Succinct functional encryption and applications: reusable garbled circuits and beyond: Raluca Popa, MIT

Starts:
10:00 am on Monday, December 3, 2012
Ends:
12:00 pm on Monday, December 3, 2012
Location:
MCS 137
Joint work with Shafi Goldwasser, Yael Kalai, Vinod Vaikuntanathan, and Nickolai Zeldovich Abstract: Functional encryption is a powerful primitive: given an encryption Enc(x) of a value x and a secret key sk_f corresponding to a circuit f, it enables efficient computation of f(x) without revealing any additional information about x. Constructing functional encryption schemes with succinct ciphertexts that guarantee security for even a single secret key (for a general function f) is an important open problem with far reaching applications, which this paper addresses. Our main result is a functional encryption scheme for any general function f of depth d, with succinct ciphertexts whose size grows with the depth d rather than the size of the circuit for f. We prove the security of our construction based on the intractability of the learning with error (LWE) problem. More generally, we show how to construct a functional encryption scheme from any public-index predicate encryption scheme and fully homomorphic encryption scheme. Previously, the only known constructions of functional encryption were either for specific inner product predicates, or for a weak form of functional encryption where the ciphertext size grows with the size of the circuit for f. We demonstrate the power of this result, by using it to construct a reusable circuit garbling scheme with input and circuit privacy: an open problem that was studied extensively by the cryptographic community during the past 30 years since Yao's introduction of a one-time circuit garbling method in the mid 80's. Our scheme also leads to a new paradigm for general function obfuscation which we call token-based obfuscation. Furthermore, we show applications of our scheme to homomorphic encryption for Turing machines that runs in input-specific time rather than worst case time, and to publicly verifiable and secret delegation.