Current Research and Publications


Worthington, E. L., Jr., Griffin, B. J., Lavelock, C. R., Greer, C. L., Sandage, S. J., & Rye, M. S. (in press). Forgiveness intervention: When negative transgressions are dealt with by a positive intervention. In J. Johnson & A. Wood (Eds.), Handbook of positive clinical psychology. New York: Wiley.

Sandage, S.J., Long, B., Moen, R., Jankowski, P.J., Worthington, E.L., Jr., Wade, N.G., & Rye, M.S. (2015). Forgiveness in the treatment of borderline personality disorder: A quasi-experimental study. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 71, 625-640. doi: 10.1002/jclp.22185

Worthington, E.L., Jr., & Sandage, S.J. (2015). Forgiveness and spirituality in psychotherapy: A relational approach. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Hainlen, R., Jankowski, P.J., Paine, D.R., & Sandage, S.J. (2015). Attachment predicting forgiveness, well-being, and social justice commitment: Mediator effects for differentiation of self. Contemporary Family Therapy. doi: 10.1007/s10591-015-9359-1

Jankowski, P.J., Sandage, S.J., & Hill, P.C. (2013). Differentiation-based models of forgivingness, mental health, and social justice commitment: Mediator effects of differentiation of self and humility. Journal of Positive Psychology, 8, 412-424.

Nsamenang, S.A., Williamson, I.T., Nsamenang, B. and Sandage, S. J. (2013). Cross-cultural forgiveness processes in Cameroonian and American young citizens. In T.M.S. (Ed.), Cross-cultural psychology: Africentric perspectives. International Association for Cross-Cultural Psychology.



Hill, P.C., & Sandage, S.J. (in press). The positive and cultural psychology of humility as a virtue. Journal of Moral Education.

Wolfteich, C., Keefe-Perry, C., Sandage, S.J., & Paine, D.R. (in press). Humility: Empirical psychological research in dialogue with practical theology. International Journal of Practical Theology.

Sandage, S. J., Jankowski, P. J., Bissonette, C. D., & Paine, D. R. (2016). Vulnerable narcissism, forgiveness, humility, and depression: Mediator effects for differentiation of self. Psychoanalytic Psychology. Advance online publication.

Sandage, S.J., Paine, D.R., Rupert, D., Bronstein, M., & O’Rourke. (in press). Humility in psychotherapy. In E.L. Worthington, Jr., D.E. Davis, & J. Hook (Eds.), Handbook of humility. New York: Routledge.

Paine, D.R., Jankowski, P.J., & Sandage, S.J. (2016). Humility as a predictor of intercultural competence: Mediator effects for differentiation of self. The Family Journal, 24, 15-22.

Paine, D.R., Sandage, S.J., Rupert, D., Devor, N.G., & Bronstein, M. (2015). Humility as a psychotherapeutic virtue: Spiritual, philosophical, and psychological foundations. Journal of Spirituality in Mental Health, 17, 3-25.

Sandage, S.J., Paine, D.R., & Hill, P.C. (2015). Spiritual barriers to humility: A multidimensional study. Mental Health, Religion, and Culture, 18, 207-217.

Jankowski, P.J., & Sandage, S.J. (2014). Attachment to God and dispositional humility: Indirect effect and conditional effects model. Journal of Psychology and Theology, 42, 70-82.


Relational Spirituality

 Salimi, B., Sandage, S.J., & Stavros, G.S. (inpress). Spiritual transcendence in therapy: A pragmatic, relational, and semiotic approach. Open Theology.

Sandage, S.J., Jankowski, P.J., Crabtree, S., & Schweer, M. (2015). Attachment, spirituality pathology, and God images: Mediator and moderator effects. Mental Health, Religion, and Culture.

Tomlinson, J., Glenn, E.S., Paine, D.R., & Sandage, S.J. (2016). What is the “relational” in relational spirituality? A review of definitions and research directions. Journal of Spirituality and Mental Health, 18, 55-75.

Paine, D.R., & Sandage, S.J. (2015). More prayer, less hope: Empirical findings on spirituality instability. Journal of Spirituality in Mental Health, 17, 223-238.

Stavros, G., & Sandage, S.J. (Eds.). (2014). The skillful soul of the psychotherapist: The link between spirituality and clinical excellence. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

Stavros, G., & Sandage, S.J. (2014). The skillful soul of the psychotherapist. In G. Stavros & S.J. Sandage (Eds.), The skillful soul of the psychotherapist: The link between spirituality and clinical excellence (pp. 1-16). Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

Sandage, S.J., & Jensen, M.L. (2013). Relational spiritual formation: Reflective practice and research on spiritual formation in a seminary context. Reflective Practice: Formation and Supervision in Ministry, 33, 95-109.

Sandage, S.J. (2013). Attachment theory, relational spirituality, and varieties of evangelicals. Religion, Brain, and Behavior. doi:10.1080/2153599X.2013.768539


Intercultural Competence and Social Justice

Sandage, S.J., Li, J., Jankowski, P.J., Frank, C., & Beilby, M. (2015). Spiritual predictors of change in intercultural competence in a multicultural counseling course. Journal of Psychology and Christianity, 34, 168-178.

Johnson, K.A., Hook, J.N., Davis, D.E., Van Tongeren, D.R., Sandage, S.J., & Crabtree, S.A. (2015). Moral foundation priorities reflect U.S. Christians’ individual differences in religiosity. Personality and Individual Differences.

Sandage, S.J., & Morgan, J. (2014). Hope and positive religious coping as predictors of social justice commitment. Mental Health, Religion, and Culture, 17, 557-567.

Jankowski, P.J., & Sandage, S.J. (2014). Meditative prayer, gratitude, and intercultural competence: Empirical test of a differentiation-based model. Mindfulness, 5, 360-372. doi: 10.1007/s12671-012-0189-z

Sandage, S.J., Crabtree, S., & Schweer, M. (2014). Differentiation of self and social justice commitment mediated by hope. Journal of Counseling and Development, 92, 67-74.

Sandage, S.J., & Jankowski, P.J. (2013). Spirituality, social justice, and intercultural competence: Mediator effects for differentiation of self. International Journal for Intercultural Relations, 37, 366-374.


Relational Integration of Psychology and Theology

Sandage, S.J., & Brown, J.K. (2015). Relational integration, Part I: Differentiated relationality between psychology and theology. Journal of Psychology & Theology, 43, 165-178.

Brown, J.K., & Sandage, S.J. (2015). Relational integration, Part II: Relational integration as developmental and intercultural. Journal of Psychology & Theology, 43, 179-191.

Sandage, S.J., Paine, D.R., & Devor, N.G. (2014). Psychology and spiritual formation: Emerging prospects for differentiated integration. Journal of Spiritual Formation and Soul Care, 7, 229-247.


Relational Ecology

Kehoe, L.E., Hassen, S.C., & Sandage, S.J. (2016). Relational ecologies of psychotherapy: The influence of administrative attachment on therapeutic alliance. Psychodynamic Practice.