TitleEarly Detection of Perinatal Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Type 1 Infection Using HIV RNA Amplification and Detection. New York City Perinatal HIV Transmission Collaborative Study
AuthorsSteketee R. W., Abrams E. J., Thea D. M., Brown T. M., Lambert G., Orloff S., Weedon J., Bamji M., Schoenbaum E. E., Rapier J., Kalish M. L.
PublicationJ Infect Dis. 1997 Mar; 175(3):707-11.
AbstractEarly diagnosis of perinatally transmitted human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV) infection can guide early interventions. HIV coculture and DNA polymerase chain reaction (DNA-PCR) detect few HIV-infected infants at birth and 90%-100% by age 3 months. Because extracellular HIV RNA may appear soon after infection, a plasma HIV RNA assay was compared with DNA-PCR for early detection of perinatally infected infants. Blood-draw specimens (108) obtained at the same time from 49 HIV-infected infants and 10 specimens from 8 uninfected infants were tested. HIV RNA and DNA-PCR positivity rates were 56% and 33%, respectively, in 36 specimens from 36 infants <28 days of age (binomial test, P = .001). Among 81 specimens obtained after age 14 days, 79 (98%) were positive by HIV RNA testing. No HIV-infected infant specimens were DNA-PCR-positive and HIV RNA-negative. All specimens from 8 uninfected infants were HIV RNA-negative. These results suggest that plasma HIV RNA was detectable earlier and more reliably than HIV DNA in perinatal infection.
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