Corruption in Vietnam is a national concern that could derail health sector goals for equity, access and quality. Yet, there is little research on vulnerabilities to corruption or associated factors at the sectoral level. This article examines current patterns and risks of corruption in Vietnam’s health sector and reviews strategies for addressing corruption in the future. The article builds on the findings and discussion at the sixth Anti-Corruption Dialogue between the Vietnamese government and the international donor community. Development partners, government agencies, Vietnamese and international non-governmental organisations, media representatives and other stakeholders explored what is known about important problems such as informal payments, procurement corruption and health insurance fraud. The participants proposed corruption-reduction interventions in the areas of administrative oversight, transparency initiatives and civil society participation and health reforms to change incentives. The analysis assesses the prospects for success of these interventions, given the Vietnamese institutional context, and draws conclusions relevant to addressing health sector corruption in other countries. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.