Ionosphere/Atmosphere
ITM Diagram

The ITM Regions...

  • Are not isolated layers in the Earth’s environment.
  • Are coupled to each other AND to regions above (Sun and Magnetosphere) and below (Troposphere/Stratosphere).
  • Involve a richness of neutral and plasma species and processes unique among terrestrial planets.
  • Require simulation methods ranging from neutral gas hydrodynamics, neutral and plasma chemistry, and MHD/electrodynamics to individual electron and ion particle effects.

Related Links:

Center for Integrated Space Weather Modeling // 725 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA
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