Pat. “Real World or ‘Reality’ Shows?” Washington
Post 16 Oct. 2001: A23.
Moeller, Susan. Compassion Fatigue: How the Media Sell
Disease, Famine, War and Death. New York: Routledge, 1999.
Mohammadi, A.S., Curren, J. and M. Gurewitch (Eds.). “The Global
and the Local in International Communication.” Mass Media and
Culture. London: Edward Arnold, 1991:118-36.
Mohammadi, A.S., ed. International Communication and Globalization: A
Critical Introduction. London: Sage, 1997.
Mohammadi, A.S., Kaarle Nordenstreng, Robert Stevenson and Frank
Ugboajah. “A New Look at Foreign News Coverage: External
Dependence of National Interests?” African Studies Review 24
Morris, Roger. “Henry Kissinger and the Media: a Separate
Peace.” Columbia Journalism Review Nov./Dec. 2001: 77.
Mortimer, E. "No News is Bad News: in the Absence of TV Cameras,
Victims of Aggression can be Left to Suffer." Financial Times 17
Morton, Robert. “A World of Unreported News.” Washington
Times 5 Apr. 1998.
Mowlana, Hamid and L.J. Wilson. The Passing of Modernity:
Communication and the Transformation of Society. New York:
Mowlana, Hamid. Global Information and World Communication.
London: Sage, 1997.
---. Global Communication in Transition: The End of
Diversity? Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, 1996.
Mueller, J. Policy and Opinion in the Gulf War. Chicago:
University of Chicago Press,1994.
Mules, Warwick. “On the Media Front: A Postmodern View.”
Journal of Contemporary Analysis 70.4 (1998): 28.
Naureckas, Jim. “Legitimate Targets?: How US Media
Supported War Crimes in Yugoslavia” Extra! July/Aug.
12 Nov. 2002
---. “How America’s Leading Paper Covered a Massacre.”
Extra! May/June. 1994 FAIR 12 Nov. 2002
---. “Media on the Somalia Intervention: Tragedy Made
Simple.” Extra! March. 1993 FAIR
12 Nov. 2002 <http://www.fair.org/extra/9303/somalia.html>.
Nelson, Anne. “The Battleship that Turned on a Dime: How the BBC
Woke UP.” Columbia Journalism Review Nov./Dec. 1998.
---. 1995. “World News: Truth and
Consequences.” Columbia Journalism Review Jan./Feb. 1995.
Neuman, Johanna. “The Media’s Impact on International Affairs,
Then and Now.” SAIS Review 16 1996: 109-123.
---. Lights, Camera, War: Is Media Technology Driving
International Politics? New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1996.
Newman, Lucia. “Preventing Conflicts and Human Rights
Abuses: What Can the Media Do?” Peace Research Abstracts 36.6
The Nieman Foundation for Journalism at Harvard University. Nieman
Reports “War Crimes, Human Rights and Press Freedom: the Journalist’s
Job” 53:2 (Summer 1999).
---.Nieman Reports “International Journalism: The Impact of Middle East
Pictures and Words” 56:3 (2002): 63.
Nir, Ori. “Reporting on Terrorism.” Mediachannel 13
Vision New Media
Nohrstedt, Stig A, Sophia Kaitatzi-Whitlock, Rune Ottosen and Kristina
Riegert. “From the Persian Gulf to Kosovo-War Journalism and
Propaganda.” European Journal of Communication 15 (2000) :
Norris, Pippa. “Information Poverty and the Wired World.”
Harvard International Journal of Press/Politics 5.3 (2000).
---. “Global Communications and Cultural Identities.”
Harvard International Journal of Press/Politics 4.4(1999).
Nyhan, David. . “A Stroll Through the Supermarket of World
News.” Boston Globe 25 June 2000, Third edition: E4.
---. “Journalism in Jeopardy.” Boston Globe 3 May 2000,
O’Conner, Rory. “Media, Inside Out: How Independent Journalism
Can Survive Globalization.” The Nation 29 Nov. 1999: 32.
O’Heffernan, Patrick. Mass Media and American Foreign
Policy. Noorwood: Ablex, 1991.
Oguz,Ömer. “Showing Both Sides of the Story.”
International Press Institute. 2001
Olson, S.R. “Encountering the Other: Ethics and the Role of Media
in International and Intercultural Communication.” Communication
Abstracts 21.2 (1998).
Onyedike, Emmanuel U. “Coverage of Africa by the African-American
Press: Perceptions of African-American Newspaper Editors.” The
Western Journal of Black Studies 24.4 (2000): 195.
Ottosen, R. “Enemy Images and the Journalistic Press.”
Journal of Peace Research 32 (1995): 97-112.
Outing, Steve. “Washingtonpost.com’s Afternoon Web Edition.”
Editor & Publisher 4 Sept. 1999: 45.
Overholser, Geneva. “Widening the Conversation.” Columbia
Journalism Review May/July 2001: 21.
---.”If Only They Knew: Cowed Media Can’t Keep Americans Informed.”
Columbia Journalism Review Jan./Feb. 2003:
Ovsiovitch, Jay S. “News Coverage of Human Rights.”
Political Research Quarterly
Ovsiovitch, Jay S. “A Distant Image? Factors Influencing the US
Media’s Coverage of Human Rights.” Human Rights in Developing
Countries. Ed. David Louis Cingranelli. Greenwich: JAI
Page, Benjamin I. and Robert Y. Shapiro. The Rational Public: Fifty
Years of Trends in Americans’ Policy Preferences. Chicago: University
of Chicago Press, 1992.
Palmer, Mohammed. “What Makes News.” Communication
Abstracts 22.5 (1999).
Pan, Zhongdang and Gerald M. Kosicki. “Framing Analysis: An
Approach to News Discourse.” Political Communication 9 (1993):
Parker, Richard. “The Myth of Global News.” New
Perspectives Quarterly 11 (1994): 39-45.
Parks, Michael. “Beyond Afghanistan, Foreign News: What’s
Journalism Review online Jan./Feb. 2002.
Patterson, Thomas. Doing Well and Doing Good: How Soft News and
Critical Journalism are Shrinking the News Audience and Weakening
Democracy - And
What News Outlets Can Do About It. Cambridge: Joan
Shorenstein Center on the Press, Politics and Public Policy, John F.
Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University Press, 2000.
---. Out of Order. New York: Vintage Book, 1994.
Peh, Diana and Srinivas R. Melkote. “Bias in Newspaper Reporting:
A Content Analysis of Korean Airlines and Iran Air Shootings in the US
Elite Press.” Gazette 47 (1991): 59-78.
Peake, Jeffrey. “Presidential Agenda Setting in Foreign
Policy.” Political Research Quarterly 54.1 (2001): 69-86.
Peer, L. and B. Chestnut. “The Gulf War Debate in Television and
Newspaper News.” Political Communication 12.1 (1995): 81-95.
Perlmutter, D. Photojournalism and Foreign Policy: Icons of
Outrage in International Crises. Westport, Ct:
Pfaff, William. “US Myopia.” Commonweal 128.8 (2001): 8-9.
---. “International News and Foreign Policy.” Gannett
Center Journal Fall 1989.
Pilger, John. “The Barbarities of Saddam Hussein are on a Minor
Scale Compared with the Consistent and Censored, Terrorism of the
West.” New Statesman 13 Sept. 1996: 31.
---. “In the West, Politically Correct Journalism Minimizes the
Culpability of Governments by Simply Leaving out the
Unpalatable.” New Statesman 2 Aug. 1996: 26.
---. Distant Voices. London: Vintage, 1992.
Potente, Joe. “Media Analysis: Media Critics Give News Outlets
High Marks.” The Daily Cardinal 9 Nov. 2001.
---. “News for the Culture: Why Editors Put Strong Men Hitting
Baseballs on Page One.” Newspaper Research Journal 9 Nov.
Powers, William. “Hello World.” The National Journal 26: 33.
Preston, Peter. “We Gave Them the Oxygen.” The Guardian
online 23 July 2001. 12 Nov. 2002
Price, Monroe. Television, the Public Sphere and National
Identity. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1995.
Quinn, K. “It’s a Small World After All.” Social
Alternatives 15.1: 11-13.
Randal, Jonathan. “The Decline, But Not Yet Total Fall, of
Foreign News in the U.S. Media.” Cambridge: Joan
Shorenstein Center on the Press, Politics and Public Policy, John F.
Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University Press, 2000.
Reese, Stephen. “Understanding the Global Journalist: A
Hierarchy-of-Influences Approach.” Journalism Studies 2.2 (2001):
Reid, Stephen. “UN Rights Chief Lectures Media About Its
Duties.” Associated Press, 1998.
Reta, Meseret Chekol. U.S. Media Coverage of Events of
Uncertainty in Foreign Conflicts: The Cases of
Eritrea and Southern Sudan. Diss. University of Minnesota,
1998. Ann Arbor: UMI, 1999. 9907520.
Ricchiardi, Sherry. “Over the Line?” American Journalism
Review, Sept., 24 1996.
Rich, Andrew, and R. Kent Weaver. “Think Tanks in the U.S.
Media.” Harvard International Journal of Press/Politics 5.4
(2000) : 81-103.
Rich, Frank. “No News is Good News.” New York Times 13 Oct. 2001,
Late edition: A23.
Richstand, Jim and Michael Anderson (Eds.). Crisis in
International News: Policies and Prospects. New York:
Columbia University Press, 1981.
Richter, Konstantin. “Losing Pol Pot.” Columbia Journalism
Review Jul./Aug. 1998: 48-50.
Riffe, Daniel, et al. Pinternational News and Borrowed News in the New
York Times: An Update.” Journalism Quarterly 70 (Autum 1993)
Robertson, Ronald. Globalization: Social Theory and Global
Culture. London: Sage, 1992.
Robinson, Piers. The CNN Effect: The Myth of News Media, Foreign Policy
and Intervention. London: Routledge, 2002.
Rosenblum, Mort. Who Stole the News? Why We Can’t Keep Up with
What Happens in the World and What We Can Do About It. New
York: John Wiley and Sons, 1993.
---. Coups and Earthquakes: Reporting the World for
America. New York: Harper and Row, 1979.
Rosenstiel, Tom, Carl Goddlieb and Lee Ann Brady. “Time of Peril
for TV News.” Columbia Journalism Review Nov./Dec. 84.
Rotberg, Robert I. and Thomas G. Weiss. From Massacres to
Genocide: The Media, Public Policy, and Humanitarian Crises.
Washington, DC: Brooking, 1996.
Rouner, Donna, Michael D. Slater and Judith M. Buddenbaum.
1999. “How Perceptions of News Bias in News Sources Relate to
Beliefs about Media Bias.” Newspaper Research Journal Mar. 1999:
Rubin, James. “The Truth and Nothing but the Truth-But Sometimes
Not the Whole Truth.” Harvard International Journal of
Press/Politics 5.2 (2000): 109-110.
Ruddock, Andrew David. Enemies Old and New: Foreign policy,
the Media and Public Opinion in the Reagan/Bush
Era. Diss. University of Massachusetts, 1995.
Ann Arbor: UMI, 1996. 9541147.
Rutenberg, Jim. “Networks Move to Revive Foreign News.” New
York Times 24 Sept. 2001, Late edition: C10.
Sadkovich, James J. U.S. Media and Yugoslavia, 1991-1995. Westport, Ct:
Praeger Publishers, 1998.
Said, Edward W. “The Blind Misleading the Blind.” New
Statesman 17 May 1999: 13-14.
---. Covering Islam: How the Media and the Experts Determine How We See
the Rest of the World. New York: Pantheon, 1981.
Schaenen, Inda. “Agile Local Paper Has a Place in the Mega-Media
World.” St. Louis Post Dispatch 23 Jan. 2000: B3.
Schechter, Danny. “How Can We Cover The World Differently?”
2002. Global Vision New Media
1 Apr. 2002 <www.mediachannel.org/views/dissector/after911.shtml>.
Schell, Jonathan. “Niceties.” The Nation 26 Nov.
---. “The New Brink.” The Nation 12 Nov. 2001: 9
---. “Letter From Ground Zero: In Hindsight.” The
Nation 10 Nov. 2001: 9.
---. “Seven Million at Risk.” The Nation 5 Nov. 2001: 8.
Schell, Orville. “Don’t Believe Everything You See: How we
Watched the Attack on New York.” San Francisco Chronicle 24 Sept.
Schiller, Herbert I., ed. The Ideology of International
Communication. New York: Institute for Media Analysis, 1991.
Schlesinger, P. Media, State and Nation. London:
Schlesinger, Philip. “Media, the Political Order, and National
Identity.” Media, Culture and Society 13: 97-308.
Schoonmaker, Mary Ellen. "Q and A on AIDS: Think Global, Write
Local." Columbia Journalism Review May/June 2001: 12.
Schroth, Raymond. “But It’s Really Burning: Tragedy and the
Journalistic Conscience.” Columbia Journalism Review 1995
Scotton, Jim. “Global Media; The New Missionaries of Corporate
Capitalism.” Journalism and Mass Communication Educator Summer 1998.
Seaton, Edward. “The Diminishing Use of Foreign News
Reporting.” Speech before the International Press Institute, 26
Seib, Philip M. The Global Journalist: News and Conscience in a
World of Conflict. Lanham, Md: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers,
---. Going Live: Getting the news Right in a Real-time, Online World.
Lanham, Md: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc., 2001.
---. Headline Diplomacy: How News Coverage Affects Foreign
Policy. Westport: Praeger, 1996.
Serfaty, S., ed. The Media and Foreign Policy. New York: The Free
Sharkey, Jacqueline. “When Pictures Drive Foreign Policy.” American
Journalism Review December 1993:14-19.
Shaw, David. “Foreign News Shrinks in Era of
Globalization.” Los Angeles Times 27 Sept. 2001: A20.
Shearer, Ellen and Frank Starr. “Through a Prism Darkly.”
American Journalism Review Sept. 1996: 36
Shepard, Alicia C. “An American in Paris (and Moscow and Tokyo).”
Journalism Review Apr. 1994: 22-27.
Simon, Joel. “Front-line Journalism.” Columbia Journalism
Review May/June 1999: 9.
Skogly, Sigrun I. “Human Rights Reporting: The ‘Nordic’
Human Rights Quarterly 12.4 (1990).
Smith, Anthony. “Towards a Global Culture?” Global Culture:
Nationalism, Globalization and Modernity. Ed. Mike Featherstone.
London: Sage, 1990.
Sobel, R., ed. Public Opinion in U.S. Foreign Policy: The
Controversy Over Contra Aid. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield,
Sodurland, Walter C., Ronald H. Wagenberg and Stuart H.
Surlin. “The Impact of the Cold War on Canadian and American TV
News Coverage of Cuba.” Communication Abstracts 21.6 (1998).
Solomon, Norman. “US News Media: A Security Zone for
Israel.” Media Beat 25 May 2000. FAIR
12 Nov. 2002 <http://www.fair.org/media-beat/000525.html>.
Sonenshine, Tara. “Media Close Our Window onto the World.”
Boston Globe 20 Sept. 2001: A19.
Spitzer, R.J., ed. Media and Public Policy. Praeger, Westport,
Sreberny-Mohammi, Anabelle, Kaarle Nordenstreng, Robert L. Stevenson
and Frank Ugboajah. “Foreign News in the Media: International
Reporting in 29 Countries.” Reports and Papers on Mass
Communication, 93. Paris: UNESCO.
Sreberny-Mohammadi, Annabelle, Kaarle Nordenstreng and Robert L.
Stevenson. “World of the News Study.” Journal of
Communication 34: 120-142.
Stanley, Alessandra. “Battling the Skepticism of a Global TV
Audience.” New York Times 1 Nov. 2001, Late edition: B4.
Stein, M.L. “What’s Wrong with Foreign Reporting?” Editor
& Publisher 7 June 1997: 10-11.
Steele, Janet E. “Experts and the Operational Bias of Television
News: The Case of the Persian Gulf War.” Journalism & Mass
Communication Quarterly 72(1995): 799-812.
Stephen, Andrew. “Gee, Have You Heard? There's a World Out
There.” New Statesman 8 Oct. 2001: 14-16.
Stephen, Mitchell. “From the Time of the Dragon, The Constancy of
News.” Columbia Journalism Review Nov./Dec. 1999: 66.
Stevenson, Robert L. Global Communication in the 21st Century.
New York: Longman, 1994.
Stevenson, Robert L. and Donald Lewis Shaw. Foreign News and the
New World Information Order. Ames: Iowa State University
Straubhaar, D. “Beyond Media Imperialism: Asymmetrical
Interdependence and Cultural Proximity.” Critical Studies in Mass
Communication 8.1: 39-59.
Strobel, Warren P. Late-Breaking Foreign Policy: The News Media’s
Influence on Peace Operations. Washington: United States
Institute of Peace, 1997.
Strupp, Joe. “Local Papers Want More International News.”
Editor & Publisher 13 Mar. 2001: 8.
---. "More Windows on the World." Editor & Publisher 13
Mar. 2000: 26-31.
Stwart, Robert. "Mapping World Communication." Journalism
History 21 (1995): 96-97.
Suter, Keith. “Our Window on the World.” World Today 55.3
Swan, Jon. “I Was a ‘Polisher’ in a News Factory.” Columbia
Journalism Review Mar/Apr. 1996: 33.
Swanson, David. “The Homologous Evolution of Political
Communication and Civil Engagement: Good News, Bad News, and No
News.” Political Communication 17 (2000): 409-414.
Sweeney, Michael S. “Delays and Vexation: Jack London and the
Russo-Japanese War.” Journalism & Mass Communication
Quarterly 75 (1998): 548-559.
Taylor, John. Body Horror. New York: New York University Press, 1998.
Taylor, Philip M. War and the Media: Propaganda and Persuasion in
the Gulf War. Manchester: Manchester University Press,
---. “Television: Force Multiplier or Town Crier in the Global
Village?” Corporate Communications 4.2 (1999): 61-72.
---. "Back to the Future? Integrating the Media into the History
of International Relations." Historical Journal of Film, Radio
and Television 14.3(1994).
“Terrorism Stories: 3 Cases, 2 Standards.” Extra! Feb.
12 Nov. 2002 <http://www.fair.org/extra/0002/terrorism.html>.
Teodosijevic-Ryan, Jasmina. “A Yugoslav Journalist’s Advice to
U.S. Media.” TomPaine.com. 1 Nov. 2001. The Florence Fund
Times Mirror Center for People and the Press. “International News
Coverage Fits Public’s Ameri-Centric Mood.” October 1995.
Tremaine, Frank. Richstad, Jim and Michael H. Anderson
(Eds.). “UPI: Problems of International Coverage.”
Crisis in International News: Policies and Prospects. New
York: Columbia University Press,1981.
Trombly, Maria. “Ethics and War.” Quill Dec. 2001: 14-17.
Tuchner,Andie. “News You Can Use.” Columbia Journalism
Review May/June 1997: 26-31.
Turim, David. “Use the Web to Walk a Mile in the Other Guys’
Shoes.” The Chicago Tribune 2 Nov. 2001.
Tusa, John. “Diplomats and Journalists—Sisters Under the
Skin.” World Today 52.8-9(1996): 217-221.
Tyndall, Andrew. “The Patriarch vs. The Family Circle.” Columbia
Journalism Review Nov./Dec. 2001: 14.
UNESCO. World Communication Report: The Media and the Challenge
of the New Technologies. Paris: UNESCO, 1997.
Unger, Sanford J. and David Gergen. Africa and the American
Media. Occasional Paper 9. New York: Freedom Forum Media Studies
Center, Columbia University, 1991.
United States Congress. Impact of Television on U.S. Foreign
Policy: Hearing before the Committee on Foreign Affairs. Washington:
Utley, Garrick. “The Shrinking of Foreign News: from Broadcast to
Narrowcast.” Foreign Affairs Mar./Apr. 1997: 2-10.
Van Belle, Douglas A. "Race, News Media Coverage and U.S. Foreign
Disaster Aid." International Journal of Mass Emergencies and
Disasters 17 Nov. 1999: 339-65.
Van Bell, Douglas A. “New York Times and Network TV News Coverage
of Foreign Disasters: The Significance of the Insignificant
Variables.” Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly
77(2000) : 50-70.
Varis, Tapio. “Trends in International News Flows.” International
Political Science Review 7 (1986): 235-249.
Varis, Tapio. “The International Flow of Television Programs.” Journal
of Communication 34.1 (1984): 143-152.
Vecsey, George. “Not quite a foreign correspondent.”
Mediachannel 27 Feb. 2002.
Global Vision New Media 1 Apr. 2002
12 Nov. 2002
Vejnoska, Jill. “The Aftermath: Media Response Less than
September 11.” Atlanta Journal-Constitution 8 Oct. 2001,
Home Edition : A21.
Vogel, Frank. “Closing The Gap: New Approaches to International
Media Retaliations.” The Public Relations Journal
Vokmer, Ingrid. “CNN: News in the Global Sphere.”
Communication Abstracts 23.2(2000).
---. News in the Global Sphere: a study of CNN and its Impact on
Global Communication. Luton: University of Luton Press,
Wagner, C.G. “U.S. Press Loses Touch with the World.” The
Futurist 32(1999): 395-408.
Wallace, William and Jan Zielonka. “Misunderstanding
Europe.” Foreign Affairs Nov/Dec. 1998: 65-79.
Wallis, Roger and Stanley Baran. The Known World of Broadcast
News. London: Routledge, 1990.
Walker, Mark. “It's Back Home in the USA: Americans Made it
Clear they have Little Interest in the International Stage – it's
Domestic News they Want.” The Guardian 5 Sept. 1994.
Waller, Michael J. “War and the Role of the Mass Media.”
The Nation 26 Nov. 2001: 15.
“A War-induced Ratings Spike.” American Journalism Review June 1999.
Wasburn, Philo C. The Social Construction of International News
We're Talking about Them, They're Talking About Us.
New York: Praeger Publishers, 2002.
Waston-Rouslin, Virginia. “The Other America; Canada, US Mass
Quill 24 Dec. 1989.
Waters, Harry. “A Bow to Big Brother.” Newsweek
6 Sept. 1976: 69.
Waters, Mohammed. Globalization. London: Routledge,
Weaver, David and Cleveland G. Wilhoit. “Foreign News Coverage in
Two U.S. Wire Services.” Journal of Communication 31(1981):
Weis, W.M. “Government News Management, Bias and Distortion in
American Press Coverage of the Brazilian Coup of 1964.” Social Science
34 (1997): 35-55.
Wheeler, Mark C. “Globalization of the Communications
Marketplace.” Harvard International Journal of Press/Politics 5.3
Winship, Tom. “International News Does Matter.” Editor
& Publisher 9 May 1998: 4.
Wood, Daniel B. “CNN Interconnects the Global Village.” Christian
Science Monitor 22 May 1990, All edition: 13.
Woods, Keith. “What Journalism Needs Now: Independence and
Poynter Institute online 28 Sept. 2001.
12 Nov. 2002 <http://www.poynter.org/Terrorism/keith4.htm>.
Worcester, Robert M. “It’s Foreign and Off the Agenda.”
World Today 53.4 (1997): 95-96.
Wu, Haoming Dennis. “Systemic Determinants of International News
Coverage: A Comparison of 38 Countries.”
Journal of Communication 50(2000) : 110.
---. “Geographic Distance and U.S. Newspaper Coverage of Canada
and Mexico.” Gazette 60(1998) : 253-263.
Yin, Chün. “Elite Opinion and Media Diffusion: Exploring
Environmental Attitudes.” Harvard International Journal of
Press/Politics 4.3(1999): 62.
Zachary, G. Pascal. “Give Hope a Headline.” Carnegie Endowment
for International Peace Foreign Policy 1 Jan. 2001: 78.
Zaker, J. and D. Chia. “Government’s Little Helper: U.S. Press
Coverage of Foreign Policy Crises, 1945-1991.” Political
Communication 13.4(1996): 385-405.
Zednik, Rick. “Inside Al Jazeera.” Columbia Journalism
Review Mar./Apr. 2002
12 Nov. 2002 <