The ITM Regions...
- Are not isolated layers in the Earth’s environment.
- Are coupled to each other AND to regions above (Sun and Magnetosphere) and below (Troposphere/Stratosphere).
- Involve a richness of neutral and plasma species and processes unique among terrestrial planets.
- Require simulation methods ranging from neutral gas hydrodynamics, neutral and plasma chemistry, and MHD/electrodynamics to individual electron and ion particle effects.