Li-air batteries have a theoretical specific energy rivaling gasoline and could provide practical specific energies equivalent to gasoline. They are able to achieve a high specific energy because of the high energy content of Li and the use of O2 as a reactant, which negates the need to store the reactant in the battery; instead O2 is accessed through a porous, open air cathode design.
Combustion-based power plants regularly output excessive levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) to the environment. This can be minimized by employing post-combustion carbon capture systems and cleaning the flue gas prior to expelling it. As part of the Department of Energy's Carbon Capture Simulation Initiative we are developing computational methods for modeling such systems.
Uncertainty Quantification (UQ) is the statistical analysis of how model inputs and assumptions affect the results of a simulation. This is most commonly presented as confidence intervals around results, but it also applies to parameter calibration and assessing model bias. In upscaling methods, such as the carbon capture subgrid models (above), UQ is imperative to understanding the propagation of error at every scale.
Understanding the transport and reactions of species in connected porous media and macro-pores in porous media is central to many engineering and science problems such as contaminants in the subsurface, and carbon capture and sequestration. For example, at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Hanford site in southeastern Washington State, the subsurface transport and reactions of uranium species is an issue, which engineers and scientists have been studying for a number of years.