A curriculum vitae, typically called a CV or vita, is a scholarly representation of your education, experience, publications, research, honors and awards, and other relevant information. Professionals who are targeting academia and other research-related professions such as medicine and psychology use a CV. It is much longer than a resume, often running several pages. The format is specialized, and can vary by discipline.
In the United States, if you don’t have a doctorate, or you’re not looking for a research position, you’re better off using a traditional resume. Outside of the United States, this rule varies by organization and by country. The best guide for which type of document you should submit will be the organization to which you are applying and the job posting itself.
In some cases, international employers may use the term CV to refer to what we call a resume. Researching the country standards, such as through GoinGlobal country guides, can help you decide which document you need.
Check to see what the organization prefers, but also research the country standard. This information is available at GoinGlobal (accessible via Handshake) for more than 35 different countries: Go to “country career guides,” select a country, and look in the list for “resume/cv guidelines.”