William MacLeod

Assistant Professor, Global Health

Harvard School of Public Health, Sc.D., Sc.M.

  • Office: Johannesburg, South Africa
  • Phone: +27-11-276-8888
  • Email: wmacleod@bu.edu

Biography

Bill MacLeod is a demographer who uses his skills in statistical programming, epidemiology, and biostatistics to design, manage, and analyze data for studies including international multi-center clinical equivalency trials, multi-center efficacy trials, and large-scale household surveys. At CGHD, he manages a health research grant program in Zambia which focuses on funding policy-oriented applied research projects coupled with technical assistance to build research capacity. Dr. MacLeod earned his Doctor’s and Master of Science in Population and International Health from the Harvard School of Public Health and his Bachelor’s of Arts in International Relations from the University of California at Davis. He spent three years as a policy analyst at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in the Recycling Section of the Office of Solid Waste, and two years as a Peace Corps Volunteer in Honduras. He has worked and traveled around the world.

Projects

Publications

Can traditional birth attendants be trained to accurately identify septic infants, initiate antibiotics, and refer in a rural African setting?

Christopher John Gill, William B MacLeod, Grace Phiri-Mazala, Nicholas G Guerina, Mark Mirochnick, Anna B Knapp, Davidson H Hamer

Global Health: Science and Practice. 2014 Aug; 2(3):318-327.

Travel to Brazil: Analysis of Data From the Boston Area Travel Medicine Network (BATMN) and Relevance to Travelers Attending World Cup and Olympics

Eirini Iliaki, MD, MPH, Lin H. Chen, MD, Davidson H. Hamer, MD, William B. Macleod, ScD, Emily S. Jentes, MPH, PhD, Elizabeth D. Barnett, MD, Mary E. Wilson, MD, and Boston Area Travel Medicine Network

Journal of Travel Medicine. 2014 Mar; 4.

Impact of biomass fuels on pregnancy outcomes in central East India

Wylie BJ, Coull BA, Hamer DH, Singh MP, Jack D, Yeboah-Antwi K, Sabin L, Singh N, MacLeod WB

Environ Health.. 2014 Jan; 13(1).

Acceptability of hypothetical dengue vaccines among travelers

Christine M. Benoit, William B. MacLeod, Davidson H. Hamer, Carolina Sanchez-Vegas, Lin H. Chen, Mary E. Wilson, Adolf W. Karchmer, Emad Yanni, Natasha S. Hochberg, Winnie W. Ooi, Laura Kogelman, and Elizabeth D. Barnett

Journal of Travel Medicine. 2013 Aug;.

Prevalence of dengue virus infection in United States travelers who have lived in or traveled to dengue-endemic countries

Carolina Sanchez-Vegas, Davidson H. Hamer, Lin H. Chen, Mary E. Wilson, Christine Benoit, Elizabeth Hunsperger, William B. MacLeod Emily S. Jentes, Winnie W. Ooi, Adolf W. Karchmer, Laura Kogelman, Emad Yanni, Nina Marano, and Elizabeth D. Barnett

Journal of Travel Medicine. 2013 Aug;.

Measuring teamwork and taskwork of community-based “teams” delivering life-saving health interventions in rural Zambia: a qualitative study

Kojo Yeboah-Antwi, Gail Snetro-Plewman, Karen Z Waltensperger, Davidson H Hamer, Chilobe Kambikambi, William MacLeod, Stephen Filumba, Bias Sichamba and David Marsh

BMC Medical Research Methodology. 2013 Jun; 13(84).

Impact of Integrated Community Case Management on Health-Seeking Behavior in Rural Zambia

Philip D. Seidenberg, Davidson H. Hamer, Hari Iyer, Portipher Pilingana, Kazungu Siazeele, Busiku Hamainza, William B. MacLeod, and Kojo Yeboah-Antwi

American Journal of Tropical Medicine. 2012 Nov; 87(5):105-110.

Impact of Integrated Community Case Management on Health-Seeking Behavior in Rural Zambia

Philip D. Seidenberg, Davidson H. Hamer, Hari Iyer, Portipher Pilingana, Kazungu Siazeele, Busiku Hamainza, William B. MacLeod, and Kojo Yeboah-Antwi

American Journal of Tropical Medicine. 2012 Nov; 87(Suppl 5):105-110.

Health Challenges of Young Travelers Visiting Friends and Relatives Compared With Those Traveling for Other Purposes

Pauline Han, MA, Emad Yanni, MD, Emily S. Jentes, PhD, Davidson H. Hamer, MD, Lin H. Chen, MD, Mary E. Wilson, MD, William B. MacLeod, ScD, Winnie W. Ooi, MD, Laura Kogelman, MD, Adolf W. Karchmer, MD, and Elizabeth D. Barnett, MD

The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal. 2012 Sep; 31(9):915-919.

Scaling up Xpert MTB⁄RIF technology: the costs of laboratory vs. clinic-based roll-out in South Africa

Kathryn Schnippel, Gesine Meyer-Rath, Lawrence Long, William MacLeod, Ian Sanne, Wendy S. Stevens and Sydney Rosen

Tropical Medicine and International Health. 2012 Jun; 00(00):1-10.

Treatment outcomes after 7 years of public-sector HIV treatment

Matthew P. Fox, Kate Shearer, Mhairi Maskew, William Macleod, Pappie Majubae, Patrick Macphaile and Ian Sanne

AIDS 2012. 2012 Jun; 26:1823-1828.

The Impact and Cost of Scaling up GeneXpert MTB/RIF in South Africa

Gesine Meyer-Rath, Kathryn Schnippel, Lawrence Long, William MacLeod, Ian Sanne, Wendy Stevens, Sagie Pillay, Yogan Pillay, Sydney Rosen

PLoS ONE. 2012 May; 7(5):1-11.

Costs and Cost-Effectiveness of Training Traditional Birth Attendants to Reduce Neonatal Mortality in the Lufwanyama Neonatal Survival Study (LUNESP)

Lora L. Sabin, Anna B. Knapp, William B. MacLeod, Grace Phiri-Mazala, Joshua Kasimba, Davidson H. Hamer & Christopher J. Gill

PLoS ONE. 2012 Apr; 7(4):1-10.

Quality and safety of integrated community case management of malaria using rapid diagnostic tests and pneumonia by community health workers

Davidson H. Hamer, Erin Twohig Brooks, Katherine Semrau, Portipher Pilingana, William B. MacLeod, Kazungu Siazeele, Lora L. Sabin, Donald M. Thea, & Kojo Yeboah-Antwi

Pathogens and Global Health. 2012 Mar; 106(1):32-39.

Community case management of severe pneumonia with oral amoxicillin in children aged 2–59 months in Haripur district, Pakistan: a cluster randomised tria. 2011 Nov;.

Abdul Bari, Salim Sadruddin, Attaullah Khan, Ibad ul Haque Khan, Amanullah Khan, Iqbal A Lehri, William B Macleod, Matthew P Fox, Donald M Thea, Shamim A Qaz

The Lancet. 2011 Nov;.

The Incremental Cost Of Introducing Xpert® MTB/RIF into the South African National Tuberculosis Programme

Meyer-Rath G., Bistline K., Long L., MacLeod W., Sanne I., Stevens W., Rosen S.

Johannesburg, South Africa; Boston, MA: Health Economics and Epidemiology Research Office, Wits Health Consortium, University of the Witwatersrand (HE2RO); 2011 Jul.

Effect of Training Traditional Birth Attendants on Neonatal Mortality (Lufwanyama Neonatal Survival Project): Randomised Controlled Study

Gill C., Phiri-Mazala G., Guerina N., Kasimba J., Mulenga C., MacLeod W., Waitolo N., Knapp A., Mirochnick M., Mazimba A., Fox M., Sabin L., Seidenberg P., Simon J., Hamer D.

British Medical Journal. 2011 Jun;.

Outpatient Treatment of Children With Severe Pneumonia with Oral Amoxicillin in Four Countries: The MASS Study

Addo-Yobo E, Duc Anh D, El-Sayed HF, Fox L, Fox MP, MacLeod W, Saha S, Anh Tuan T, Thea DM, Qazi S

Tropical Med Int Health. 2011 May;.

Availability and Utilization of Malaria Prevention Strategies in Pregnancy in Eastern India

Wylie B.J., Hashmi A.H., Singh N., Singh M.P., Tuchman J., Hussain M., Sabin L., Yeboah-Antwi K., Banerjee C., Brooks M.I., Desai M., Udhayakumar V., Macleod W.B., Dash A.P., Hamer D.H.

BMC Public Health. 2010 Sep; 10(1):557.

Community Case Management of Fever Due to Malaria and Pneumonia in Children Under Five in Zambia: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

Yeboah-Antwi K., Pilingana P., Macleod W.B., Semrau K., Siazeele K., Kalesha P., Hamainza B., Seidenberg P., Mazimba A., Sabin L., Kamholz K., Thea D.M., Hamer D.H.

PLoS Med. 2010 Sep; 7(9).

Reducing Neonatal Mortality in Rural Zambia with Traditional Birth Attendants, a Cluster Randomized Trial: The Lufwanyama Neonatal Survival Project (LUNESP)

Gill C.J., Mazala G., Guerina N., Kasimba J., Knapp A., Mulenga C., MacLeod W.B., Mazimba A., Mirochnick M., Sabin L., Seidenberg P., Hamer D.H.

Pediatric Academic Societies Annual Meeting; 2010 May 1; Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

Effectiveness of NRP Adapted for Use by Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs) in Rural Zambia: the Lufwanyama Neonatal Survival Project (LUNESP)

Guerina N., Mazala G., Kasimba J., Mulenga C., Knapp A., Mirochnick M., MacLeod W.B., Mazimba A., Sabin L., Seidenberg P., Hamer D.H., Gill C.J.

Pediatric Academic Societies Annual Meeting; 2010 May 1; Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

High-risk Travelers in the Boston Area Travel Medicine Network: Demographics, Trip Plans and Vaccinations. Abstract 21.008

Hochberg N.S., Sosa M.M., Trivedi J.B., Pfaff M., Macleod W.B., Benoit C., Chen L., Kogelman L., Ooi W.W., Karchmer A.W., Wilson M.E., Hamer D.H., Barnett E.D.

14th International Congress on Infectious Diseases; 2010 Mar 1; Miami, Florida.

Demographics and Travel Patterns of Travelers to Central America, South America and the Caribbean Seen in the Boston Area Travel Medicine Network (BATMN) Abstract 32.029

Trivedi J.B., Hochberg N.S., Macleod W.B., Pfaff M., Sosa M.M., Benoit C., Chen L., Wilson M.E., Kogelman L., Ooi W.W., Karchmer A.W., Barnett E.D., Hamer D.H.

14th International Congress on Infectious Diseases; 2010 Mar 1; Miami, Florida.

Varicella Status in Travellers Seen in the Boston Area Travel Medicine Network (BATMN). Abstract 771

Ooi W.W., MacLeod W.B., Gannon D., Benoit C., Pfaff M., Chen L.H., Hamer D.H., Gleva E., Karchmer A.W., Kogelman L., Bhussar M.K., Dufur R., Soodoo N., Wilson M.E., Barnett E.D.

58th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene; 2009 Nov 1; Washington, DC.

Management of Pneumonia and Malaria at the Community Level in Zambia. Abstract 732

Yeboah-Antwi K., Pilingana P., MacLeod W.B., Semrau K., Siazeele K., Kalesha P., Hamainza B., Mtonga E., Chanda P., Sabin L., Kamholz K., Twohig E., Thea D.M., Hamer D.H.

58th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene; 2009 Nov 1; Washington, DC.

Burden of Malaria in Pregnancy in Jharkhand State, India

Hamer D. H., Singh M. P., Wylie B. J., Yeboah-Antwi K., Tuchman J., Desai M., Udhayakumar V., Gupta P., Brooks M. I., Shukla M. M., Awasthy K., Sabin L., MacLeod W. B., Dash A. P., Singh N.

Malar J. 2009 Sep; 8:210.

Zambia Integrated Management of Malaria and Pneumonia Study

Yeboah-Antwi K., Pilangana P., Semrau K., Siazelee K., MacLeod W.B., Kalesha P., Hamainza B., Sabin L.L., Kamholz K., Chanda P., Seidenberg P., Mazimba A., Hamer D.H.

5th National Health Research Conference in Lusaka, Zambia; 2009 Sep 1; Lusaka, Zambia.

High Frequency of Multidrug-Resistant Gram-Negative Rods in 2 Neonatal Intensive Care Units in the Philippines

Litzow J. M., Gill C. J., Mantaring J. B., Fox M. P., MacLeod W. B., Mendoza M., Mendoza S., Scobie R., Huskins C. W., Goldman D. A., Hamer D. H.

Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2009 May; 30(6):543-9.

Characteristics of Travellers Visiting Friends and Relatives seen at Five Boston Area Travel Medicine Clinics. Abstract FC02.06

Barnett E.D., Bhussar M.K., Wilson M.E., MacLeod W., Chen L.H., Karchmer A.W., Kogelman L., Ooi W.W., Gleva E., Dufur R., Gannon D.J., Benoit C., Soodoo N., Hamer D.H.

11th Conference of the International Society of Travel Medicine; 2009 May 1; Budapest, Hungary.

Hepatitis B Status in Travellers Seen in the Boston Area Travel Medicine Network (BATMN). Abstract PO05.10

Chen L.H., Gleva E., MacLeod W.B., Hamer D.H., Karchmer A.W., Kogelman L., Ooi W.W., Bhussar M.K., Dufur R., Gannon D.J., Benoit C., Soodoo N., Wilson M.E., Barnett E.D.

11th Conference of the International Society of Travel Medicine; 2009 May 1; Budapest, Hungary.

Effect of Presumptive Co-Trimoxazole Prophylaxis on Pneumococcal Colonization Rates, Seroepidemiology and Antibiotic Resistance in Zambian Infants: A Longitudinal Cohort Study

Gill C. J., Mwanakasale V., Fox M. P., Chilengi R., Tembo M., Nsofwa M., Chalwe V., Mwananyanda L., Mukwamataba D., Malilwe B., Champo D., Macleod W. B., Thea D. M., Hamer D. H.

Bull World Health Organ. 2009 Jan; 86(12):929-38.

Impact of Biomass Cook Smoke on Exposure on Birth Weight in Central East India

Wylie B.J., Singh N., Singh M.P., van Vliet E., Kinney P.L., MacLeod W.B., Yeboah-Antwi K., Hamer D.H.

29th Annual Meeting of the Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine: The Pregnancy Meeting; 2009 Jan 1; San Diego, CA.

Management of Malaria and Pneumonia at the Community Level in Zambia. Abstract LB 2213

Yeboah-Antwi K., Pilangana P., MacLeod W.B., Siazeele K., Mtonga E., Chanda P., Sabin L., Kamholz K., Thea D.M., Hamer D.H.

57th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene; 2008 Dec 1; New Orleans, LA.

Impact of Enhanced Infection Control at 2 Neonatal Intensive Care Units in the Philippines

Gill C. J., Mantaring J. B., Macleod W. B., Mendoza M., Mendoza S., Huskins W. C., Goldmann D. A., Hamer D. H.

Clin Infect Dis. 2008 Nov; 48(1):13-21.

Adverse Birth Outcomes Associated with Single Dose SP-IPTp in HIV Positive and Negative Zambian Women. Abstract P-3604

Baranoski A., Gill C.J., MacLeod W.B., Mwanakasale V., Roma C., Hamer D.H.

48th Annual ICAAC/IDSA 46th Annual Meeting; 2008 Oct 1; Washington, DC.

Impact of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection on Streptococcus Pneumoniae Colonization and Seroepidemiology among Zambian Women

Gill C. J., Mwanakasale V., Fox M. P., Chilengi R., Tembo M., Nsofwa M., Chalwe V., Mwananyanda L., Mukwamataba D., Malilwe B., Champo D., Macleod W. B., Thea D. M., Hamer D. H.

J Infect Dis. 2008 Apr; 197(7):1000-5.

Chloramphenicol Versus Ampicillin Plus Gentamicin for Community Acquired Very Severe Pneumonia among Children Aged 2-59 Months in Low Resource Settings: Multicentre Randomised Controlled Trial (SPEAR Study)

Asghar R., Banajeh S., Egas J., Hibberd P., Iqbal I., Katep-Bwalya M., Kundi Z., Law P., MacLeod W., Maulen-Radovan I., Mino G., Saha S., Sempertegui F., Simon J., Santosham M., Singhi S., Thea D. M., Qazi S.

BMJ. 2008 Jan; 336(7635):80-4.

Ambulatory Short-Course High-Dose Oral Amoxicillin for Treatment of Severe Pneumonia in Children: A Randomised Equivalency Trial

Hazir T., Fox L. M., Nisar Y. B., Fox M. P., Ashraf Y. P., MacLeod W. B., Ramzan A., Maqbool S., Masood T., Hussain W., Murtaza A., Khawar N., Tariq P., Asghar R., Simon J. L., Thea D. M., Qazi S. A.

Lancet. 2008 Jan; 371(9606):49-56.

Inferiority of Single-Dose Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine Intermittent Preventive Therapy for Malaria during Pregnancy among HIV-Positive Zambian Women

Gill C. J., Macleod W. B., Mwanakasale V., Chalwe V., Mwananyanda L., Champo D., Mukwamataba D., Chilengi R., Thea D. M., Hamer D. H.

J Infect Dis. 2007 Nov; 196(11):1577-84.

Two-dose Versus Monthly Intermittent Preventive Treatment of Malaria with Sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine in HIV-seropositive Pregnant Zambian Women

Hamer D. H., Mwanakasale V., Macleod W. B., Chalwe V., Mukwamataba D., Champo D., Mwananyanda L., Chilengi R., Mubikayi L., Mulele C. K., Mulenga M., Thea D. M., Gill C. J.

J Infect Dis. 2007 Nov; 196(11):1585-94.

Failure of Standard Antimicrobial Therapy in Children Aged 3-59 Months with Mild or Asymptomatic HIV Infection and Severe Pneumonia

Jeena P., Thea D. M., MacLeod W. B., Chisaka N., Fox M. P., Coovadia H. M., Qazi S.

Bull World Health Organ. 2006 Apr; 84(4):269-75.

Dose Dependent Efficacy of SP for Intermittent Presumptive Therapy of Pregnancy among HIV Infected Zambian Women. Abstract 432

Gill C.J., MacLeod W.B., Mwanakasale V., Chilengi R., Chalwe V., Mwananyanda L., Thea D.M., Hamer D.H.

55th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene; 2006 Jan 1; Atlanta, GA.

Plasma Zinc Concentrations are Depressed during the Acute Phase Response in Children with Falciparum Malaria

Duggan C., MacLeod W. B., Krebs N. F., Westcott J. L., Fawzi W. W., Premji Z. G., Mwanakasale V., Simon J. L., Yeboah-Antwi K., Hamer D. H.

J Nutr. 2005 Mar; 135(4):802-7.

Intermittent Preventive Treatment of Malaria with Sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine in HIV Seropositive Pregnant Zambian Women. Abstract 0-7

Mwanakasale V., Mwananyanda L., Chalwe V., Mukwamataba D., Gill C., Chilengi R., Mulenga M., Thea D, MacLeod W., Hamer D.

Acta Tropica; 2005 Jan 1; Boston, MA.

Oral Amoxicillin Versus Injectable Penicillin for Severe Pneumonia in Children Aged 3 to 59 Months: a Randomised Multicentre Equivalency Study

Addo-Yobo E., Chisaka N., Hassan M., Hibberd P., Lozano J. M., Jeena P., MacLeod W. B., Maulen I., Patel A., Qazi S., Thea D. M., Nguyen N. T.

Lancet. 2004 Sep; 364(9440):1141-8.

Age, Temperature, and Parasitaemia Predict Chloroquine Treatment Failure and Anaemia in Children with Uncomplicated Plasmodium Falciparum Malaria

Hamer D. H., MacLeod W. B., Addo-Yobo E., Duggan C. P., Estrella B., Fawzi W. W., Konde-Lule J. K., Mwanakasale V., Premji Z. G., Sempertegui F., Ssengooba F. P., Yeboah-Antwi K., Simon J. L.

Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2004 Jul; 97(4):422-8.

The Cost of HIV/AIDS to Businesses in Southern Africa

Rosen S., Vincent J. R., MacLeod W., Fox M., Thea D. M., Simon J. L.

AIDS. 2004 Apr; 18(2):317-24.

Reduction in Neonatal Bacteremia and Mortality Rates using a Simple Set of Interventions in a NICU in the Philippines, Abstract 248

Mantaring J.B., Mendoza M., Estrada E.M., Canseco R., Aduan E., Geraldez A., Mendoza S., MacLeod W.B., Huskins W.C., Goldmann D., Gill C.J., Hamer D.H.

42nd Annual Meeting of the Infectious Diseases Society of America; 2004 Apr 1; Boston, MA.

Prevalence of HIV in Workforces in Southern Africa, 2000-2001

Evian C., Fox M., MacLeod W., Slotow S. J., Rosen S.

S Afr Med J. 2004 Mar; 94(2):125-30.

The Impact of HIV/AIDS on Labour Productivity in Kenya

Fox M. P., Rosen S., MacLeod W. B., Wasunna M., Bii M., Foglia G., Simon J. L.

Trop Med Int Health. 2004 Mar; 9(3):318-24.

Why do firms take action on HIV/AIDS? Evidence from Nigeria

Rosen S., Vincent J. R., MacLeod W., Thea D. M., Simon J.

Journal of Business in Developing Countries. 2004 Jan; 8(1):1-38.

AIDS is Your Business

Rosen S., Simon J., Vincent J. R., MacLeod W., Fox M., Thea D. M.

Harv Bus Rev. 2003 Feb; 81(2):80-7, 125.

Effect of Zinc on the Treatment of Plasmodium Falciparum Malaria in Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Hamer D. H., MacLeod W., The Zinc Against Plasmodium Study Group

Am J Clin Nutr. 2002 Sep; 76(4):805-12.

Assessment of the Binax NOW Streptococcus Pneumoniae Urinary Antigen Test in Children with Nasopharyngeal Pneumococcal Carriage

Hamer D. H., Egas J., Estrella B., MacLeod W. B., Griffiths J. K., Sempertegui F.

Clin Infect Dis. 2002 Mar; 34(7):1025-8.

Incidence and Predictors of Surgical-Site Infections in Vietnam

Nguyen D., MacLeod W. B., Phung D. C., Cong Q. T., Nguy V. H., Van Nguyen H., Hamer D. H.

Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2001 Nov; 22(8):485-92.

Predictors of Hemoglobin Change from Day 0 to Day 7 in Children with Uncomplicated Falciparum Malaria: Results from a Multi-country Study. Abstract 564

MacLeod W., Hamer D.H., Addo-Yobo E., Duggan C.P., Estrella B., Fawzi W.W., Konde-Lule J.K., Mwanakasale V., Premji Z.G., Sempértegui F., Simon J.L., Ssengooba F., Yeboah-Antwi K.

American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 50th Annual Meeting; 2001 Nov 1; Atlanta, Georgia.

Decline of Mortality in Children in Rural Gambia: The Influence of Village-Level Primary Health Care

Hill A. G., MacLeod W. B., Joof D., Gomez P., Walraven G.

Trop Med Int Health. 2000 Apr; 5(2):107-18.

Improvements in Childhood Mortality in The Gambia

Hill A. G., MacLeod W. B., Sonko S. S., Walraven G.

Lancet. 1998 Dec; 352(9144):1909.

Population and Housing Census 1993, Mortality Analysis and Evaluation

MacLeod W., Hill A.G., Yamuah M.

Banjul, The Gambia: Central Statistics Office; 1998.