Professor Bjoern Reinhard awarded an NSF-CHE 3 Year grant to Study Plasmon Coupling Correlation Spectroscopy
Prof. Reinhard was recently awarded a 3 Year renewal of her National Science Foundation Division of Chemistry (NSF-CHE) Grant titled: Plasmon Coupling Correlation Spectroscopy. This will help Prof. Reinhard and his research group investigate the unique optical properties and strong field localization properties of plasmonic nanoparticles as they are important components of many chemical sensing technologies and Efield enhanced spectroscopies. The research will advance the field of chemical imaging and sensing by introducing the concept of correlation spectroscopy to localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) spectroscopy. The ambitious research plan will utilize distance-dependent near-field coupling between plasmonic nanoparticles that cause spectral fluctuations in the far-field to monitor interparticle separations at signal intensities that are manifold higher than that of conventional dyes. Importantly, due to their superb photophysical stability plasmonic nanoparticles overcome existing limitations of fluorescence based correlation approaches in terms of maximum observation time and will facilitate a continuous signal correlation over a much longer time than is currently possible with fluorescence based approaches entirely without blinking. The research funded by this grant is transformative as it will facilitate the application of optical signal correlation techniques to systems that have, so far, not been accessible with conventional fluorescence-based correlation methods.
Besides the scientific impact, the research project has a series of educational and outreach components as well as detailed plans to encourage the participation of underrepresented groups in science and engineering. The grant will allow for the development of new course work and training opportunities for students from the high-school to graduate school level. Furthermore, Dr. Reinhard will organize annual workshops for students from inner city high schools, which typically have high representations from groups underrepresented in science and engineering. His main goal is to enthuse these students about the research of the proposal and to attract them to a career in STEM fields. The course material developed during the lifetime of the project will be disseminated via the PI’s homepage to further enhance the broader impact of this proposal.
Assistant Professor Ksenia Bravaya was recently selected by Boston University to receive the an award from the Patricia Mclellan Leavitt Research Fund. This award is designed “to support research of one or more non-tenured junior faculty members, or graduate students, in chemistry or biology at the College of Arts and Sciences. Preference shall be given to female faculty who demonstrate a commitment to encouraging women to study science, or to female graduate students.”
Dr. Bravaya will use these funds to support her research into challenging electronic structure phenomena in biomolecules and systems relevant for materials, which include photoinduced processes, autoionizing electronic states, and magnetic field effects. This award will help her and her team use and develop high-level electronic structure methods targeting processes involving multiple electronic states, chemistry of open-shell species in magnetic fields, and electronically excited and metastable systems.
Congratulations to Professor Bravaya!
Dr. Beeler, who has been a tenure track faculty member in Boston University’s Chemistry Department since 2012, was recently awarded a 5-Year early investigator award through the NSF CAREER grant program. The Faculty Early Career Development (CAREER) Program is a Foundation-wide activity that offers the National Science Foundation’s most prestigious awards in support of junior faculty who exemplify the role of teacher-scholars through outstanding research, excellent education and the integration of education and research within the context of the mission of their organizations. Such activities should build a firm foundation for a lifetime of leadership in integrating education and research.
Research in the Beeler Group is very multidisciplinary. They are focused on synthesis and medicinal chemistry of biologically active small molecules by developing efficient and scalable processes to synthesize scaffolds of interest. One of the core components in their research is development of continuous flow technologies to develop photochemical reactions, electrochemical reactions, and reactions utilizing highly reactive intermediates.
With the CAREER award, Dr. Beeler plans to focus his research on the development of powerful flow reactions that will transform the way chemists think about challenging chemical reactions. In parallel to these efforts he will continue expanding our activities in outreach and education to further the growth of Chemistry in STEM education.
Continuing their highly productive (32 publications), 20-year collaboration, Professor Karen Allen and Dr. Debra Dunaway-Mariano, University of New Mexico, have received a 4-year, $1.26 million award from the NIH. The team is known for much of the current understanding of catalysis and specificity of the Haloalkanoic Acid Dehalogenase Superfamily (HADSF). This current award, “Structure and Function of HAD Phosphatase Partners Dullard and Lipin,” represents a new and highly innovative research direction for the the Co-Investigators. Using an interdisciplinary approach, they will investigate the structural basis for the function of two enzymes that utilize the same protein scaffold to interact with and dephosphorylate macromolecules and phospholipids at the cell membrane. The Co-Principal Investigators bring their respective expertise to address the problem. Karen Allen will direct the protein chemistry, bioinformatics, X-ray crystallographic and Small-angle X-ray Scattering aspects of this project. Debra Dunaway-Mariano will direct the substrate screening, assay development, and radio-labeled vesicle binding studies.
By defining the structural features of enzymes that allow recognition of specific proteins and cell membrane components, the study will provide significant insight into the complexities of cell lipid metabolism. The findings will lay the foundation for the rational design of therapeutic agents to treat the diseases associated with diabetes and clinically identified defects in fat metabolism.
The NSF Division of Chemical, Bioengineering, Environmental, and Transport Systems (CBETS) has funded Bjoern Reinhard and his Co-Investigator, Professor Luca Dal Negro (Electrical & Computer Engineering,) to combine the advantageous photonic and plasmonic properties of nanostructured surfaces to develop a multiparametric responder that improves sensitivity and selectivity of conventional biosensing platforms through combined analysis of elastic and inelastic light-scattering processes. The award, “Multiparametric Optical Sensing of Microbes on Plasmonic Nanostructures,” is for $300K over three years.
Professor Larry Ziegler and his group have received continued support from the NSF ($450K over 3 years) to use cutting edge spectroscopic techniques to advance understanding of supercritical fluids (SCFs) as a medium for chemical activity. Using ultrafast vibrational or rotational spectroscopic techniques, they will study the femtosecond to picosecond solvation dynamics of a range of SCF solutions as a function of density for isotherms close to the critical temperature. The insights gained will identify those solvent motions coupled to the spectroscopically tagged solutes in the femtosecond to tens of picoseconds regime providing a dynamical description of solvation in the compressible fluid regime of SCFs. Such dynamics are important to understand, because they are intimately involved in the unique microscopic solvation phenomena that give super critical fluids their interesting and useful properties. Given the very high relevance of supercritical liquids for applied chemistry on the one hand and the lack of detailed knowledge on their microscopic dynamics on the other, this research is expected to provide new and important insight into structural fluctuations and local interactions governing solvation processes and, thus, chemical dynamics.
Professor Corey Stephenson and his group have received a 5-year, $1.7 million award from the National Institutes of Health (NIGMS) to develop novel catalytic approaches to the synthesis of alkaloid natural products. These visible light-mediated methods provide innovative avenues toward challenging molecular architectures with broad biological activity.
The Stephenson Group focuses on performing syntheses in an environmentally conscious way. By using visible light, they prepare waste-free, non-toxic “reagent” complex natural products. Since most organic molecules do not absorb visible light, they can use photosensitive catalysts (widely studied for their photophysical properties) to carry out transformations under mild conditions in the presence of otherwise reactive functional groups. These new chemical reactions will enable the synthesis of biologically active natural products implicated in cancer, infection, and cardiovascular disease.
There are many medically important drug targets that current drug discovery technology is not able to address. Collaborative basic research in Chemistry, Biology, and Biochemistry is key to solving these intractable problems to enable the discovery of new classes of drugs. A multidisciplinary team at Boston University, led by Associate Professor of Chemistry Adrian Whitty, aims to develop new approaches for challenging molecular targets. The National Institute of General Medical Sciences awarded this team a 4-year, $1.6 million grant entitled Design of Macrocyclic Inhibitors of the NEMO/IKKα/β Protein-Protein Interaction.
Only about 10% of the potential drug targets in the human genome have been successfully targeted with marketed drugs. Of the remaining 90%, many are intracellular proteins whose function is critically dependent on their reversible interactions with other proteins. Despite decades of effort by the pharmaceutical industry, developing oral drugs that inhibit protein-protein interactions (PPIs) has rarely succeeded and has become recognized as a major scientific and technological challenge.
The primary goal of this project is to determine whether the use of a class of natural product-inspired compounds called macrocycles constitutes a broadly applicable method for developing oral drugs against PPI targets. As a first challenge, the team is attempting to develop macrocycles that block the activity of NEMO, a key component of the IKK complex that activates NF-κB signaling. Chronic hyperactivity of the NF-κB pathway is associated with many human inflammatory diseases and cancers. Thus, the development of drug-like inhibitors of this pathway is highly relevant to public health.
The work will determine whether appropriately designed synthetic macrocycles can inhibit PPI targets while maintaining good drug-like properties. In terms of NF-κB and disease, their work will provide a means for testing whether inhibiting the interaction of NEMO with IKK—as a more targeted alternative to completely ablating all IKK activity—represents a useful new approach for attenuating inflammation.
In addition to Professor Whitty (quantitative biochemistry and drug discovery), the multidisciplinary research team comprises Professors Sandor Vajda and Dima Kozakov (computational chemistry), John Porco and Aaron Beeler (macrocycle synthesis), Karen Allen (X-ray crystallography), and Tom Gilmore (NF-κB pathway biology).