Professor Bjoern Reinhard
Recently reported in PNAS, Bjoern Reinhard and his collaborator at the BU Medical School, Dr. Suryaram Gummuluru, have confirmed a unique HIV-1 DC attachment mechanism using lipoparticles with defined surface composition. The mechanism is dependent on a host-cell–derived ligand, GM3, and is a unique example of pathogen mimicry of host-cell recognition pathways that drive virus capture and dissemination in vivo. These insights provide the basis for the development of artificial virus nanoparticles with host-derived surface groups that inhibit the HIV-1 trans-dissemination pathway through dendritic cells. The virus parasite uses these dendritic cells to facilitate its dissemination, while avoiding recognition.
Citation: Puryear, et al., “HIV-1 incorporation of host-cell–derived glycosphingolipid GM3 allows for captureby mature dendritic cells”, Proc Natl Acad USA, 2012, 109 (19), 7475-7480.
Gangliosides with α2–3 NeuNAc linkages are important for HIV-1 capture by mDCs. (A) Gag-eGFP VLPs were mock treated or treated with 0.5 units/μL α2–3, 2–6, 2–8 NA. (B) Gag-eGFP VLPs were derived from siRNA-treated HEK293T cells. NT, nontargeting; UGT8, galactosyl transferase; CERT, ceramide transfer protein; UGCG, glucosyltransferases, ST3, GM3 transferase. Capture of VLPs by mDCs was analyzed by FACS (A and B). Data are reported as percentage of eGFP+ mDCs normalized to NT-treated VLPs. (C and D) Ganglioside-deficient HIVLai was derived from HEK293T cells knocked down for NT, UGCG, or ST3. (C) Virions were labeled for p24gag (green) and GM3 (red). Representative fields are shown and the average mean fluorescent intensity (MFI) of GM3 normalized to p24gag ± SD is reported, *P < 0.001, one-way ANOVA with Dunnett’s multiple comparison. (D) Fold decrease of ganglioside-depleted HIVLai capture relative to NT-treated viruses by mDCs is reported. (E) Fold decrease in HIVLaiΔEnv virus capture treated with 0.5 units/μL α2–3, 2–6, 2–8 NA or α2–3-specific NA relative to mock-treated viruses by mDCs is reported. All capture assays represent averaged data from a minimum of three donors, ±SEM, one-sample t test, *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001.
Professor Bjoern Reinhard
The article by Bjoern Reinhard, “Molding the flow of light on the nanoscale: from vortex nanogears to phase-operated plasmonic machinery” (Nanoscale, 2012, 4, 76-90; DOI: 10.1039/C1NR11406A), was amongst the top ten accessed articles from the online version of Nanoscale in February 2012. Launched in 2009, Nanoscale is a new peer reviewed journal publishing experimental and theoretical work across the breadth of nanoscience and nanotechnology.
The Reinhard Group research focuses on new optical materials and their application to interrogate fundamental life processes. They explore the interface between nanotechnology and biological systems. For an overview of current research projects, please visit their group’s website.
Plasmonic nanolens as an internal vortex nanogear transmission. (a) Schematic of the self-similar Ag nanolens proposed in ref 72 (r1 = 45 nm, r2 = 15 nm, r3 = 5 nm, d1 = 9 nm, d2 = 3 nm, ambient index n = 1.0). (b and c) Electric field intensity distribution in the nanolens illuminated on- (b) and off-resonance (c) with the near-field intensity maximum of the nanolens. Far-field (d) and near-field intensity enhancement (e) spectra of the nanolens. (f) The amplitude of the Poynting vector and the phase of the Poynting vector in the x–z plane at the center of the nanolens narrower interparticle gap as a function of wavelength. (g and h) Poynting vector intensity distribution and powerflow around the nanolens off (g) and on (h) the peak intensity wavelength. (i) Schematic of the VNT generated in the nanolens at the peak intensity resonance. Light flux in each nanogear is looped through nanoparticles .
Dr Bjoern Reinhard Media.EU Interview
Research Media.EU disseminates information about advances in innovation to the wider scientific, technology, and research communities. Among its focus areas is Nanotechnology and US Research.
Recently, they interviewed Professor Bjoern Reinhard about his work on Epidermal Growth Factor Receptors (EGFRs), which are important cancer biomarkers, and which Research Media has identified as an important innovation in nanotechnology.
In addition to obtaining Professor Reinhard’s insights, the article described in detail the impact of this work and profiled the Reinhard Laboratory. To download a PDF of the interview/profile, click here.