Medication adherence is essential to successful treatment of HIV/AIDS. Maintaining high adherence will likely prove a major challenge in the developing world—just as it has in developed nations. Given the large number of patients whose disease will progress if adherence is sub-optimal, research is urgently needed to determine patient-level behavioral barriers to adherence and the most effective and appropriate methods for assessing adherence in low-resource settings. The CGHD’s research aims to improve adherence to medicines using innovative interventions such as using electronic pill counters and mobile telephones.