TitleConvulsions in Tuberculous Meningitis
AuthorsPatwari A. K., Aneja S., Ravi R. N., Singhal P. K., Arora S. K.
PublicationJ Trop Pediatr. 1996 Apr; 42(2):91-7.
AbstractOne-hundred-and-thirty-six children below 12 years of age hospitalized with a diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis (TBM) have been investigated to identify the underlying cause of convulsions. One-hundred-and-one children (74 per cent) presented with seizures before and/or during hospitalization. Generalized tonic and clonic seizures (GTCS) were the commonest (58 per cent) type of seizures followed by focal seizures (FS) (38 per cent) and tonic spasms (TS) (4 per cent). EEG changes were more frequently observed in cases with FS and in those children with GTCS who presented after first week of hospitalization. EEG findings included generalized dysrythmia with paroxysmal slow activity (38 per cent), interhemispheric asymmetry (23 per cent), multiple spike and wave pattern (10 per cent), and focal spike and wave pattern (15 per cent). CT scan findings were more common in those children with GTCS and TS who presented with recurrent seizures and/or seizures manifesting after first week of hospitalization. FS presenting at any stage of the disease were associated with CT scan abnormalities. Abnormalities detected in CT scan of brain included meningeal enhancement (55 per cent), hydrocephalus (32 per cent), tuberculomas (27 per cent), and cerebral infarctions (13 per cent). Clinical presentation and investigations indicate that the probable cause of convulsions could be attributed to cerebral edema (57 per cent), syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (35 per cent), hydrocephalus (32 per cent), tuberculoma (27 per cent), abnormal electric focus (25 per cent), and cerebral infarction (13 per cent).