Soil sampling from previously excavated or destroyed tumuli

2006

Five tumuli were revisited in 2006 for the purpose of soil sampling for micromorphological analyses. Each of the five tumuli has suffered from extreme plunder or had been excavated fully previously: in several cases tumuli had been bulldozed through the middle, leaving very little information about either tomb complexes or the overall appearances of the monuments. The exposed scarps of these tumuli do, however, provide valuable information about tumulus construction methods. In many cases multiple layers of soils are apparent to the eye and provide specific information about tumulus construction. micromorph07bTo study these largely destroyed tumuli and to extract from them any surviving information, we took fifteen soil samples over the course of two days that will be analyzed using micromorphological methods in the United States. The samples are very small and have an insignificant effect on tumuli that are already been severely destroyed.

2007

Two tumuli were revisited in 2007 for the purpose of soil sampling for micromorphological analyses: BT05.046 (Deliktepe B) and BT05.097 (Akçeşme). Each of the two tumuli has suffered from extreme plunder or had been excavated fully previously: in each case the tumulus had been bulldozed through the middle, leaving very little information about either the tomb complex or the overall appearance of the monument. The exposed scarps of these tumuli do, however, provide valuable information about tumulus construction methods. In many cases multiple layers of soils are apparent to the eye and provide specific information about tumulus construction. To study these largely destroyed tumuli and to extract from them any surviving information, we took block and powder soil samples over the course of five days and acquired permission from the Manisa Museum for their export to the United States for micromorphological analyses. The removal of the samples had an insignificant effect on tumuli that have already been severely destroyed.