AURORA on Earth

Photo Credit: Jan Curtis, UAF, GI
Proton Precipitation
into the Atmosphere
AURORA on Earth

Photo Credit: Jan Curtis, UAF, GI
Why to get interested in proton issues?

A short introduction on proton precipitation into the terrestrial atmosphere.

Last decades tremendous progress has been made in modeling as well as on instrumental performance, and the interest in proton precipitation has been getting stronger. To illustrate this, two proton workshops were organized during the coupling energetics and dynamics of atmospheric regions (CEDAR) meetings: 

  • CEDAR 1999 Proton Workshop by M. Galand.
  • Numerous instruments, both ground-based and satellite-borne, have recently been or will be soon deployed to observe proton aurora. The effort invested in auroral proton studies has led to the development of more comprehensive models describing the interaction of energetic protons with the atmosphere. These tools have been relevant for the analysis of space-/ground-based observations. Such studies have shown that protons can have a significant influence on the ionosphere and the thermosphere through ionization, conductivity changes, heating, and composition changes. These are all quantities of great concern in space weather. In addition, the large-scale morphology of proton aurora is a better indicator than electrons for mapping observed auroral features to magnetospheric regions or processes.
    JGR Proton Special Section, January 2001
    Discussion group:

    A mailing list on “Proton precipitation into the atmosphere” offers us a dynamic way to exchange information and stimulate interactions.

    Its goal is to share information, such as on recent research outcomes or on upcoming meetings. Please send us your contribution!

    Name of the mailing list: proton-l

    To subscribe:  Send an email to majordomo at and put in the body of the message: subscribe proton-l your_email_address.
    To unsubscribe: Send an email to majordomo at and put in the body of the message: unsubscribe proton-l your_email_address.
    To contribute: Send a message to proton-l at  This message will be forwarded to all the subscribers.
    Subscriber list: Send an email to majordomo at and put in the body of the message: who proton-l.

    The mailing list is based on the list manager software, called Majordomo.

    Lastest News: Two proton papers Frey et al. and Jordanova et al.

    A few relevant WWW sites (not exhaustive!):
    • Observations from Space
    Link to TIROS/NOAA particle data as well as other data proposed by SEC.

    DMSP/SSJ:   Particle detectors.

    FAST:   Particle detectors.


    IMAGE/SI12 :   Spectral filtering at Doppler shifted HLya.
    Report on "Global Observation of Proton Aurora"

    DMSP/SSUSI:   UV spectrograph including HLya.

    TIMED/GUVI:  UV spectrograph including HLya.

    • Observations from ground
    CEDAR database

    Millstone Hill ISR



    SRI Greenland ISR

    • Modeling
    Proton transport model (Marina Galand)

    For further information or comments on this website and mailing list, please contact: Marina Galand at m.galand at
    Center for Space Physics  -  Boston University